The paradox of choice
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The paradox of choice

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  • 1. The Paradox of ChoiceWhy more is less
    By Barry Schwartz
  • 2. Content
    2
    Choice and freedom
    Ignoring the options
    Making good decisions
    Why we suffer
    What can we do
  • 3. Isn’t choice a good thing?
  • 4. Content
    4
    Choice and freedom
    Ignoring the options
    Making good decisions
    Why we suffer
    What can we do
  • 5. There’s a fundamental difference between choice and freedom
    5
    CHOICE
    FREEDOM
    = essential autonomy, which is fundamental to well-being
    ! The fact that some choice is good does not necessarily mean that more choice is
    better
    = essential to self-respect, public participation, mobility and nourishment
    ! Not all choice enhances freedom: it may impair freedom by taking time & energy
  • 6. Why people can’t ignore many or some of the options
    6
    It’s in our faces every day
    Standard of comparison
    Tyranny of small decisions
    An industry of marketers & advertisers makes products difficult or impossible to ignore
    We have a tendency to look around at what others are doing and use them as a standard of comparison
    It always seems easy to add just one more item to the array that is already being considered
  • 7. Content
    7
    Choice and freedom
    Ignoring the options
    Making good decisions
    Why we suffer
    What can we do
  • 8. Making good decisions
    8
    Figure out your goals
    Evaluate the importance of each goal
    Array the options
    Evaluate how likely each of the options is to meet your goals
    Pick the winning option
    Later use the winning consequence of your choice to modify your goals, the importance you assign them & the way you evaluate future posibilities
  • 9. Why don’t we always take good decisions?
    9
    Maximizers
    Satisficers
    = if you seek & accept only the best
    • Get less satisfaction out the choices they make
    = to settle for something that is good enough & not worry about the possibility that there might be something better
    • Take much more time & effort in decision making
    • 10. Are less happy, less optimistic & more depressed
    • 11. More susceptible to all forms of regret (“buyers remorse”)
    People can be a maximizer or a satisficer depending on the specific situation
  • 12. Content
    10
    Choice and freedom
    Ignoring the options
    Making good decisions
    Why we suffer
    What can we do
  • 13. Why we suffer
    11
    Choice &
    happiness
    Missed
    opportunities
    The problem
    of regret
    The problem
    of adaption
  • 14. Why we sufferChoice & happiness
    12
    Instrumental
    It enables people to get what they want
    Expressive
    It enables people to say who they are
    Psychological
    It enables people to actively and effectively engage in the world
    Benefits of choice
    BUT
    Too many choices
    =
    unhappy
  • 15. Why we sufferMissed opportunities
    13
    How can it be so hard to choose?
    Distinguishing between good and bad is far simpler matter than distinguishing better from best
  • 16. Why we sufferThe problem of adaption
    Perceptual adaption
    Decreased responsiveness to sights, sounds, odors and the like as people continue to experience them
    Hedonic adaption
    Adaption to pleasure
     Novelty can change someone’s hedonic standards so that what was once good enough, or even better than that, no longer is
    14
    Simply by being aware of the process of adaption, we can anticipate its effects and therefore be less disappointed when it comes
  • 17. Why we sufferThe problem of regret
    15
    The moment of regret
    Post-decision regret
    Anticipated regret
    Other forms of regret:
    • Omission bias (we regret actions that don’t turn out well more than failures to take actions that would have turned out well)
    • 18. Near misses
    • 19. Responsibility for results
    The prospect of regret is not only an important consequence of many decisions, but the prospect of regret is an important cause of many decisions
  • 20. Content
    16
    Choice and freedom
    Ignoring the options
    Making good decisions
    Why we suffer
    What can we do
  • 21. What can we do about it?
    17
    Choose when to choose
    Be a chooser, not a picker
    Satisfy more and maximize less
    Think about the opportunity costs of opportunity costs
    Make your decisions nonreversable
    Practice an attitude of gratitude
    Regret less
    Anticipate adaption
    Control expectations
    Curtail social comparison
    Learn to love constraints
  • 22. 18
    An interesting book to read, makes you reflect on choices you have to take in your life
    3reasons to read this book
    Gaps in this book
    It shows us how and why we make choices and what we do wrong
    It gives you a clear understanding about how confused we sometimes get by making choices and how we suffer by doing so
    It provides tips how we can get less confused whilst making choice and make choice in our lives easier
    • Hands-on practical tips you can immediately use in your professional as well as personal life
    • 23. More examples on how other people used the book which can inspire you to easy your life