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ISTE- The State of Wiki Use in US K-12 Schools

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A presentation at ISTE. Data and findings are tentative, please do not cite.

A presentation at ISTE. Data and findings are tentative, please do not cite.

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • . In most instances in our data, these common assessment criteria adhere poorly to the domains of 21st century skills while the uncommon criteria had greater alignment.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The State of Wiki Usage in U.S. K-12 Schools
      Justin Reich
      Richard Murnane
      John Willett
    • 2. Distributed Collaborative Learning Communities Project:Web 2.0 in K-12 Settings
      Excellence: How do we make them good?
      Equity: Do only certain kids get the good ones?
      Analytics: What can we learn about learning from real-time usage data from online learning environments
      2
    • 3. Agenda
      Motivate the study of wikis
      Map out a broad research agenda for studying wiki usage at scale
      Characterize the state of wiki usage in US, K-12 settings
    • 4. Why Study Wikis?
      Web 2.0 is Transforming Society
      Widespread Adoption in K-12 Settings
      40% of teachers report using blogs or wikis in instruction (FRSS)
      20% of teachers report having students contribute to blogs or wikis (FRSS)
      Democratic, student-centered architecture
      New Sources of Data (A Watershed?)
      SCalable, Real-time, Individual Behavior and Learning (SCRIBL) data
    • 5.
    • 6.
    • 7.
    • 8. Distributed Collaborative Learning Communities Project:Web 2.0 in K-12 Settings
      Excellence: How do we make them good?
      Equity: Do only certain kids get the good ones?
      Analytics: What can we learn about learning from SCalable, Real-time, Individual Behavior and Learning (SCRIBL) data maintained by Web 2.0 learning
      8
    • 9. What is good?Quality as 21st Century Skill Development
      Expert Thinking
      Complex Communi-cation
      New Media Literacy
    • 10. 10
      Path Diagram of Wiki Research
      School Level SES
      Classroom Observations and Teacher Interviews to Understand Wiki Practices
      Develop Wiki Quality Trajectories
      Assess How Wiki Quality Trajectories Differ by SES and Teacher Attitudes/Practices
      Measure Wiki Quality
      Literature Review of CSCL and 21st C. Skill Scholarship
      Wiki User Surveys
      Initial Quantitative Analysis to Develop Sampling Strategy
    • 11. The State of Wiki Usage in U.S. K-12 Schools
      What is the distribution of wiki quality?
      Do wikis provide opportunities for expert thinking, complex communication, and new media literacy?
      Are great wikis born or made?
      Do wikis created in affluent schools provide more opportunities for 21c skill development than wikis created in low-income schools?
    • 12. Which wikis are in our sample?
      Dataset
      All179,851 publicly-viewable education-related wikis started on the PBworks platform between June 2005 and August of 2008.
      Does not include “private” wikis (~70,000)
      Sample
      Randomly sampled 1,799 wikis (1%)
      Coded to identify 411 U.S. based, K-12 wikis
      255 from specific, identifiable public schools
      Detailed usage statistics provided by PBworks.com
      Demographic school level data from the Common Core of Data (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007-2008)
      12
    • 13. Wiki Quality as Opportunities for Students to Develop 21st Century Skills
      Participation
      Do students use wikis to get information? links? do they contribute?
      Expert thinking:
      Do students use academic content knowledge in wiki activities?
      Do students reflect on the process/product?
      Complex Communication/Collaboration:
      Do students concatenate text on pages?
      Do they substantively edit each others work and co-create pages?
      New Media Literacy:
      Do students use formatting?
      Do they hyperlink?
      Do they embed multimedia?
      Wiki Quality Instrument
      25 Questions
      Scale of 1-25
    • 14. How did we measure wiki quality?
      Sample wiki quality at 7, 14, 30, 60, 100, and 400 days
      Two raters independently apply wiki quality instrument
      All raters must code “training set” of wikis within 1.5 points of master coders
      Weekly meetings while coding to discuss categories, difficult cases, etc.
      Third rater reconciles disagreements
      14
    • 15. Data Analytic Strategy:
    • 16. Demographics
    • 17. What subjects are wikis used for? (n=411)
    • 18. What Grade Levels are K-12 wikis used in? (n=411)
    • 19. 19
      Estimated survivor function for 255 wikis created in public schools.
    • 20. 20
      Estimated survivor functions for wikis created in Title I (n=117) and non Title I (133) public schools.
    • 21. What is the distribution of wiki quality?Are great wikis born or made?
