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Arabic Islamic World

Arabic Islamic World






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    Arabic Islamic World Arabic Islamic World Presentation Transcript

      • The Arabian peninsula
        • Largely deserts with mountains, oases
        • Fertile areas in the southern mountains around Yemen
        • Nomadic Bedouin
          • Lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia
          • Kept herds of sheep, goats, and camels
          • Organized in family and clan groups
          • Importance of kinship and loyalty to the clan
          • Many tribes seem to have been matrilineal with some rights for women
      • Post-classical Arabia
        • Romans (Byzantines) and Persians had client kingdoms in area
        • Active in long-distance over land trade
          • Trade from Damascus to Mecca/Medina to Yemen
          • Trade across desert to Persian Gulf and along coast
          • Part of Red Sea trade system; links between Yemen and Abyssinia
          • Trade includes gold, frankincense and myrrh
        • Religion was polytheist
        • Groups of Jews in Arabia; Monophysite Christians in cities
      • Muhammad ibn Abdullah
        • Born in a Mecca merchant family, 570 C.E.
        • Difficult early life: orphaned, lived with uncle
        • Married a wealthy widow, Khadija, in 595
        • Became a merchant at age 30, exposed to various faiths
      • Muhammad's spiritual transformation
        • At age 40, he experienced visions
          • There was only one true god, Allah ("the god")
          • Allah would soon bring judgment on the world
          • The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to Muhammad
          • Did not intend to found a new religion, but his message became appealing
      • The Quran
        • Followers compiled Muhammad's actual revelations after his death
        • Quran ("recitation"), became the holy book of Islam
        • Suras are chapters; organized from longest to shortest
        • A work of magnificent poetry
      • The Hadith
        • Sayings attributed to Muhammad; not included in Quran
        • Three levels from most accurate/likely to highly suspect
      • Conflict at Mecca
        • His teachings offended others, especially ruling elite of Mecca
        • Attacks on greed offended wealthy merchants
        • Attacks on idolatry threatened shrines, especially the Kaa'ba
      • The hijra
        • Under persecution, Muhammad, followers fled to Medina, 622 C.E.
        • The move, known as hijra , was starting point of Islamic calendar
      • The umma
        • Organized a cohesive community called umma in Medina
        • Led commercial adventure
        • Sometimes launched raids against Mecca caravans
        • Helped the poor and needy
      • The "seal of the prophets"
        • Referred himself as "seal of the prophets," - final prophet of Allah
        • Held Hebrew scriptures and New Testament in high esteem
          • Referred to followers as “Peoples of the Book”
          • If they did not threaten umma, were to be protected
        • Determined to spread Allah's wish to all humankind
      • Muhammad's return to Mecca
        • Conquered Mecca, 630
        • Imposed a theocratic government dedicated to Allah
        • Destroyed pagan shrines and built mosques
      • The Kaa'ba
        • The Kaa'ba shrine was not destroyed
        • In 632, Muhammad led the first Islamic pilgrimage to the Ka'ba
      • The Five Pillars of Islam
        • Obligations taught by Muhammad, known as the Five Pillars
        • The Five Pillars bound the umma into a cohesive community of faith
        • Profession of faith, prayer, tithing, pilgrimage, fasting at Ramadan
      • Islamic law: the s haria
        • Emerged during the centuries after Muhammad
        • Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life
        • Drew laws, precepts from the Quran
        • Drew traditions from Arabic culture, Hadith
        • Through the s haria , Islam became a religion and a way of life
      • The caliph
        • Upon Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy")
        • Became head of state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander
        • First four called Orthodox caliphs because they were original followers
      • The expansion of Islam
        • 633-637, seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia
        • 640's, conquered Egypt and north Africa
        • 651, toppled Sassanid dynasty
        • 711, conquered the Hindu kingdom of Sind
        • 711-718, conquered northwest Africa, most of Iberia
        • Success due to weakness of enemies, vigor of Islam
        • Referred to Islamic world as Dar al Islam
      • The Shia and Sunnis
        • The Shia sect supported Ali (last caliph and son in law of Muhammad)
          • A refuge for non-Arab converts, poor; followers in Iraq, Iran
          • Felt caliphs should be directly related to Muhammad
        • The Sunnis ("traditionalists") accepted legitimacy of early caliphs
          • Were Arab as opposed to Islamic
          • Did not feel caliphs had to be related to Muhammad
        • Two sects struggled over succession; produced a civil war, murder
      • The Umayyad dynasty (661-750 C.E.)
