DNA is a nucleic acid that stands for deoxyribonucleic acid Everyone have similar DNA structures, but how does the bases pair in each individual is what is with different. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is found in all living organisms cells but the other nucleic acid namely the ribonucleic acid (RNA) is only found in plants cells. The building blocks of DNA are called nucleotides and they are: 1. Deoxyribose ( i.e. the sugar of DNA) 2. Phosphate group 3. Nitrogenous base The nitrogenous bases are four in DNA namely cytosine, thymine, adenine and guanine.
Cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine. These nitrogenous bases bond together using a hydrogen bond which is very weak and be broken easily. These hydrogen bonds can be easily be broken during the processes such protein synthesis and DNA replication. Protein synthesis is a process whereby proteins are made in the ribosomes that are found in and out of the cells. DNA replication is where by the DNA present make copies of themselves. The enzymes that can break the hydrogen bonds of DNA are helicase and RNA polymerase.
A method used to identify the DNA sequence of the human being or animals. As each human have a unique DNA sequence except identical twins. Identical twins or monozygotic twins are those twins which were conceived from the same cell and egg cell. In identical twins its either two boys or two girls. Then there are fraternal twins or dizygotic twins, which are twins that developed from two different egg cells and sperm cells. In fraternal twins there maybe a girl and a boy.
PATERNITY OF A CHILDWhen there is a dispute about who is the father ofa child DNA fingerprinting can be used to checkwho have a DNA which is closer to the child’s DNA. INDIVIDUAL IDENTIFICATIONThe most major use of the DNA fingerprinting isthe personal identification. DNA finger printingcarefully and accurately recognises the DNA of aperson than any other method that can be found.Personal identification has been used in manyfields, namely crime investigation and forensics.Whereby you will find that police are not able tofind rape criminals.
DISCOVERING GENITIC DISORDERSAs the DNA fingerprinting is involved in theanalysis of human genetics in some way or theother, many times the inherited geneticdisorders are uncovered. The person, whoseDNA is being analysed, will then be able topredict whether his or her offspring orgrandchildren will have the same diseases hehad. The person being examined will alsoknow some of the reasons for the diseases inhis family.
Mapping GenographyMapping genography is just like mappinggeography. What is done here is that thepattern of migration is observed, because asthe people from the accent times were movingfrom place to place some of them the wereleft in certain areas. And this people they werepassing down their genes from one generationto the next.