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Extended Ps Of Marketing


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  • 1. Extended Ps of Marketing Physical evidence People Process
  • 2. 4 ‘I’s of service marketing
    • Intangibility - Physical Evidence
    • Inconsistency Process
    • Inseparability People
    • Inventory - Perishability
  • 3. Physical evidence
    • Def “PE are often tangible cues to evaluate
    • the service before its purchase and to
    • assess their satisfaction with the service
    • during and after consumption.”
    • Elements
    • Facility exterior
    • Facility interior
    • Other tangibles
  • 4. Elements
    • Facility exterior: exterior design, parking, landscape, surrounding environment
    • Facility interior: interior design, equipment, layout, air quality, temperature, music, fragrance, illumination
    • Other tangibles: business cards, stationery, billing statement, reports, employees’ uniforms
    • All these elements contribute to servicescape
  • 5. Types of service evidence
    • Peripheral evidences
    • Essential evidences
  • 6. Roles of servicescapes
    • Package
    • Facilitator
    • Role defining
    • Differentiator
    • And thus eliminates intangibility factor of service
  • 7. People
    • Includes
    • Customers
    • Service personnel
    • When both interact service encounter takes place
    • Services being inseparable they (people) both have to interact and also mostly taken at the service providers place.
  • 8. Gaps in services
    • Failure to match supply and demand
    • Deficiency in human resources capability
    • Customers not fulfilling role
    • Causes cycle of failure by losing regular customers
  • 9. Reversing customer cycle of failure
    • Recruitment
    • Training and development
    • Motivation monitory and non- monitory
    • Empowerment suggestion involvement, job involvement
    • Thus inconsistency is taken care of
  • 10. Process
    • “ Process is the way of undertaking transaction, supplying information and providing services in a way which is acceptable to the customer and effective to the organization.”
  • 11. Some important terms
    • The process of service delivery can be mapped with a flow chart called “ service blueprint” for “service mapping”
    • Helps in controlling variability or inconsistency.
    • Blueprint helps in BPR (Business Process Re-engineering)
    • Helps in managing waiting process by information provision, automation, pre-process, alternative payment options.
  • 12. Layers and features of service map Service structure Process Customer Front line employees Support staff Management services Front line employees Front stage Back stage Line of interaction Line of visibility Line of internal interaction Line of implementation
  • 13. Meeting perishability
    • Demand management
    • Capacity constraints
    • Time constraints
    • Labour constraints
    • Equipment constraints
    • Facilities constraints
  • 14. Matching capacity and demand
    • Service variation
    • Communicating customers
    • Modifying timing and location of service delivery
    • Adjusting prices
    • Stretching facilities
    • Stretching time
    • Stretching labor (staff)
    • Stretching equipment
  • 15. Service marketing triangle External marketing Internal marketing Interactive and relationship marketing Customer Employee Company