        • New caliph won civil war; murdered Ali; established dynasty
        • Established capital city at Damascus in Syria
        • Ruled for the interests of Arabian military aristocracy
      • Policy toward conquered peoples
        • Dhimmis were the conquered Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians
        • Levied jizya (head tax) on those who did not convert to Islam
        • Even the converts did not enjoy wealth, position of authority
      • Umayyad decline
        • Caliphs became alienated from Arabs by early 8th century
        • By the mid-century, faced strong resistance of the Shia faction
        • The discontent of conquered peoples also increased
        • Umayyad family slaughtered; only one son escaped to Spain
        • Formed breakaway Umayyad Dynasty in Spain
      • Abu al-Abbas
        • A descendant of Muhammad's uncle; allied with Shias and non-Arab Muslims
        • Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia during 740's
        • Shattered Umayyad forces at a battle in 750; annihilated the Umayyad clan
      • The Abbasid dynasty (750-1258 C.E.)
        • Showed no special favor to Arab military aristocracy
        • Empire still growing, but not initiated by the central government
      • Abbasid administration
        • Relied heavily on Persians, Persian techniques of statecraft
        • Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad, newly built city
        • Governors ruled provinces; Ulama, qadis (judges) ruled local areas
      • Harun al-Rashid (786-809 C.E.)
        • Represented the high point of the dynasty
        • Baghdad became metropolis, center for commerce, industry, and culture
      • Abbasid decline
        • Struggle for succession between Harun's sons led to civil war
        • Governors built their own power bases, regional dynasties
        • Local military commanders took title of Sultan
        • Popular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynasty
        • A Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945
        • Later, the Seljuk Turks controlled the imperial family
      • Arab Urban History
        • Pre-Islamic Arabs were both urban, bedouin
          • Mecca, Medina, Yemeni cities, cities of Palmyra, Arab Petropolis
          • Center of the city was a market place often shared with religious center
          • Cities designed with human-environment interaction in mind
          • Nomads came to city to trade, city often settled by whole tribes
          • Arabs had settled in cities in Syria, Iraq, Jordan
        • Arabic cities linked to wider world through merchants, trade
        • Arab cities exposed to Jews, Persians, Monophysites, Sabeans
      • Arabic Empire and Urban Growth
        • Islam as a culture requires mosque, merchant: very urban in outlook
          • Capital moved from Mecca to Damascus by Umayyads
          • Arabs founded military cities on edges of desert to rule empire
        • As empire grew, needed something more permanent
          • Abbasids moved capital from Damascus, Kufa to Baghdad
          • Other designed for purpose cities include Fez, Cairo, Tunis
        • Increasing agricultural production contributed to growth of cities
          • Cities: centers for administration, industry, trade, education, faith
          • Many different ethnic minorities settled in Muslim cities (quarters)
          • Mosque at center surrounded by suk, square, in decreasing social order
      • Merchants, pilgrims, travelers exchanged foods across empire
      • The exchange and spread of food and industrial crops
        • Indian plants traveled to other lands of the empire
        • Staple crops: sugarcane, rice, new varieties of sorghum and wheat
        • Vegetables: spinach, artichokes, eggplants
        • Fruits: oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, mangoes
        • Industrial crops: cotton, indigo, henna
      • Effects of new crops
        • Increased varieties and quantities of food
        • Industrial crops became the basis for a thriving textile industry
        • Foodstuffs increased health, populations of cities
      • Agricultural experimentation
        • Numerous agricultural manuals
        • Agricultural methods and techniques improved
        • Improved irrigation
      • Camels and caravans
        • Overland desert trade traveled mostly by camel caravan
        • Caravanserais (motel, corrals) in Islamic cities
        • Trading goods usually luxury in nature
      • Maritime trade based on technological borrowing
        • Arab, Persian mariners borrowed
