The paradox of choice
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The paradox of choice

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    The paradox of choice The paradox of choice Presentation Transcript

    • The Paradox of ChoiceWhy more is less
      By Barry Schwartz
    • Content
      2
      Choice and freedom
      Ignoring the options
      Making good decisions
      Why we suffer
      What can we do
    • Isn’t choice a good thing?
    • Content
      4
      Choice and freedom
      Ignoring the options
      Making good decisions
      Why we suffer
      What can we do
    • There’s a fundamental difference between choice and freedom
      5
      CHOICE
      FREEDOM
      = essential autonomy, which is fundamental to well-being
      ! The fact that some choice is good does not necessarily mean that more choice is
      better
      = essential to self-respect, public participation, mobility and nourishment
      ! Not all choice enhances freedom: it may impair freedom by taking time & energy
    • Why people can’t ignore many or some of the options
      6
      It’s in our faces every day
      Standard of comparison
      Tyranny of small decisions
      An industry of marketers & advertisers makes products difficult or impossible to ignore
      We have a tendency to look around at what others are doing and use them as a standard of comparison
      It always seems easy to add just one more item to the array that is already being considered
    • Content
      7
      Choice and freedom
      Ignoring the options
      Making good decisions
      Why we suffer
      What can we do
    • Making good decisions
      8
      Figure out your goals
      Evaluate the importance of each goal
      Array the options
      Evaluate how likely each of the options is to meet your goals
      Pick the winning option
      Later use the winning consequence of your choice to modify your goals, the importance you assign them & the way you evaluate future posibilities
    • Why don’t we always take good decisions?
      9
      Maximizers
      Satisficers
      = if you seek & accept only the best
      • Get less satisfaction out the choices they make
      = to settle for something that is good enough & not worry about the possibility that there might be something better
      • Take much more time & effort in decision making
      • Are less happy, less optimistic & more depressed
      • More susceptible to all forms of regret (“buyers remorse”)
      People can be a maximizer or a satisficer depending on the specific situation
    • Content
      10
      Choice and freedom
      Ignoring the options
      Making good decisions
      Why we suffer
      What can we do
    • Why we suffer
      11
      Choice &
      happiness
      Missed
      opportunities
      The problem
      of regret
      The problem
      of adaption
    • Why we sufferChoice & happiness
      12
      Instrumental
      It enables people to get what they want
      Expressive
      It enables people to say who they are
      Psychological
      It enables people to actively and effectively engage in the world
      Benefits of choice
      BUT
      Too many choices
      =
      unhappy
    • Why we sufferMissed opportunities
      13
      How can it be so hard to choose?
      Distinguishing between good and bad is far simpler matter than distinguishing better from best
    • Why we sufferThe problem of adaption
      Perceptual adaption
      Decreased responsiveness to sights, sounds, odors and the like as people continue to experience them
      Hedonic adaption
      Adaption to pleasure
       Novelty can change someone’s hedonic standards so that what was once good enough, or even better than that, no longer is
      14
      Simply by being aware of the process of adaption, we can anticipate its effects and therefore be less disappointed when it comes
    • Why we sufferThe problem of regret
      15
      The moment of regret
      Post-decision regret
      Anticipated regret
      Other forms of regret:
      • Omission bias (we regret actions that don’t turn out well more than failures to take actions that would have turned out well)
      • Near misses
      • Responsibility for results
      The prospect of regret is not only an important consequence of many decisions, but the prospect of regret is an important cause of many decisions
    • Content
      16
      Choice and freedom
      Ignoring the options
      Making good decisions
      Why we suffer
      What can we do
    • What can we do about it?
      17
      Choose when to choose
      Be a chooser, not a picker
      Satisfy more and maximize less
      Think about the opportunity costs of opportunity costs
      Make your decisions nonreversable
      Practice an attitude of gratitude
      Regret less
      Anticipate adaption
      Control expectations
      Curtail social comparison
      Learn to love constraints
    • 18
      An interesting book to read, makes you reflect on choices you have to take in your life
      3reasons to read this book
      Gaps in this book
      It shows us how and why we make choices and what we do wrong
      It gives you a clear understanding about how confused we sometimes get by making choices and how we suffer by doing so
      It provides tips how we can get less confused whilst making choice and make choice in our lives easier
      • Hands-on practical tips you can immediately use in your professional as well as personal life
      • More examples on how other people used the book which can inspire you to easy your life