0
Phil 5

Critical Thinking in Writing
Philosophy

in Three Thinkers
Philosophy
Thales, 620 — 546 BCE
How do you know?
mythos/logos
Philosophy

Anaximander, 610—546 BCE
What is real?
the Boundless
Philosophy

Heraclitus, 500 BCE
How to live?
All are bound by one law
Philosophy
Epistemology How do you know?
What is real?
How to live?
Philosophy
Epistemology How do you know?
Metaphysics

What is real?
How to live?
Philosophy
Epistemology How do you know?
Metaphysics
Ethics

What is real?
How to live?
Philosophy: the attempt to
answer, critically, the
epistemological,
metaphysical, and ethical
questions.
Philosophy: the attempt to
answer, critically, the
epistemological,
metaphysical, and ethical
questions.
Critical Thinking

Charity
Reason
Questions
Truth

Charity
Reason
Questions
Consistency
Truth

Charity
Reason
Questions
Validity, Soundness
Consistency
Truth

Charity
Reason
Questions
Critical Thinking

Two Basic Principles
Critical Thinking

Principle
of
Charity
Principle of Charity: for
any claim, give it the
strongest possible
interpretation.
Critical Thinking

Principle
of
Sufficient Reason
Principle of Sufficient
Reason: for or any claim,
give reason why it is true,
or not.
Critical Thinking

A Method of Questioning
Controlling the Question
Is drinking milk healthy for humans?
What are the healthiest drinks for humans?
What Constitution...
Controlling the Question
Open Questions

What are the healthiest
drinks for humans?
What Constitutional
rights should we k...
Open Questions

Are Topic or Theme Questions

What are the healthiest
drinks for humans?
What Constitutional
rights should...
Yes-or-no Questions
Are Issue Questions

Is drinking milk
healthy for humans?
Has the Constitutional
right to bear arms
ou...
An Issue Question: is a
yes-or-no question, and is
the way to formulate
questions for the disputed
question method (quaest...
The Disputed Question Method
yes:

Reasons supporting
the yes answer or
refuting the no answer.
Which side
has the better
...
The Disputed Question Method
yes:

Reasons supporting
the yes answer or
refuting the no answer.

Is drinking
milk
healthy?...
The Disputed Question Method
yes:

Reasons supporting
the yes answer or
refuting the no answer.

Is the right
to bear arms...
The Disputed Question Method
yes:
Are singlesex schools
better for
education?

Reasons supporting
the yes answer or
refuti...
A virtue is an excellence, a
mean between two extremes
called vices.
Virtues
Extreme
Mean
Extreme
Virtues
vice
Virtue
vice
Virtues
vice?
Courage
cowardice
Virtues
foolhardy
Courage
cowardice
Virtues
vice?
Fair Minded
vice?
Virtues
gullible
Fair Minded
prejudiced
Virtues
vice?
Inquisitive
vice?
Virtues
obsessed
Inquisitive
indifferent
Virtues
vice?
Careful
vice?
Virtues
pedantic
Careful
careless
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Critical Thinking 01 Intro

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An introduction to critical thinking from a philosophical perspective. Includes some general principles and virtues.

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Technology
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Transcript of "Critical Thinking 01 Intro"

  1. 1. Phil 5 Critical Thinking in Writing
  2. 2. Philosophy in Three Thinkers
  3. 3. Philosophy Thales, 620 — 546 BCE How do you know? mythos/logos
  4. 4. Philosophy Anaximander, 610—546 BCE What is real? the Boundless
  5. 5. Philosophy Heraclitus, 500 BCE How to live? All are bound by one law
  6. 6. Philosophy Epistemology How do you know? What is real? How to live?
  7. 7. Philosophy Epistemology How do you know? Metaphysics What is real? How to live?
  8. 8. Philosophy Epistemology How do you know? Metaphysics Ethics What is real? How to live?
  9. 9. Philosophy: the attempt to answer, critically, the epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical questions.
  10. 10. Philosophy: the attempt to answer, critically, the epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical questions.
  11. 11. Critical Thinking Charity Reason Questions
  12. 12. Truth Charity Reason Questions
  13. 13. Consistency Truth Charity Reason Questions
  14. 14. Validity, Soundness Consistency Truth Charity Reason Questions
  15. 15. Critical Thinking Two Basic Principles
  16. 16. Critical Thinking Principle of Charity
  17. 17. Principle of Charity: for any claim, give it the strongest possible interpretation.
  18. 18. Critical Thinking Principle of Sufficient Reason
  19. 19. Principle of Sufficient Reason: for or any claim, give reason why it is true, or not.
  20. 20. Critical Thinking A Method of Questioning
  21. 21. Controlling the Question Is drinking milk healthy for humans? What are the healthiest drinks for humans? What Constitutional rights should we keep? Has the Constitutional right to bear arms outlived its usefulness? Are single-sex schools better for education? What is the best method of education?
  22. 22. Controlling the Question Open Questions What are the healthiest drinks for humans? What Constitutional rights should we keep? What is the best method of education? Yes-or-no Questions Is drinking milk healthy for humans? Has the Constitutional right to bear arms outlived its usefulness? Are single-sex schools better for education?
  23. 23. Open Questions Are Topic or Theme Questions What are the healthiest drinks for humans? What Constitutional rights should we keep? What is the best method of education?
  24. 24. Yes-or-no Questions Are Issue Questions Is drinking milk healthy for humans? Has the Constitutional right to bear arms outlived its usefulness? Are single-sex schools better for education?
  25. 25. An Issue Question: is a yes-or-no question, and is the way to formulate questions for the disputed question method (quaestio disputata).
  26. 26. The Disputed Question Method yes: Reasons supporting the yes answer or refuting the no answer. Which side has the better reasons? the question no: Reasons supporting the no answer or refuting the yes answer.
  27. 27. The Disputed Question Method yes: Reasons supporting the yes answer or refuting the no answer. Is drinking milk healthy? Which side has the better reasons? no: Reasons supporting the no answer or refuting the yes answer.
  28. 28. The Disputed Question Method yes: Reasons supporting the yes answer or refuting the no answer. Is the right to bear arms still useful? Which side has the better reasons? no: Reasons supporting the no answer or refuting the yes answer.
  29. 29. The Disputed Question Method yes: Are singlesex schools better for education? Reasons supporting the yes answer or refuting the no answer. Which side has the better reasons? no: Reasons supporting the no answer or refuting the yes answer.
  30. 30. A virtue is an excellence, a mean between two extremes called vices.
  31. 31. Virtues Extreme Mean Extreme
  32. 32. Virtues vice Virtue vice
  33. 33. Virtues vice? Courage cowardice
  34. 34. Virtues foolhardy Courage cowardice
  35. 35. Virtues vice? Fair Minded vice?
  36. 36. Virtues gullible Fair Minded prejudiced
  37. 37. Virtues vice? Inquisitive vice?
  38. 38. Virtues obsessed Inquisitive indifferent
  39. 39. Virtues vice? Careful vice?
  40. 40. Virtues pedantic Careful careless
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