Focus on the learner
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Facilitating Learning, Module 2.

Facilitating Learning, Module 2.

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Focus on the learner Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Theories Related to the Learner’s Development
  • 2. “The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk water.” - Sigmund Freud
  • 3. Three Components of Personality 0 Id- pleasure-centered 0 Ego- reality-centered 0 Superego- related to ego ideal or conscience
  • 4. Three Components of Personality -Freud0 The Id Contains life instincts (sex, hunger, thirst, etc.) and death instincts (aggressive, destructive tendencies). Libido: sexual energy that fuels the entire personality; needed for everyday life. Pleasure Principle: seeks immediate gratification of impulses regardless of consequences. Pleasure = reduction in tension. Tension increases if we don’t release energy from impulses.
  • 5. Three Components of Personality -Freud0 The Ego Logical, rational. Executive of personality: determines where, when, and how impulses are expressed. Goal: to satisfy the id in ways that are socially and morally acceptable. This requires use of the... Reality Principle: tendency to delay gratification of impulses until they can be expressed in socially and morally acceptable ways.
  • 6. Three Components of Personality -Freud0 The Superego Contains moral values; not rational; doesn’t care about consequences (like id). Consists of two parts: Conscience: memories of behaviors that have been punished; if we repeat these actions, we feel guilty. Ego Ideal: memories of behaviors for which we have been praised or rewarded; repeating them gives us feelings of pride.
  • 7. Three Components of Personality -Freud
  • 8. Five Psychosexual Stages of Development 0 Oral 0 Anal 0 Phallic 0 Latency 0 Genital
  • 9. Five Psychosexual Stages of Development - Freud 0 Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior.
  • 10. Five Psychosexual Stages of Development - Freud If the stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain "stuck" in this stage. For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating.
  • 11. -where pleasure is centered 0 Oral Stage (0-18months) -this is when infants will be found putting anything into their mouth including their thumbs. Five Psychosexual Stages of Development - Freud
  • 12. -which occurs in the second year of life. During this stage, the anus becomes the focus of sexual grafication. 0Anal Stage (18-36 months) -This occurs because the child finds sexual pleasure in the sensations that come with having or withholding bowel movements. Five Psychosexual Stages of Development - Freud
  • 13. -stage where the child learns that there is a difference between males and females. Phallic Stage (3-6 years) -Oedipus Complex occurs during the phallic stage and is a conflict in which the boy wishes to possess his mother sexually and perceives his father to be a rival in love Five Psychosexual Stages of Development - Freud
  • 14. Five Psychosexual Stages of Development - Freud 0 According to Freud, the child must give up his sexual attraction for his mother in order to resolve this attraction and move to the next stage of psychosexual development. Failure to do so would lead the child to become fixated in this stage. 0Typically the Oedipus Complex refers to a boy wanting to possess his mother, while the Electra Complex refers to a girl wishing to possess her father.
  • 15. - a child's sexual impulses are repressed. Latency Stage (6 years to puberty) - The reason for this is that during the stage before latency (phallic stage) the child resolves the Oedipus or Electra Complex which are such traumatic events that the child then repress all of his or her sexual impulses. Five Psychosexual Stages of Development - Freud
  • 16. -now focused on opposite sex people of similar age. Genital Stage (puberty on) - the teenager has overcome latency, made associations with one gender or the other, and now seeks out pleasure through sexual contact with others. Five Psychosexual Stages of Development - Freud
  • 17. “Healthy Children will not fear life if their elders have Integrity enough not to fear death” -Erik Erikson
  • 18. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Developmental tasks: -Any skill that must be mastered, or personal change that must take place, for optimal development (e.g., learning to read and adjusting to sexual maturity) 0 Psychosocial dilemma: -Conflict between personal impulses and the social world
  • 19. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage One: Trust versus Mistrust (Birth–1) -Children are completely dependent on others. Trust: Established when babies given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care Mistrust: Caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents
  • 20. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage Two: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (1–3) Autonomy: Doing things for themselves Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause children to doubt abilities and feel shameful about their actions
  • 21. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage Three: Initiative versus Guilt (3–5) Initiative: Parents reinforce via giving children freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions Guilt: May occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or discourage a child’s questions
  • 22. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage Four: Industry versus Inferiority (6–12) Industry: Occurs when child is praised for productive activities, such as painting and building. Inferiority: Occurs if child’s efforts are regarded as messy or inadequate
  • 23. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage Five (Adolescence): Identity versus Role Confusion Identity: For adolescents; problems answering, “Who am I?” Role Confusion: Occurs when adolescents are unsure of where they are going and who they are
  • 24. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage Six (Young Adulthood): Intimacy versus Isolation. Intimacy: Ability to care about others and to share experiences with them. Isolation: Feeling alone and uncared for in life.
  • 25. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage Seven (Middle Adulthood): Generativity versus Stagnation Generativity: Interest in guiding the next generation. Stagnation: When one is only concerned with one’s own needs and comforts.
  • 26. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage Eight (Late Adulthood): Integrity versus Despair Integrity: Self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly. Despair: Occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret; experiences heartache and remorse Trait Theories Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior.
  • 27. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0 Stage Eight (Late Adulthood): Integrity versus Despair Integrity: Self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly. Despair: Occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret; experiences heartache and remorse Trait Theories Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior.
  • 28. “ The Principal goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done.” - Jean Piaget
  • 29. Jean Piaget Stages of Development
  • 30. “Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been critically examined and agreedupon by the whole society.” - Kohlberg
  • 31. “The teacher must orient his work not on yesterday’s development in the child but on tomorrow’s.” - Vgotsky
  • 32. Urie Bronfenner
  • 33. Ecological Systems Theory
  • 34. Four layers of relationships that influence a child’s development Microsystem: Relationships with direct contact to the child Mesosystem: Connection between relationships of child’s microsystem Exosystem: Structures in which child the child does not have direct contact Macrosystem: Cultural context
  • 35. Four layers of relationships that influence a child’s development Microsystem Microsystem: Variables that the child is directly exposed to. Relationships: Family, school, religious institution, neighbors. Family: Most influential and durable influence on child Environment: Geographic, Material structures
  • 36. Four layers of relationships that influence a child’s development Microsystem Most of the child’s behavior is learned in the microsystem. The microsystem consists of bi-directional influences Parents actively shape the development of the child Children actively shape their environment Personal attributes influence responses from other people. Children actively select and avoid specific environments Bi-directional relationships are the foundation for a child’s cognitive and emotional growth
  • 37. Four layers of relationships that influence a child’s development Mesosystem Mesosystem: Interconnections between the microsystems. Examples: Interactions between the family and teachers Relationship between the child’s peers and the family
  • 38. Four layers of relationships that influence a child’s development Exosystem Exosystem: Institutions of society that indirectly affect a child’s development. Examples: -Parent’s workplace -Funding for education -Impacts a child’s development by influencing structures in the microsystem
  • 39. Four layers of relationships that influence a child’s development Macrosystem Macrosystem: Cultural context Provides the values, beliefs, customs, and laws of the culture in which a child grows up Influences how parents, teachers, and others raise a child. May be conscious or unconscious Influences the societal values, legislation, and financial resources provided by a society to help families function
  • 40. Four layers of relationships that influence a child’s development Macrosystem Macrosystem: Cultural context Provides the values, beliefs, customs, and laws of the culture in which a child grows up Influences how parents, teachers, and others raise a child. May be conscious or unconscious Influences the societal values, legislation, and financial resources provided by a society to help families function
  • 41. Thank u!