Architecture and Practices on Cloud Interoperability and Portability
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Architecture and Practices on Cloud Interoperability and Portability

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Cloud computing is believed to be another big wave of Internet technology after World Wide Web and mobile computing. The Open Group has identified cloud computing as a major driver to develop global ...

Cloud computing is believed to be another big wave of Internet technology after World Wide Web and mobile computing. The Open Group has identified cloud computing as a major driver to develop global GDP. In Hong Kong, the Office of Government CIO (OGCIO) has established the Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards (EGCCSS) to drive cloud computing adoption and deployment. Various cloud technical committees, including the two groups mentioned above, have identified the interoperability and portability of cloud services as a key principle for stimulating and driving economic benefits. EGCCSS has formed a Working Group Cloud Computing Interoperability Standards (WGCCIS) specifically to address this challenge.

In this talk, Dr Thomas Lee shares his experience in working in WGCCIS as a co-opt member and introduces the Open Group Guide on Cloud Computing Portability and Interoperability. He explains the fundamental concepts of cloud interoperability and portability and the reference architecture to design interoperable interfaces between on-premise and cloud application components. He also discusses the architectural principles for supporting cloud service providers to develop interoperable cloud services. From the enterprise user perspective, he also summarizes some good practices from the Open Group Guide that help cloud consumers to formulate their cloud strategy to manage vendor lock-in when selecting cloud services.

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Architecture and Practices on Cloud Interoperability and Portability Architecture and Practices on Cloud Interoperability and Portability Presentation Transcript

