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My infectious disease project.

My infectious disease project.

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  • 1. Clostridium Tetani By: Thomas Shin
  • 2. Clostridium Tetani The primary symptoms of  Tetanus are caused by tetnospasm which is a nerve toxin.
  • 3. History of Clostridium Tetani Arthur Nicolaier (1862-1942) discovered the tetanus  bacterium in 1884. However tetanus only became a reportable disease in the  1940’s. A vaccine was developed in the mid 1940’s.  Tetanus severity and mortality rate is done by score.   0-1 is 10% mortality rate.  2-3 is 10-20% mortality rate.  4 is 20-40% mortality rate.  5-6 is 50% or more mortality rate. There was a severe outbreak in Sumatra during the year of  2005.  In Banda Aceh there were 40 cases and 20 deaths.  In Meulaboh there were 7 cases and 5 deaths.
  • 4. Etiology The tetanus bacillus, is a spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-  positive bacillus. The tetanus organism is a wound contaminant that causes  neither tissue destruction nor an inflammatory response. The tetnospasm bacteria is a exotoxin. 
  • 5. Mode of Transmition Tetanus can be found in soil.  The disease is transmitted when said soil gets into a open  cut or wound. It is found around the world but is most common in areas  with warmer climates.
  • 6. Symptoms Sometimes lockjaw is the first symptom.  People often experience different first symptoms.   One of said symptoms is “Lockjaw”, the involuntary clenching of the jaw muscles.  Others begin with a headache and irritability. The later symptoms include muscle stiffness and muscle  spasms. A high fever is common.  Involuntary contradictions of the facial muscles create an  eerie smile. Contradictions of the trunk muscles bend a person into a “U”  shape, having only their head and feet touch the ground. Seizures, loss of bowel and bladder control are often  common. Sadly the person remains conscious throughout this ordeal  and is in extreme pain.
  • 7. Prevention The most common and easiest way to avoid getting tetanus  is to receive the tetanus vaccine. The vaccine is part of the regular childhood immunization  series. Thorough wound cleansing is also very important. 
  • 8. Treatment Most people are paralyzed and put on a medical ventilator.  Muscle relaxants and anti-seizure medicine is also very  important. Treating the wound also means removing the bacteria.   This usually means giving TIG (Tetanus immune globulin), anti-biotics and then surgically removing an area of tissue around the wound.
  • 9. Bibliography Greene, A. (2007). Alan Greene Content: Tetanus. Retrieved  March, 31, 2009, from http://www.drgreene.com/21_1204.html Tolan, R. (2009). Tetanus. Retrieved March, 31, 2009, from  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/972901-overview Internet, T. (2009). The Internet Wiki Guide to Tetanus.  Retrieved March, 31, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetanus