VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology xx (2008) 0-0                         Common Infrastructure for   ...
2            Wuwongse et al. / VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology xx (2008) 0-0creation of electronic...
Tên tác gi / T p chí Khoa h c   HQGHN, Khoa h c T Nhiên và Công ngh t p (n m) s trang         1                           ...
2             Wuwongse et al. / VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology xx (2008) 0-0and experiences captu...
Tên tác gi / T p chí Khoa h c   HQGHN, Khoa h c T Nhiên và Công ngh t p (n m) s trang                3management systems a...
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Common Infrastructure for Knowledge and Information Management

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Authors: Wuwongse, Vilas; Vacharasintopchai, Thiti; and
Intaraksa, Neelawat

Issue Date: 12-Dec-2008

Type: Article

Series/Report no.: Proc. 2nd Hanoi Forum on Information-Communication Technology (ICT-Hanoi 2008);

Abstract: Information and Communication Technology has advanced at an unprecedented rate nowadays, resulting in a mass of electronic contents being produced and disseminated at an exponential rate. In general, such contents are not systematically organized, making them inaccessible when they are most needed. A software infrastructure to commonly support the management of knowledge and information on the Internet and an intranet is proposed. It can be used to capture, preserve and manage the information and knowledge so that they stay intact and do not vanish with time. It allows pieces of knowledge in repositories to be located and shared effectively across boundaries. Contents from repositories can be readily utilized and published. Opinions and discussions about contents can also be captured and archived for later reference. Once adopted and deployed in large-scale, the Common Infrastructure for Knowledge and Information Management will play a crucial role in creating a universal source of knowledge for humanity.

URI: http://dspace.siu.ac.th/handle/1532/129

Published in: Technology, Education
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Transcript of "Common Infrastructure for Knowledge and Information Management"

