Fudan Dec 09 Cultural Theory Of Media
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Fudan Dec 09 Cultural Theory Of Media Fudan Dec 09 Cultural Theory Of Media Presentation Transcript

  • Cultural Theory of Media: overcoming the structuralist perspective Thomas A. Bauer, Dr. Univ. Prof. Department of Communication Faculty of Social Sciences University Vienna / Austria www.thomasbauer.at thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009 Fudan University School of Journalism Shanghai Dec. 2007
  • MEDIA CULTURE – THE MEANINGFUL ENVIRONMENT FOR MEDIA SOCIETY
    • In a media-
    • and knowledge society context
    • understanding the reality
    • needs
    • understanding media
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • THEORETICAL APPROACHES UNDERSTANDING MEDIA
    • MEDIA COMMUNICATION IDEA
    • THEORY INTERPRETATION PRACTICE
    • ANALYSIS
    • MEDIA (COMMUNICATION) REALITY
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009 Normative critical approach Critical-emancipative approach Analytical approach Pragmatic approach
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA SOCIAL- & CULTURAL SCIENCE IS KOWLEDGE BUILDING BETWEEN SENSE AND EXPERIENCE normative-hermeneutical approach : Interprets the use of media as means and agency of cognitive, affective and active participation in public discourse and in societal conversation in order to get connected and synchronized with different and professionally based interpretations of events and decisions that are publicly supposed to be meaningful for personal and public management of life thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA SOCIAL- & CULTURAL SCIENCE IS KOWLEDGE BUILDING BETWEEN SENSE AND EXPERIENCE
    • critical- emancipative approach :
    • reflects the use of media as an open source space of taking and giving contributions to the generalized interpretation of experience in order to multiply your and other’s view of world - thus becoming your own actor in constructing the reality
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA SOCIAL- & CULTURAL SCIENCE IS KOWLEDGE BUILDING BETWEEN SENSE AND EXPERIENCE
        • empirical- analytical approach :
        • Analyses the use media observing the relation of action and structures as a source of experience, of inspiration, of setting agenda and as a generalized frame of reference for public knowledge in order to get connected to the generalization of behaviour
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA SOCIAL- & CULTURAL SCIENCE IS KOWLEDGE BUILDING BETWEEN SENSE AND EXPERIENCE
        • pragmatic approach :
        • Analyses Media in the interest of getting out how to use it as a resource of information and what is publicly supposed to be news in order to gain a preferred position within the social structures of competition for (active or passive) public attention (market)
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA SOCIAL- & CULTURAL SCIENCE IS KOWLEDGE BUILDING BETWEEN SENSE AND EXPERIENCE
    • Cultural approach:
    • turn from structural / functional analysis to
    • Cultural Studies
    • Use Media as reflector of people’s
    • endeavour in styling their life according
    • to traditions, narrations, stories, histories
    • – in order to get connected to narrations,
    • discourses, trends, myths and
    • conversational measures.
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA The Cultural Studies Thesis
    • Communication & Culture – two sides of one coin
    • Communication defines the development of culture 
    • Communication is the context of action, through which connections of meaning get created and exchanged
    • Culture is the connection of giving meaning to action (also to the use of media as a way of appropriation of reality
    • Culture is the societal basis for content and form of communication
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA The Cultural Studies Thesis
    • The media discourse mediates the every-day-discourse and milieu-discourses: there is no media-free existence of any discourse
    • All meanings and significations we are using origin from institutions of valuating the experiences – media mediate them in media discourse
    • Discourses are not individual creations, but socially produced. In order to understand actual connections we re-take already learned (culturally established) discourses 
    • The question is not, what is the media impact is on discourses, the question is, how discourse rules effect the use of media 
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • MEDIA UNDER THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION steps of complexity of conceptualizing media thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009 AGENCY OF SOCIAL PRACTICE SYMBOLICALLY MEDIATED INTERACTION MEDIA ENVIRONMENT MEDIA ORGANISATION MEDIA PROGRAMME TECHNICAL INFRASTRUKTURE HIGH GRADE of Complexity LOW
      • Media - Identity :
      • How to save/develop the authenticity of real self under conditions
      • of mediated relation?