          • Compass from the Chinese
          • Lateen sail from southeast Asian, Indian mariners
          • Astrolabe from the Hellenistic mariners
        • Organization and dominance of trade
          • In North Africa across Sahara, down Nile, SW Asia, to India
          • Eastern Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabia Gulf down coasts
          • Many cities grew rich from trade
          • Entrepreneurs often pooled their resources in group investments
          • Different kinds of joint endeavors
      • Banks
        • Operated on large scale and provided extensive services
        • Letters of credit, or sakk , functioned as bank checks
      • Exchange of Ideas included Islam, technology, culture
      • Al-Andalus
        • Islamic Spain, conquered by Muslim Berbers
        • Claimed independence from the Abbasid dynasty
        • Participated in commercial life of the larger Islamic world
        • Products of al-Andalus enjoyed a reputation for excellence
        • Cordoba was a center of learning, commerce, architecture
        • After death of Abd al Rahman III broke up into petty kingdoms
        • A unique blended culture
          • Arab, Latin, German, Islamic, Christian, Jewish
          • Very tolerant and integrated society
        • Warred for 700 years with Christian kingdoms in north
      • North Africa
        • Strong followers of Shia, broke with Abbassids
        • Berbers followed many puritanical Shia like movements
        • Eventually Fatimids conquered Egypt, formed rival caliphate
      • Central Asia
        • Largely Turkish, Persian and Islamic but not Arabic
        • Tended to be distant from Baghdad and more tolerant
        • Integrated into trans-Eurasian trade network
      • Pre-Islamic Arab Women
        • Arabs as nomads allowed women many rights
        • Women often poets, tribe leaders
        • Some evidence of matrilineal tribes
      • The Quran and women
        • Quran enhanced rights, security of women
        • Forced husbands to honor contracts, love women
        • Allowed women to own property, protected from exploitation
      • What produced the change
        • Foreign Contacts changed the perspective
          • Adopted veiling from Mesopotamia, Persia
          • Isolation from India through purdah, harem
        • Muslim rights for women
          • Often weaken through Hadith, traditions
          • Often reduced, ignored
          • Patriarch beliefs reinforced by conquest
          • Yet Quran, sharia also reinforced male domination
          • Role of Hadith, Arab traditions reinforced male domination
      • Quran, sharia were main sources to formulate moral guidelines
      • Constant struggle between what is Arabic and what is Islamic
        • Use of Arabic script as only language of Islam strengthened trend
        • Persians, Turks, Indians, and Africans struggled for acceptance
      • Promotion of Islamic values
        • Ulama, qadis , and missionaries were main agents
        • Education also promoted Islamic values
      • Sufis
        • Islamic mystics, effective missionaries
        • Encouraged devotion by singing, dancing
        • Led ascetic, holy lives, won respect
        • Encouraged followers to revere Allah in own ways
        • Tolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefs
      • The hajj
        • The Kaa'ba became the symbol of Islamic cultural unity
        • Pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values
      • Persian influence on Islam
        • After Arabs most prominent of Muslims, resisted Arabization
          • Cultural traditions often borrowed heavily by Islam
          • Became early followers of Shia
        • Government and regionalism
          • Many advisors (vizer is Persian word) to Caliphs were Persian
          • Cultured, diplomatic language of Abbassid court became Persian
        • Literary achievements
          • Omar Khayyam was greatest of Medieval Muslim poets
          • The Arabian Nights largely in a Persian style
      • Turkish influences
        • Central Asian nomads converted to Islam, developed literary culture
        • Invaded SW Asia and made caliphate dependent on Turkish nomads
        • Formed military might, leadership of late Abbassid state
      • Indian Influences
        • Purdah and harem borrowed from Hindus
        • "Hindi numerals," which Europeans called "Arabic numerals"
      • Greek Influences
        • Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle; Greek math
        • Effort of harmonizing two traditions met resistance from Sufis