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Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
Citing Sources
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Citing Sources

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  • 1. 1 Citing Sources
  • 2. Is Avoiding Plagiarism The Main Reason to Cite Sources? 2  Not plagiarizing the writing of others without crediting those others is often the most common reason students give for why sources must be cited.  As covered by copyright and fair use, this reason is not as straightforward as you might imagine.  Aside from that, there are many reasons why you cite sources that have nothing to do with protecting yourself against charges of plagiarism. That’s what this lecture is about.
  • 3. Some Rhetorical Purposes for Citing Sources 3  Places your research within the context of other work on the subject.  Answers the question: what is your research adding to this body of knowledge?  Acknowledges conflicts with other research findings.  Answers the question: why is your research challenging the findings of others?  Provides support for critically important claims that are based on the evidence of others.  Answers the question: where is the evidentiary support for this claim?  Directs reader to bibliographical information (not only where to find the source but also what weight to give the evidence).  For example: a first-tier, peer-reviewed journal article by a major researcher will have more weight with readers than a lower-tier journal or industry produced report or article.
  • 4. Rhetorical Purposes for Citing Sources that are Less Familiar 4  The previous slide discusses the reasons for citing sources that are grounded in writing for academic journals where researchers present findings for peer review.  Internal documents within a company or organization are also referred to by using a citation style.  For example, an engineer needs to refer to the original proposal in a progress report after a problem arises that is tied to something that was not addressed in a bid proposal.  Companies and organizations often develop their own styles for citing sources using as file names/numbers etc.
  • 5. Documentation Styles Are:  Discipline, company, organization, publication, and can even be culturally specific.  Using a documentation style that is recognized by the discourse community you are in means you are:  Easily recognizable as belonging to that discourse community.  Novices often make the mistake that because documentation styles differ in how they handle various citation needs, this means that styles are arbitrary and interchangeable --- not true. 5
  • 6. Using automatic reference tools. 6  If you use Word, learn how to use the reference tool.  The reference tool automatically inserts citations based on a style you choose and prompts for bibliographic information as you are writing a document.  Warning: if you are doing a master’s thesis or submitting a document for peer review, it’s a good idea to check that the tool got everything right. It’s not perfect, but for our purposes, it will work fine.
  • 7. Two Basic Citation Systems 7 Name-Year System Used By: -MLA: Modern Language Association -APA: American Psychological Association Numbered-Sequence System Used By: -CMS: Chicago Manual of Style -CBE: Council of Biology Editors -IEEE: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers There are many others that can be categorized this way.
  • 8. 8 Rhetorical Moves for Citing Sources  Some silly example sentences that follow are used to make a point.
  • 9. Direct and Indirect Citation 9  Direct citation. Author (and/or work) is identified directly and cited by parenthetical reference or through a footnote or endnote.  Indirect citation. Author (and/or work) is not identified but cited parenthetically or through a footnote or endnote.  How to choose. If the author and/or work should be emphasized, then use a direct citation. If not, then use an indirect one.
  • 10. Direct Citation Two Parenthetical Documentation Styles 10  APA [emphasis on date] Brie (1988) showed that the moon is made of cheese. Cheddar (1990) reached the same conclusion.  MLA [emphasis on page number] Brie showed that the moon is made of cheese (111-19). Cheddar reached the same conclusion (40-52). Typically, APA is used in the social sciences, where the date of a research study is relevant to understanding it’s findings, while MLA is used by disciplines in the humanities (English, history, etc.), where the location of a quote is relevant for following the writer’s interpretation of what it means.
  • 11. Three Documentation Styles Using Endnote Systems 11  CMS [superscript number placed at the end of sentence.]  Brie showed that the moon is made of cheese.¹ Cheddar reached the same conclusion.²  CBE [superscript number placed closed to author’s name]  Brie¹ showed the moon is made of cheese. Cheddar² reached the same conclusion.  IEEE [uses brackets around superscript number placed close to author’s name or reference to research]  Brie[¹] Brie showed that the moon is made of cheese. Cheddar[²] reached the same conclusion.  These differences in formatting are simply what was agreed upon to keep documents consistent, and to differentiate the style from others.
  • 12. All Documentation Styles 12  In-text citation information (parenthetical or superscript) must be accompanied by a corresponding entry in a Works Cited, References List, or Bibliography where information about the source is provided.  Basic elements of a bibliography (any documentation style):  Name of author  Name of text  Date of text  Publisher of text
  • 13. Source Guide  The Writing Center at Colorado State is a useful resource for understanding documentation styles.  http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsources/documentation/specific.cfm 13

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