      • Media - Ecology :
      • How to save/preserve the „nature“ of interpersonal communication
      • before technical alienation?
      • Media Competence:
      • How to use media as an agency of realizing individuality under
      • conditions of a media organized society?
      • Media Culture:
      • How does the everyday usage of media effect the culture of sociability?
      • Media Learning:
      • What attitudes are we able to develop, in order to create an societal learning process out of it (media competence)?
      • thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
    CULTURAL PERSEPCTIVES OF MEDIALITY
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA COMPETENCE Competence Models in general
        • Competence - a normative term:
        • is directed to social agreements of social and individual values
        • Competence - a critical term:
        • is directed to distinguish between systems demands and Lebenswelt-consciousness
        • Competence – a pragmatic term:
        • is directed to the possibility of learning and of development.
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCE where does the imagination come from?
    • Competence is not a natural quality, but is a category of the cultural interpretation of human attitude in relation to the natural, cultural, social, technical and symbolic environment. It says that mankind is able and capable to organize its position in relation to the environment in a cultural manner - thus forming personality and individuality in order to become an identifiable part of it.
    • - cultural-anthropological interpretation
    • - psychological interpretation
    • - educational interpretation
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCE where does the imagination come from?
    • Anthropological interpretation
    • The Competence term represents an anthropological interpretation of risks and chances of surviving by means that are only given to mankind: making decision by free will and by reflection - using means of intelligence, notion, cognition and consciousness. Within that tradition competence is a dimension of human performance of life that has to be supposed to be anyone’s own. Competence values in that frame above all others is: advantage privilege
    lecture fudan uni thomas a. bauer
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCE where does the imagination come from?
    • Psychological interpretation:
    • Competence of personal life depends to certain extent from different pre-conditions of socialisation : family structure, personality structure, culture of relationship. Media Competence is not a special competence, but more the reflection of understanding one’s personal life styling under socio-cultural frame conditions: The social climate.
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • Understanding Competence where does the imagination come from?
    • Psychological interpretation:
    • Values of Competence within psychological interpretation are: authenticity, open mindedness, distinctiveness, reflexivity, critical distance against yourself and critical closeness o others
    • Development of competence needs a socio-hygienic climate – in individual but also in societal dimensions. Non-hygienic climates lead to strategies of simulation and compensative inscenation of performing one’s own life or the life of the society/community/organization.
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCE where does the imagination come from?
    • Educational interpretation:
    • Competence always has been a goal for education and pedagogy insofar educational and learning programs aims to bring young people to the state of ability, capacity and responsibility in all socially relevant fields of behaviour. Education works theoretically and practically in the direction of an idealtypical assumption of an individual and tries to challenge the learning capacity of individuals according to a system of socialisation.
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCE problems behind these interpretations
        • Models of identity are not sacrosanct and could change (cf: J.Habermas)
        • Models of social order are constructions and could be deconstructed (cf: M. Foucault)
        • Models of education of intelligence are often focused on cognitive capacities (cf: J. Piaget)
        • Models of socialisation are often too mechanistic: To compensate the dilemmata of the society on shoulders of individuals of the upcoming generation might be a cynical way to demand competence from youngsters within a social environment with weak competence culture.
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UN DERSTANDING COMPETENCE MEDIA COMPETENCE AS A CULTURAL CAPITAL
    • The Media environment is a complex environment:
    • technical, cultural, political, social, behavioural and economic structures are mixed and organized to a system for its own quality.
    • Living with and in media environment challenges skills of distinction, of differentiation and of decision of individuals insofar the media system represents and mediates other environments: public spheres, politics, education, art, religion and church-life, scenes of diverse communities, fiction, faction, entertainment, conversation, discourse and discussion, advertisement and models of personal life styling.
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCE MEDIA COMPETENCE IS INDIVIDUAL GOOD
    • The term of competence includes aspects:
        • Ability (to know what operations and how to do them in case of – skills)
        • Capacity (to have the cognitive, affective and active means and preparedness: skills)
        • Responsibility (to be conscious of what it means for oneself and/or for others: consequences and possible effects
        • Morality (to be aware of the implicated values when making personal decisions)
        • In media knowledge, media participation and media usage
    thomas a. bauer fudan soj dec 2009