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Will mHealth Be Accepted in India?  Results of a Pan-India Survey
 

Will mHealth Be Accepted in India? Results of a Pan-India Survey

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    Will mHealth Be Accepted in India?  Results of a Pan-India Survey Will mHealth Be Accepted in India? Results of a Pan-India Survey Presentation Transcript

    • Will mHealth Be Accepted in India? Results of a Pan-India Survey Dr. Arun Rai Regents’ Professor & Harkins Chair Center for Process Innovation & CIS Department Robinson College of Business Georgia State University, Atlanta, U.S.A. arunrai@gsu.edu Web site: arunrai.us 4th International Conference on Transforming Healthcare with IT 6th – 7th Sep. 2013 Hyderabad, India Dr. K. Ganapathy President, Apollo Telemedicine Networking Foundation Chennai, India drganapathy@apollohospitals.com Web site: www.kganapathy.com Liwei Chen & Jessica Pye Doctoral Students Center for Process Innovation Robinson College of Business Georgia State University, Atlanta, U.S.A. liwei.chen@eci.gsu.edu & jessica.pye@eci.gsu.edu
    • Study Motivation Amritya Sen Nobel Laureate, Economics, 1998 Bharat Ratna, 1999 Quality of life is linked to citizens’ capability to use resources to function effectively Realizing the transformative potential of mHealth in India hinges on acceptance & use “Basic” (mobile) internet access needs to be a human right given its pivotal role to effective living Marc Zuckerberg CEO, Facebook
    • Study Objectives 1. Willingness? 2. Awareness? 4. Disparities? 3. Use? 5. IMPLICATIONS?  Designing Solutions  Building Awareness  Promoting Use
    • Procedures  Questionnaire developed by ATNF and GSU  Pilot testing and refinement  Trained volunteers from Apollo Nursing Colleges for multilingual field survey administration  Stratified sampling across demographics & location  Pan-India Survey (Oct 2012 - April 2013)  1886 valid responses
    • Sample Characteristics (I) Age 18-22 31% 23-30 30% 31-40 18% 41-50 11% 51-60 6% over 61 4% Gender Female 52% Male 48% Income/month ≤ RS 5,000 20% > RS 5,001 & ≤ RS 15,000 26% > RS 15,001 & ≤ RS 30,000 17% > RS 30,001 14% Education Below secondary school 10% Secondary School (6-12 std) 28% College Graduate 31% Master’s degree and higher 31% Location Urban 69% Rural 31%
    • Sample Characteristics (II) • Health perceptions  Healthy: 65%  Moderate/Unhealthy: 35% • Healthcare checkup  No health checkup in last year: 54%  No health checkup in last 5 years: 30% Share mobile: 57% BASIC SMART URBAN 54% 46% RURAL 78% 22%
    • Behavioral Intention to Use mHealth: Equal Enthusiasm Among Urbanites and Ruralites 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Urban Rural 14% 18% 27% 25% 55% 55%LOW LOW NEUTRAL NEUTRAL N=1271 N=573
    • 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Urban Rural 28% 51% 44% 31% 28% 17% mHealth Awareness & Use: The Urban-Rural Divide N=1271 N=573 USERS USERS UNAWARE UNAWARE AWARE AWARE
    • #2.CONVERSION #3. AWARENESS 5% 22%7% 24% 94% 94% 84% 52% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Urban Rural Urban Rural Phone calls Text messagesMissing Data Not Aware Aware Non-User User Awareness and Use: The (Three) SMS Urban-Rural Divides #1. USE
    • #2. AWARENESS #4.AWARENESS 24% 53% 21% 53% 28% 25% 21% 24% 42% 17% 51% 19% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Urban Rural Urban Rural Emails Internet Missing Data Not Aware Aware Non-User User Awareness and Use: The (Four) Urban-Rural “Internet Mobility” Divides #3. USE#1. USE
    • Leading Disparities of URBAN Relative to RURAL Education (>= College) 2 : 1 Individual income (> 15 K) 3 : 1 SMS use 1.6 : 1 Smart device ownership 2.1 : 1 Mobile internet use 2.7 : 1 Health checkup at least in last 5 years 1.07 : 1 Proximity to primary care (<3km) 1.02 : 1 Proximity to specialized care (<10km) 1.13 : 1 Socio- economic Mobile Access & Utilization Healthcare Access & Utilization
    • Leading Disparities of AWARE Relative to UNAWARE Education (>=College) 1.5 : 1 Individual income (>15K) 1.85 : 1 SMS Use 1.45 : 1 Smart device ownership 1.98 : 1 Mobile internet use 1.41 : 1 Health checkup in last one year 1.07 : 1 Proximity – primary care (<3km) 1.1 : 1 Proximity-specialized care (<10 km) 1.19 : 1 Socio- economic Mobile Access & Utilization Healthcare Access & Utilization
    • Leading Disparities of USERS Relative to AWARE Education (>= College) 1.25 : 1 Individual income 1:13 : 1 SMS use 1.04 : 1 Smart device ownership 1.25 : 1 Mobile internet use 1.52 : 1 Health checkup in last one year 1.14 : 1 Proximity – primary care (< 3km)* 0.95 : 1 Proximity-specialized care (<10 km)* 0.93 : 1 Socio- economic Mobile Access & Utilization Healthcare Access & Utilization
    • IMPLICATIONS?  Designing Solutions  Building Awareness  Promoting Use
    • Designing Solutions & Building Awareness: Key Segmentation Criteria 3. Preventive Disposition to Health? 2. 1. Advantaged OR Disadvantaged?
    • Promoting mHealth Use: Key Levers Across Segments 1. SELF-EFFICACY 2. ELECTRONIC MEDIUM FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES IN3.
    • Willingness:  Uniformly high across urbanites & ruralites Build Awareness: Tailor strategies to segments—advantaged vs. disadvantaged; male vs. female; prevention Disparities:  Socio-economic  Basic/Internet Mobility  Healthcare access/utilization Develop Use: Promote Trust, Self-efficacy & Empowerment
    • 4th International Conference on Transforming Healthcare with IT 6th – 7th Sept. 2013 Hyderabad, India Acknowledgements • Apollo Hospitals Educational & Research Foundation, India • Principal, Apollo Institute of Nursing, Gandhi Nagar, Gujarat, India • Principal, Apollo College of Nursing, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India • Principal, Apollo College of Nursing, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India • Principal, Apollo College of Nursing, Aragonda, Andhra Pradesh, India • Principal, Apollo College of Nursing, Bilaspur, Chattisgarh, India • Principal, Madurai Apollo College of Nursing, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India • Principal, Apollo School of Nursing, New Delhi, India • Principal, Apollo Gleneagles Nursing College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India • Ms. Geethanjali, Project Coordinator, ATNF, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India • Staff of Apollo Telemedicine Networking Foundation, Chennai, India
    • 4th International Conference on Transforming Healthcare with IT 6th – 7th Sept. 2013 Hyderabad, India Dr. Arun Rai arunrai@gsu.edu Web site: arunrai.us Dr. K. Ganapathy drganapathy@apollohospitals.com Web site: kganapathy.com Comments and reactions welcome! Will m-Health Be Accepted in India? Results of a Pan-India Health Survey