  1. 1. VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology xx (2008) 0-0 Common Infrastructure for Knowledge and Information Management Vilas Wuwongse1*, Thiti Vacharasintopchai2, Neelawat Intaraksa3 1 Professor, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4 Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 Thailand 2 Lecturer, School of Technology, Shinawatra University, 99 Moo 10 Bangtoey, Samkhok, Pathumthani 12160 Thailand 3 Research Associate, The Greater Mekong Subregion Academic and Research Network, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4 Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 Thailand Received ... Abstract. Information and Communication Technology has advanced at an unprecedented rate nowadays, resulting in a mass of electronic contents being produced and disseminated at an exponential rate. In general, such contents are not systematically organized, making them inaccessible when they are most needed. A software infrastructure to commonly support the management of knowledge and information on the Internet and an intranet is proposed. It can be used to capture, preserve and manage the information and knowledge so that they stay intact and do not vanish with time. It allows pieces of knowledge in repositories to be located and shared effectively across boundaries. Contents from repositories can be readily utilized and published. Opinions and discussions about contents can also be captured and archived for later reference. Once adopted and deployed in large-scale, the Common Infrastructure for Knowledge and Information Management will play a crucial role in creating a universal source of knowledge for humanity. Keywords: knowledge management, information retrieval, software interoperability, digital library1. Introduction computing and communication devices; yet a constant decline in their price tags. Personal Information and Communication computers and accesses to the Internet haveTechnology (ICT) has advanced at an penetrated into most households, schools andunprecedented rate nowadays. We have offices—from within capital cities to remotewitnessed constant growth in performance of rural towns. Computers and mobile phones come equipped with video and audio recording_______ Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 2524-5700 capabilities, like those found in ubiquitous E-mail: vilasw@ait.ac.th digital cameras and camcorders, making the 1
  2. 2. 2 Wuwongse et al. / VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology xx (2008) 0-0creation of electronic multimedia contents more unreliable because original creators cannot beaffordable and more convenient than ever. This identified and trusted. The lack of standardease of access to ICT tools results in a mass of interoperability protocol makes cross-systemelectronic contents being produced and searches without a global search engine likedisseminated at an exponential rate. The Google infeasible, resulting in users beingcontents are typically stored on personal hard unaware of critical knowledge pieces thatdrives and shared on the Internet as e-mails, already exist at the time they most needed. Thestatic web pages or as user-contributed contents metadata problem can be alleviated byusing Web 2.0 technologies—forums, weblogs, information service providers adoptingwikis, content management systems (CMS) and international metadata standards and cataloginglearning management systems (LMS). In their contents accordingly. Technologies andgeneral, they are not systematically organized tools on ontology and natural languageor if so are merely by folder hierarchies. processing are available to help so that contentsInformation are located and discovered through are more properly clustered and cataloged asoperating system search features, website well as queries being more aligned and matchedsearch sections, or Internet search engines like with indexes. The preservation problem can beGoogle. There are at times when users cannot alleviated by organizations adopting digitalfind information most needed, or be presented library technologies, which enable effectivewith piles of duplicated, irrelevant information archiving and preserving of digital contents sowhich demand manual examination— that they stay intact with time. The systemsometimes only to find that they are damaged interoperability problem can be alleviated byand can partially be recovered. It is not information service providers adopting openuncommon that pieces of knowledge are not standards which allow information inshared within communities or organizations repositories to be exchanged freely amongbecause of the two extremes—people do not participating organizations by means ofknow that they exist or there are just too many metadata. Such standards include theof them. Search/Retrieval via URL (SRU) protocol [1] sanctioned by the United States Library of Congress for peer-to-peer queries of content2. How Problems Can Be Alleviated metadata in repositories. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting [2] The problems described earlier can be and the RSS web syndication [3] can be used tocategorized into three groups, namely, the harvest and build up directories of metadataproblem on metadata control and indexing, the from information sources. The adoptions ofproblem on digital content preservation, and the these open standards will widen the range ofproblem on system interoperability. The lack of information sources accessible to users from themetadata control and indexing in mainstream consumer point of view, and increase theinformation systems makes users unable to effectiveness of new contents being delivered tolocate and retrieve particular information potential target groups from the provider pointprecisely in time, or be presented with piles of of view.irrelevant information. The lack of contentpreservation makes some retrieved contentsinaccessible because of file damages or
