Resource EfficientApplication of Biofuels in British ColumbiaPart 1: Fischer-Tropsch Drop-in Fuels Thomas Cheney
Bioenergy is limited BCs Bioenergy Resources are limited Efficient utilization is required
Using bioenergy rightThe Right Process• Energy Efficiency• Cost effective The Right Fuel• Allows use of non-food • Compatible with the infrastructure feedstock• Scalable • Cost effective • Clean-burning • Distribution • RangeCo-Benefits: Carbon Capture, improved soil
Why Resource Efficiency Matters BC Biomass resources are limited • Equivalent to 40% of BC fossil fuel use • Mountain Pine Bettle fibre supply spike • 300 PJ sustainable potential
Not all biofuels are created equal• Some biofuels produce far more fuelhectare than others
BC Energy Use breakdownSector PJ PJ Biomass can meet 25-Transportation 404 30% of ProvincialIndustry 362 energy demandAgriculture 18Residential 136Comm., Instit. & Public Admin 105Power Generation 35Total 1060Biomass Capacity 250-300
An American Perspective • Biomass is not a panacea“If all biomass were used in CBTL-CCS systemsdesigned to maximize liquids output, 5.9 millionbbl/day transport fuels could be produced. ≈ U.S.domestic crude oil production. ≈ ½ of U.S. oilimports” This assumes that the process with drivenwith coal with biomass providing the carbon atoms!
BC Transportation• 300 Petajoules of energy use• Assuming conversion efficiency rate of 40%, 120 PJ of fuel could be realized. This however leave very limited bioenergy resources available for sectors other than transportation fuel
Electric vs. Biofuel Vehiclesempr.gov.bc.ca • Vast electric • Limited liquid fuel supplies supplies • Limited Range • Long range with simple refuelling
We need both Apply the right technology in the right place The “Algaeus” biofuel plug-in• Electricity should be seen as the dominant prime mover in B.C• Biofuels hydrogen for range extension
How do we get biofuels?• Thermochemical Pathway o Fischer-Troposch o Di-Methyl ether (DME) and Methanol Green Gasoline o Biomass Synthetic Natural Gas o Hydrogen• Biochemical Pathways o Ethanol o Others based on proprietary organisms (LanzaTech)
Thermochemical Process canproduce many energy products
Thermochemical Fuel Cycles• Gasification, Gas Cleaning, Chemical
One Option is FT-BiofuelsCHOREN Biofuels Plant in Germany
FT FUEL• CO + H 2 CH2 + H2O• Used for coal since 1930s
Biomass-Based FTFuels • Clean syngas is essential • Entrianed flow gasifiers are considered to be the most mature technology • Biomass feeding is a challenge • Similar technologies used in Coal to Liquids
FT Advantages • 40% efficiency • Drop-in fuel! • Established for coal and gas to liquids • Biomass specific technology pre-Coal to Liquids Plant in South Africa commercialhttp://s2.hubimg.com/u/5090925_f260.jpg
FT Compared to the Cellulosicethanolhttp://mitei.mit.edu/system/files/kreutz-fischer-tropsch.pdf<2.5 units of biomass are required per unit offuel.
Economics of FT b Competitive with oil at $115 per barrel gasoline withoug carbon pricehttp://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/liquid_trans_tech.pdf
Biomass injectionParticular challenges to BtL o Use of coal based systems have energy use challenges biomass grinding to 100 um uses 8% of energy in biomass o Coal-based systems use a lock hopper o Biomass based systems using screw injection leads to greater energy efficiency Less pressurisation needed Less dilution
Piston Feeding of Biomass• Biomass specific feeding system appear best rather than the systems adapted for coal. o Greater efficiency o Van der Drift et al. 2004 covers these issues in detail o “ENTRAINED FLOW GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS: Ash behaviour, feeding issues, and system analyses”
Van der Drift Syngas PreparationPreliminary gasification (option D) offers highestefficiency approach.
Choren• Low temperature gasification followed by high- temperature gasification to clean gas.• Pre-treatment low-temperature gasification to resolve challenges with biomass gasification of woody biomass
Solar Assisted Fuels • Uses solar energy to drive endothermic reaction for biofuels. • Hydrogen created from solar energy avoiding loss of carbon through reverse gas shiftHertwich, E. G. and Zhang, X (2010) “Concentrating-Solar biomass gasification process fora 3rd generation biofuel
Solar fuels• Solar cogeneration for electrolysis and gasification heat to increase process carbon efficiency
Cost Analysis for solar fuelanalysis• 7.5$ per GJ of fuel produced (2001 $) Input costs $2.5 per GJ• 60% Less land total• 67% less land for biofuels• Assumes a $100 /tC Indicators Solar- Bomass Coal Biomass Fuel Fuel Productivity 121.0 39.9 62.2 (kg fuel/100 kg resource) Cost ($2001/GJ) $7.5 $8.9 $10.8 Efficiency 60.9% 42.0% 36.5%
Coal Biomass FT Fuels • Coal with carbon capture and storage can leverage the biomass 1.5 units of coal + 1 unit biomass = 1 unit fuel + 1.5 units sequestered CO2 565 liters gasoline equivalent with coal +CCS versus 25l lge!http://mitei.mit.edu/system/files/kreutz-fischer-tropsch.pdf
Remember This:• Coal with CCS allows for low- mitigation cost very low CO2 fuels
Carbon-Neutral Coal Based biofuel • 38% biomass + CCS leads to carbon neutral biofuel. • Coal cheaper than biomass, reduces fuel production canindia.com costs even with CCS costs includedhttp://mitei.mit.edu/system/files/kreutz-fischer-tropsch.pdf
Economicshttp://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/liquid_trans_tech.pdf CBTL with CCS costs less than BTL without CCS!
Conclusions• Look at combining biomass and coal or biomass with solar to maximize carbon utilization• Ethanol is a distraction!• Electrify has much as possible• Next SNG fuels using compressed biomethane and liquified biomethane