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Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture
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Fudan 12 09 European Journalism Culture


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  • 1. CULTURE OF EUROPEAN JOURNALISM Thomas A. Bauer University of Vienna Guest Lecture at Fudan University School of Journalism Fall Semester 2009 CULTURE IS THE EVERYDAY PRACTICE OF VALUES JOURNALISM CULTURE IS THE COMMUNICTIVE USE OF PUBLIC VALUES thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09
  • 2. - Interest of Knowledge- thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 Get aware that media management is a platform of developing society and shaping the communicational culture through media Get aware of similarities / differences between categories and positions of analysis
        • Get reminded of the societal and cultural impacts and responsibility
        • working with and in media management
    Get aware that managing media is managing the social mediatization of a society Realize that managing media depends from standard of literacy and from cultural conditions of usage of media
  • 3. COMMUNICATION SPACE EUROPE European Public Sphere under Conditions of Diversity of Particular Cultural Segments Economical cultures (varying dispersion of resources and of structures of relation between richness and poverty) Political cultures (one democratic structural system but different traditions in using them and varying standards of establishing civil society) Social cultures (varying standards of social cohesion and mechanisms of trust) Media cultures (varying standards of transnational awareness as a factor of European public sphere, of the role of media in relation to politics, and of nationally determined media literacy) thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09
    • A question of:
    • Professionalism ( Educational Standards, Quality Expectations, Quality Standards)
    • - Competence (Capacity, Legitimacy, Responsibility, Position)
    • - Personality (Authority, Habit, Attitude, )
    • Media Environment (Organization, Audience)
    • Social Environment (Role Acceptance, Social Image)
    • Cultural Environment (Diversity, Migration, Transition, Social Change)
    • Political Environment (System, Culture)
    • Relationship between Political and Journalism Culture (dependency,
    • counter-dependency, independency, interdependence)
    thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09
  • 5. ETHICS AND CULTURE IN JOURNALISM Model of Journalistic Ethics thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09
  • 6. Journalistic Moral in Field of Tension of Different Rationalities thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 power influence profit calculation truth Truthfulness legitimacy correctness transparency agreement communicative rationality responsibility freedom service to public interest public value ethical rationality economical rationality
  • 7. Areas of Competence of Scientific Media Studies thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 Praxeology Analysis/ Interpretation Practice Pragmatics Low Level of Competence Advancied Level of Competence Thematic Application General Application Increasing Complexity of Practice Increasing ComplexityOf Conceptualization
  • 8. Social Factors of Distinction of Media Use thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 Individual‘s position in social hierarchy: Lifestyle-Model (Rosengreen) Capital Theory (Bourdieu) - Positional and individual indicators influence the handling of media - Media menues and media knowledge used as means of keeping or improving the social position Criteria: - Work- orientation (accumulation of cultural capital) - Meaning (use of media as a character of distinction and identity management (Source: Meyen, Michael (2007): Medienwissen und Medienmenüs als kulturelles Kapital und Distinktionsmerkmale. In: Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft 3/2007, 333-354)
  • 9. Media User Typology (Source: Meyen, Michael (2007): Medienwissen und Medienmenüs als kulturelles Kapital und Distinktionsmerkmale. In: Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft 3/2007, 333-354 ) thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 The dutyful ones The independent ones Work Orientation Meaning of Media The frugal ones The consumers The hoovers/ professionals The elitists The epicurs / hedonists
  • 10. - Referencies - thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09
    • Hallin, Daniel C. / Mancini, Paolo (2003) : Drei Modelle von Medien und politischer Kultur in Europa. Grundlegenede Überlegungen zu einer komparativen europäischen Journalismusforschung. In: Kopper/Mancini, p. 11 - 28
    • Löffelholz, Martin (ed.) (2000): Theorien des Journalismus.
    • Ein diskursives Handbuch. Wiesbaden
    • Internationales Handbuch Medien, 2004/2005 ed. by Hans Bredow Institut für Medienforschung an der Universität Hamburg. Baden Baden
    • Gavranovic, Ante (2006): Medijska obratnica. Novi citatelji traze drugacije novine. Zagreb
    • Bauer, Thomas A / Ortner, Gerhard E. (ed) (2001) : Medien für Europa. Düsseldorf
    • Bauer, Thomas A. /Ortner, Gerhard E. (ed) (2008): Werte für Europa. Paderborn
    • Kopper, Gerd G. / Mancini, Paolo (eds) (2003):
    • Kulturen des Journalismus und politische Systeme. Berlin
  • 11. - MEDIA CULTURE (MC) - thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 The way and the mind how people use media in order to connect or to get connected to the environment of political and conversational discourses. The question IS NOT: What does media do with people ? The question IS: What does people do with media ?