  • Dr Thomas Lee 24 September 2013 Enterprise Architecture / Cloud Computing SIG Speaker Session Hong Kong Computer Society
  • Agenda  Importance of Cloud Computing Standards  Cloud Portability and Interoperability  OGCIO Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards  Cloud Reference Architectures  Open Group Guide on Cloud Portability and Interoperability  Conclusions 224-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Agenda  Importance of Cloud Computing Standards  Cloud Portability and Interoperability  OGCIO Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards  Cloud Reference Architectures  Open Group Guide on Cloud Portability and Interoperability  Conclusions 324-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Standardization and Interoperability  To technology, cloud computing is an evolution; to economy, it will be a revolution:  Share resources and optimize their use: technology and people  Liberalizethe market: SMEs can compete with businessgiants  Network effects will accelerate cloud adoption  From independentcloud services to collaborativecloud services  Value > Cost + Risk  Interoperability is key to exponential growth of cloud computing  Standardization is the means to this end  Freedom and openness are the culture of Internet  Many governments and consortiums set out initiatives to foster cloud interoperability and portability 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 4
  • Internet Growth and Standards Source of Internet host statistics: Wikipedia / ISC No.ofInternethosts(logscale) 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 5 1980 Ethernet, USENET 1982 TCP/IP, SMTP 1983 DNS 1986 IETF 1988 OSI 1989 BGP 1995 802.1a/b 1992 GSM 1998 GPRS, SNMPv1 2008 LTE 2009 WiMAX, 802.1n 2003 802.11g 2012 802.ac 2001 UMTS (3G) Internet 1991 HTML HTTP 0.9 1995 JavaScript, RSS, mp3, PHP 2013 HTML5 (Draft) 1996 HTTP 1, CSS 1994 W3C 1997 WAP, HTML 4 2002 RSS 2 2000 REST, WAI 1999 RDF 2003 SVG Web 1998 XML, SOAP 2005 OpenID 2010 OAuth 1, CDMI, OCCI 1.1 2002 WS-I 2004 WS- Security 2008 OVF 1.0 2013 OVF 2.0 Cloud
  • Agenda  Importance of Cloud Computing Standards  Cloud Portability and Interoperability  OGCIO Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards  Cloud Reference Architectures  Open Group Guide on Cloud Portability and Interoperability  Conclusions 624-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Portability and Interoperability  Cloud portability: the ability to migrate application runtime or data between different clouds  Cloud interoperability: the ability of same or different applications running on different clouds to collaborate  Between different public clouds or between public clouds and private cloud (or on-premises infrastructure) 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 7
  • Portability 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 8 Your VM / App / Data Cloud A Cloud B / Private Cloud Cloud Service Interface Cloud Service Interface
  • Portability 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 9 Your VM / App / Data Cloud A Cloud B / On-Premises Infrastructure Cloud Service Interface A Cloud Service Interface B Conversion/ Recompilation/ Adaptation Converted VM / App / Data
  • Interoperability 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 10 Cloud A Your App X Cloud B Your App X Cloud C Your App Y Compatible processes, protocols and data formats
  • Agenda  Importance of Cloud Computing Standards  Cloud Portability and Interoperability  OGCIO Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards  Cloud Reference Architectures  Open Group Guide on Cloud Portability and Interoperability  Conclusions 1124-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • OGCIO Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards (EGCCSS)  Draw expertise from the industry, academia, community and Government to facilitate and drive cloud computing adoption and deployment in Hong Kong, as well as facilitateexpert exchanges among cloud experts both within Hong Kong and with the Mainland.  Working Groups:  Working Group on Cloud Computing Interoperability Standards (WGCCIS)  Working Group on Cloud Security and Privacy (WGCSP)  Working Group on Provision and Use of Cloud Services (WGPUCS) 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 12
  • Key Deliverables  InfoCloud portal that provides guidelines for  Cloud service consumers  Cloud service providers  E.g., how to become a government cloud service provider  Useful practice papers and checklists:  Practice Guide for Procuring Cloud Services by OGCIO  Practical Guide to Cloud Computing by Cloud Standards Consumer Council  Cloud StandardizationWhitepaper (雲計算標準化白皮書) by China ElectronicsStandardization Institute (中國電子技術標準化研究院)  Checklist for SMEs on selecting Cloud Service Providers  Checklist for porting an application to cloud (under review)  Directoryof cloud technical standards 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 13
  • Hong Kong Cloud & Guangdong Information Portals 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 14
  • 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 15
  • Major National and Global Initiatives  Open Group  Guide on Cloud Computing Portability and Interoperability  IEEE  P2301 - Guide for Cloud Portability and Interoperability Profiles  P2302 - Standard for Intercloud Interoperability and Federation  ITU Focus Group on Cloud Computing  7-part technical report on cloud standardization  National Instituteof Standardsand Technology (NIST)  NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap  US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap  China Electronics StandardizationInstitute (中國電子技術標準化研究院)  Cloud Standardization Whitepaper (雲計算標準化白皮書)  Cloud Data Center Reference Architecture (雲計算數據中心參考架構) 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 16
  • Agenda  Importance of Cloud Computing Standards  Cloud Portability and Interoperability  OGCIO Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards  Cloud Reference Architectures  Open Group Guide on Cloud Portability and Interoperability  Conclusions 1724-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Reference Architecture  A reference architecture depicts what business and IT service building blocks can be delivered by public and private cloud services  RA helps an enterprise to define its cloud adoption strategyand roadmaps and refine its Configuration ManagementDatabase  RA helps an service provider position itself what services to sell, what to developon its own, what to procure from others  Whether an interface is based on open standards determines the interoperability and portability of building blocks 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 18
  • NIST Reference Architecture 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 19  Can be based upon to develop the enterprisecloud adoption landscape: as-is, transitions, target  Map cloud vendors / services being and to be used on the building blocks
  • Other Cloud RAs 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 20 CESI Conceptual Model ITU Cloud Architecture
  • Map Application Components to Cloud Services 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 21 Network System (OS) System (Physical) Platform Data Application Security Management Internet Backend OS RDB S Schema Enterprise Firewall EnterpriseSystem Management Intranet Physical Server Android DB Data Access Mobile App Data on Mobile Directory Service Vendor’s Hypervisor App Server Vendor ’s CDN Push Server App Server OS Data on App Server OpenID CloudService Management Business Logic  Show which application componentsare deployed on public clouds and on-premises (or private cloud) in solutionarchitecture  Each componentshould be loosely coupled from each other  Templates for different types of solutions, e.g., CRM, HR, mobile  Exit strategy should be planned for each cloud component  Check whether the componentcan be deployed to other vendors or private cloud with minimal modification Deployed on cloud