    • 22. Distribution of wiki quality scores in wikis created in U.S. public schools, by Title I eligibility (n=250).
    • 23. Prototypical wiki quality trajectory, controlling for % FRPL (n=248).
    • 24. Stacked column display of average wiki quality subdomain scores within each composite wiki quality score level (n=255).
    • 25. Do wikis created in affluent schools provide more opportunities for 21c skill development than wikis created in low-income schools?
    • 26. Prototypical wiki quality trajectories for wikis created in high-SES (10% FRPL) and low-SES schools (90% FRPL) (n=248).
    • 27. Distribution of wiki quality scores in wikis created in U.S. public schools, by Title I eligibility (n=250).
    • 28. Takeaways
      Wikis are widely adopted in K-12 setttings
      Most wikis are teacher-centered, content-delivery devices
      An important minority of wikis
      Wikis areused more persistently and efficaciously used in wealthier schools
      Great wikis are born; initial norms matter
    • 29. Less Generalizable
      More Generalizable
      More Validity
      Ethnography
      Content Analysis of ScRIBL Data
      Less Validity
      Surveys
      Bad Research
    • 30. 30
      # of Cases
      Time/Scale Web 2.0 Research State Space
      Modeling Usage Statistics
      1,000K
      Simulations
      100K
      Semantic Analysis
      10K
      Surveys
      1,000
      Content Analysis
      Interviews
      100
      Discursive Analysis
      10
      Design Research
      Biometric Analysis
      Observational Research
      1
      Months
      Days
      Seconds
      Weeks
      Years
      Duration of data collection and capture
    • 31. Questions for discussion
      What kinds of targeted interventions would support teachers in using wikis to develop 21st century skills?
      What kinds of actionable advice can we give teachers about wikis design, knowing that high quality wikis start at high levels of quality?
      What kinds of targeted interventions in schools serving low-income students would close the “second digital divide” of usage?
      How can a national perspective on wiki usage help situate and contextualize local studies?
      How can we leverage other forms of SCRIBL data to characterize Web 2.0 usage at scale?
    • 32. Back Deck
    • 33.
    • 34.
    • 35.
    • 36.
    • 37. Moving average of wiki development measured in page saves
    • 38. How do teachers define wiki quality?
      Why do teachers use wikis?
      How do teachers assess quality in wiki learning environments?
    • 39. Survey:Why do teachers use wikis?
      What do you anticipate will be the benefits for students from using a wiki?
      193 participants in a 2010 online wiki summer camp (out of ~1250)
      How do you plan to use your wiki?
      667 wiki creators in summer 2010 (response rate <10%)
    • 40. 40
      What do you anticipate will be the benefits for students from using a wiki? (n=193)
      Omitted words: work, learning, wiki, student
    • 41. How do you plan to use your wiki? (n=667)
      Omitted words: use, wiki, student
    • 42. Why do teachers use wiki?
      Develop technology skills
      Develop communication and collaboration skills
      Developing/demonstrating understanding
      Information delivery and course logistics
    • 43. Wiki quality as opportunities for 21st Century Skill Development
      Expert Thinking
      Complex Communi-cation
      New Media Literacy
    • 44. How do teachers assess wiki quality?
      68 Interview subjects (nationwide)
      19 Classroom Observations (MA, CA, VA, GA, NH, CT)
      14 Randomly-sampled teachers
      22 Randomly-sampled teachers
      36 Randomly sampled
      32 Purposively sampled
      Broad cross-section of users
      14 Purposively-sampled effective wiki users
      ~25,000 recently edited publicly-viewable, education related wikis as of September 2009
      411 U.S. K-12 wikis
      7 Purposively-sampled urban wiki users
      1,799 wikis (1% random sample)
      11 Purposively-sampled participants in an online wiki summer camp
      178,851 publicly-viewable, education related wikis hosted on Pbworks.com 2005-8
    • 45. How do teachers assess wiki quality?
    • 46. Common assessment categories
    • 47. Common assessment categories
    • 48. Common assessment categories
    • 49. Uncommon assessment categories
    • 50. Uncommon assessment categories
    • 51. Overarching Theme
    • 52. Wiki quality as opportunities for 21st Century Skill Development
      Wiki assessment as demonstrating compliance
      Expert Thinking
      Complex Communi-cation
      New Media Literacy
    • 53. 53
      Path Diagram of Wiki Research
      School Level SES
      Classroom Observations and Teacher Interviews to Understand Wiki Practices
      Develop Wiki Quality Trajectories
      Assess How Wiki Quality Trajectories Differ by SES and Teacher Attitudes/Practices
      Measure Wiki Quality
      Literature Review of CSCL and 21st C. Skill Scholarship
      Wiki User Surveys
      Initial Quantitative Analysis to Develop Sampling Strategy