    • contextual consideration:
    • Contemporaneous self-description: Media- (Communication-,
    • Knowledge-) Society:
    • There is no media-free existence of people, knowledge, events
    • (medialized relevance)
    • Interconnectivity of quality between media production (journalism),
    • media consumption (public, recipient), socio-cultural environment,
    • political environment
    • MC always an integrative part of a society and its collective psychic
    • structure / Analysis of media always is an analysis of the society
    • and vice verse)
    • MC also a product of specific historical development, of structural
    • forms and of mentalities which reflect how the society deals with
    • social conflicts or divergences.
  • 12. - EUROPEAN MEDIA ORDER - thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 TECHNOLOGY Satellite covering 500 Mio. people, 40 states, 17 national languages crossborder broadcasting (ARTE, Phönix,...) digitalisation and media convergence EU Policy European media order in progress (Radio/TV) European Commission not yet a transnational order system -> developing (centralized) EU Media Order is limited! European Council with strong position European Court of Human Rights Media freedom is a part of freedom of opinion, must be secured by state through positive legislation now 27 nations EU - Identiy building in progress: One Voice Europe? structural conditions of political and social system different languages different cultural symbols different historical conditions mutual resentments (clichés)
  • 13. - JOURNALISM CULTURE - thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 What are the main characteristics of the political structure of a country, which effect the media system – and vice verse ? How does the form of democracy effect the media system? Does the form of political participation correlate to the form how the media system is organized? Are there important functional differences in media (print / TV) and does this relation effect the political system? What is the degree of media literacy in a country (critical reading)? Is there a self-referential reflection of media? Approximativ Theory of Difference in Media/Journalism Culture in Europe measured at the for of relationship between media and politics loosing specific character due to globalisation, commercialisation and secularisation Comparison based on regions sharing common history and mutual influences!
  • 14. - JOURNALISM CULTURE at MEDITERRANEAN - thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal weak bourgeoisie and capitalism, late industrialisation, strong aristocracy, strong clergy, late introduction of press freedom, low circulation, Journalism close to literature, politics and economy press = intervention of politics, TV = gossiping newspaper = politically oriented
    • Public broadcasting
    • pluralisation of ideologies
    • politics
    • Journalistic professionalism
    • based on 3 elements
    • patterns different from culture
    • existence of ethics
    • media entrepreneurs from
    • journalistic branch
    All in all Mediterranean media culture follows a model of strong ideological direction, fundamental pluralism, controversial ad polarized public communication – both in political and in conversational formats.
  • 15. - JOURNALISM CULTURE at NORTH CENTRAL EUROPE - thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 Scandinavia, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, BeNeLux democratic corporatistic way of cooperation between media and politics Influential commercialists, high rate of alphabetisation, high circulation, coexistence of mighty and party newspapers, strong external pluralism, information-oriented approach Public broadcasting Differently structured (party political, institution-political, no party political influence, independent) with strong position in public life (Austria) strict regulation of commercial broadcasting Journalistic professionalism free accessibility, umbrella organisations
  • 16. - JOURNALISM CULTURE at WESTERN EUROPE - thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 UK and Ireland (Anglo-American Model) early developed market economy and consolidation of liberal capitalism dominant commercial press, monetary power as background considerably ideal US System Press freedom above all principles, freedom as question of economical resources, commercial before journalistic interests UK System often party politically directed: Westminster System, independent broadcasting (BBC), no market regulation For all of them strong journalistic culture in form of self control within the media companies, important independence of journalists within the news media focus on journalistic education (early start in US) changes remarkable because of internationalisation and globalization
  • 17. - JOURNALISM CULTURE at Eastern Europe - thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 Baltic, Eastern Europe and South-Eastern Europe long history of changeful belongingness to different cultures and administration systems no national independences 40 years of societal and political system of communism
    • 1990
    • breakdown of political system ->
    • breaking apart of multinational political
    • community
    • emerging of mutual hostility/national hate
    • Now
    • transition status with ambivalent feeling towards the European Union
    media landscape paralysed situation in structures and culture! low media literacy level, mistrust against media and public/political institutions, isolated national media islands with hate speech, weak journalism culture due to few complete educated journalists causing a high tabloidization and flat but aggressive investigative journalism media law work in progress, high foreign commercial participation
  • 18. - STILL TO BE DONE- thomas bauer / fudan university 12/09 Economical Balance Between the Regions Re-assessment of History and National Histories Transnational Concepts of European Identity Media Literacy Development Development of Standards of Democratization Development of Media Culture