  • Agenda  Importance of Cloud Computing Standards  Cloud Portability and Interoperability  OGCIO Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards  Cloud Reference Architectures  Open Group Guide on Cloud Portability and Interoperability Conclusions 2224-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Open Group Guide  Open Group Guide: Cloud Computing Portability and Interoperability by The Open Group, April 2013  Explains major cloud portability and interoperability issues  Recommends customers on how best to achieve portabilityand interoperabilitywhen using  Recommends suppliers and standardsbodies on how standards and best practices should evolve  Cloud computing enables massive economic activities and makes significant contribution to GDP  Like Internetyet with even greater potential  Potential will not be realized without portability and interoperability  Growth of the Internet is largely due to high level of portabilityand interoperability 2324-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Architecture for Portability / Interoperability  Business architecture  Business strategy, organization, functions, business processes and information needs  Information systems architecture  Application architecture  Capabilities that provide business functions and manage data assets  Data architecture  Logical / physical data assets, data management resources  Technology architecture  Platform services, logical / physical technology components Business DataApplication Technology 24-Sep-2013 24HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Cloud Service Models 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 25 Source: Open Group Guide - Cloud Computing Portability and Interoperability
  • Cloud Portability  Data portability  Reuse of data components across applications  Application portability  Reuse of application components across PaaS’s  Platform portability  Platform source portability: reuse of platform components across IaaS’s  Machine image portability: reuse of bundles of platform + application + data (i.e., VM image) across IaaS’s 24-Sep-2013 26HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Platform Portability Platform source portability Machine image portability 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 27 Source: Open Group Guide - Cloud Computing Portability and Interoperability
  • Cloud Interoperability  Application interoperability  Between different / identical application components  Data synchronization between components in different clouds  Platform interoperability  Between platform components, e.g., database  Set-up and transfer of application session states:  User ID and authentication  User locale and preferences  Other application states (e.g., items placed in shopping carts) 24-Sep-2013 28HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Cloud Interoperability (Cont’)  Management interoperability  On-demand self-service management of different clouds (SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, public / private)  E.g., manage cloud services together with in-house systems using generic system management COTS  Publication and acquisition interoperability  Between marketplaces, app stores, etc.  Standard interfaces to different stores 24-Sep-2013 29HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Distributed Computing Reference Model 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 30 Source: Open Group Guide - Cloud Computing Portability and Interoperability
  • Applications Mapping to DCRM 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 31 Source: Open Group Guide - Cloud Computing Portability and Interoperability
  • Portability / Interoperability Interfaces 3224-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar Source:OpenGroupGuide-CloudComputingPortabilityandInteroperability
  • Portability / Interoperability Interfaces (Cont’) 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 33 Source:OpenGroupGuide-CloudComputingPortabilityandInteroperability
  • Security of WS-I and HTTP WS Styles Source: Open Group Guide - Cloud Computing Portability and Interoperability 14-Aug-2013 34HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Application Design Principles  Loose coupling  Service-orientation  Stable interfaces  Described interfaces  Human / machine readable descriptions  Use of marketplaces (a.k.a. app stores)  REST (Representational State Transfer)  BASE (Basically Available, Soft State, Eventual Consistency)  c.f. ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation Durability) 24-Sep-2013 35HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Recommendations • Problem areas: • Platform-platform / application-platform interfaces • Service descriptions and management interfaces • Data models, machine image formats • Loose coupling, service-orientation, stable and described interfaces, marketplaces, REST, BASE • Each area covers: • Problem summary • Recommendations for current practice • Recommendations for standards development 24-Sep-2013 36HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Application-Platform Interfaces  Problem summary  Various programming languages to be chosen for the interface  No agreementon what functionalityis needed  No commonlyaccepted application-platform interface standards  Recommendations for current practice  Enterprisesshould seek to use cloud platforms with vendor- independentprogramming interfaces  PaaS vendors stating that they support .NET or J2EE should say which versions they support  Recommendations for standards development  The industryshould identify best practice in use of direct HTTP and JSON, including means of authenticationand access control (such as OAUTH), and develop standard profiles for interoperabilitybetween service platforms using this approach. 24-Sep-2013 37HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Machine Image Formats  Problem summary  A standard machine image format makes portability possible across different infrastructure service providers, as well as across infrastructure services of a single provider.  The DMTF OVF standard is designed to meet the need for a machine image format standard.  Recommendations for current practice  Enterprises developing cloud infrastructure services should evaluate the OVF standard and support it if feasible.  Enterprises developing cloud management systems should evaluate the OVF standard and support it if feasible.  Enterprises procuring cloud infrastructure services or cloud management systems should evaluate the OVF standard and look for support for it as appropriate.  Recommendations for standards development  The industry should work to ensure that the OVF standard is and remains fit for purpose, and to encourage its use. 24-Sep-2013 38HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • BASE Transactions  Problem summary  There is a need for robust and scalable services that are loosely-coupled and have stable interfaces that are easy to describe.  Recommendations for current practice  Applications should be designed using the Representational State Transfer (REST) style, though without insisting on its full rigor. 24-Sep-2013 39HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • CAP Theorem  You can only guarantee at most two of them  ACID  Consistencyand Availability  BASE  Availabilityand Partition Tolerance  Designed for scalability  Eventualconsistencymay not ensure data are consistentas expected 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 40 Consistency Availability Partition Tolerance
  • Agenda  Importance of Cloud Computing Standards  Cloud Portability and Interoperability  OGCIO Expert Group on Cloud Computing Services and Standards  Cloud Reference Architectures  Open Group Guide on Cloud Portability and Interoperability  Conclusions 4124-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar
  • Conclusions  Architects can formulate a cloud reference architecture for their enterprises  To further develop cloud adoption landscape, strategy and roadmap  Interoperability and portability are factors to consider when adopting cloud services in addition to costs and security  Manage (rather than avoid) vendor lock-in  Open standardsvs. fast time-to-market/ lower TCO  Exit strategy should be planned in solution architecture  Cloud vendors should develop products for portability and interoperability  In the long run, these features will become a competitiveadvantage  Cloud interoperability will become a determinant of success  Like what happened to the Internet / Web 24-Sep-2013 HKCS EA / CC SIG Seminar 42
  • Thank You