  3. 3. Tên tác gi / T p chí Khoa h c HQGHN, Khoa h c T Nhiên và Công ngh t p (n m) s trang 1 Fig 1. System Architecture of Common Infrastructure for Knowledge and Information Management. and opinions as digital contents; the Data3. A Common Infrastructure for Knowledge Center layer that systematically collects,and Information Management catalogs, and preserves the digital contents so that they stay intact and are ready for random A system architecture which unifies the retrieval on demand; and the Data Utilizationindividual solutions described previously into layer that enables intelligent and effectivean infrastructure for the management of searches for pieces of knowledge in data centersinformation and knowledge on the Internet and such that they can be quickly posted onan intranet is proposed in Figure 1. It is websites. Content management systems andconsisted of four layers, namely, the Network learning management systems allow generaland Internet layer, the System Software layer, users without programming skills to publishthe Data Exchange and Metadata layer, and the contents online conveniently. Querying to dataApplication layer. centers loaded with useful pieces of knowledge The Network and Internet layer is the basic is analogous to inquiring some human-filteredinfrastructure for information exchanges search engines.between information services. Such an The Data Exchange and Metadata layerinfrastructure is provided by Internet service comprises the standards and software servicesproviders and is commonly taken for granted in that facilitate the exchange of knowledge piecessoftware development. between information systems. These include the The System Software layer is responsible SRU, the OAI-PMH and the RSS protocolsfor the creation, storage and utilization of introduced earlier as well as the systemknowledge. It is composed of three sub-layers software components that handle informationwhich are the Knowledge Creation and exchanges based on such protocols.Capturing layer that records personal The Application layer involves the humanlyknowledge, experiences as well as information processes that utilize individuals’ knowledge
  4. 4. 2 Wuwongse et al. / VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology xx (2008) 0-0and experiences captured, shared and application, under the title “The Knowledge,discovered across information systems to Imagination, Discovery and Sharing (KIDS-D)perform tasks in various disciplines, which Project,” in which networks of digital librariescould range from education, preservation of are created to archive and exchange usefulcultural heritages, planning and development to learning materials among teachers and studentsagricultural and environmental activities. at pilot schools and institutes across Thailand. Rare historical books from the National Archive have also been digitized and preserved4. Prototype System in the digital libraries. Such contents as well as discussions with fellow students and teachers The components for the proposed on them are hoped to alleviate the academicinfrastructure are being developed at the Asian resource deficiency problem in Thailand. ItInstitute of Technology based on open-source should be noted that, unlike other softwaresoftware tools. Core components in the Data infrastructures in which components are tightlyCenter, Data Utilization as well as Data coupled and deployed, our implementation ofExchange and Metadata layers have been the Common Infrastructure are loosely coupled,implemented. Components for the Knowledge meaning that software components interoperateCreation and Capturing layer are being through open standards and protocols and candesigned. The DSpace [4] and Greenstone [5] be readily replaced by alternative componentsdigital library servers are chosen as the engines that are standard-compliant. Therefore, thefor the collection and preservation of digital implementation of the Common Infrastructurecontents into knowledge repositories. The for Knowledge and Information Management isMoodle [6] learning management system and also highly flexible and scalable in this regard.the Drupal [7] content management system arechosen as the platforms to utilize knowledge inrepositories for academic and non-academic 5. Conclusionpurposes, respectively. A metadata harvesterhas been developed to aggregate metadata from This paper has presented a softwarevarious information sources into a central infrastructure to commonly support thedirectory. The metadata harvested include those management of knowledge and information onfrom digital libraries and library management the Internet and an intranet. The infrastructuresystems, through the OAI-PMH protocol as can be used to capture, preserve and manage thewell as those from Web 2.0 sites, through RSS information and knowledge that belong toweb syndications. A “single search” engine has communities and organizations so that they staybeen developed to assist users in exploring such intact and do not vanish with time. It allowsdirectory. Contents can be retrieved by pieces of knowledge in repositories to bekeywords in metadata fields and can be located and shared effectively acrossbrowsed and explored by facets of metadata. boundaries within an organization or betweenThe SRU support for peer-to-peer metadata organizations and nations through openqueries has been added to the original DSpace standards, without necessitating for acode and is being incorporated into the homogeneous software suite. Contents fromsingle-search facility. An offspring of this repositories can be quickly utilized andimplementation was applied in an e-learning published with the assistance of learning
  5. 5. Tên tác gi / T p chí Khoa h c HQGHN, Khoa h c T Nhiên và Công ngh t p (n m) s trang 3management systems and content management Referencessystems. Opinions and discussions aboutcontents can also be captured and archived back [1] The Library of Congress, Search/Retrieval viainto the repositories for later reference. Once URL, June 2008. Available online: http://www.loc.gov/standards/sruadopted and deployed in large-scale, the [2] The Open Archives Initiative, Open ArchivesCommon Infrastructure for Knowledge and Initiative - Protocol for Metadata Harvesting,Information Management will play a crucial October 2004. Available online:role in creating a universal source of knowledge http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/openarchivesfor humanity. protocol.html [3] RSS Advisory Board, RSS 2.0 Specification, 2006. Available online:Acknowledgements http://www.rssboard.org/rss-specification [4] DSpace, DSpace – An Open-source Solution for Accessing, Managing and Preserving The authors would like to thank the Royal Scholarly Works, 2008. Available online:Thai Government for their financial support http://www.dspace.orgthrough the Greater Mekong Subregion [5] Greenstone, Greenstone Digital LibraryAcademic and Research Network Knowledge Software, 2008. Available online:Management Toolkit and Applications project. http://www.greenstone.orgThey would also like to thank countless friends [6] Moodle, Moodle – A Free Open Sourceand colleagues whose constructive comments Course Management System for Onlinehave contributed to this research. The Learning, 2008. Available online: http://moodle.orgdevelopers of the free and open source software [7] Drupal, Drupal – An Open Source Contenttools used are thankfully acknowledged for Management System Platform, 2008. Availabletheir devoted time and contributions. online: http://drupal.org

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