Critical Thinking 01 Intro

  • 229 views
Uploaded on

An introduction to critical thinking from a philosophical perspective. Includes some general principles and virtues.

An introduction to critical thinking from a philosophical perspective. Includes some general principles and virtues.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
229
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Phil 5 Critical Thinking in Writing
  • 2. Philosophy in Three Thinkers
  • 3. Philosophy Thales, 620 — 546 BCE How do you know? mythos/logos
  • 4. Philosophy Anaximander, 610—546 BCE What is real? the Boundless
  • 5. Philosophy Heraclitus, 500 BCE How to live? All are bound by one law
  • 6. Philosophy Epistemology How do you know? What is real? How to live?
  • 7. Philosophy Epistemology How do you know? Metaphysics What is real? How to live?
  • 8. Philosophy Epistemology How do you know? Metaphysics Ethics What is real? How to live?
  • 9. Philosophy: the attempt to answer, critically, the epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical questions.
  • 10. Philosophy: the attempt to answer, critically, the epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical questions.
  • 11. Critical Thinking Charity Reason Questions
  • 12. Truth Charity Reason Questions
  • 13. Consistency Truth Charity Reason Questions
  • 14. Validity, Soundness Consistency Truth Charity Reason Questions
  • 15. Critical Thinking Two Basic Principles
  • 16. Critical Thinking Principle of Charity
  • 17. Principle of Charity: for any claim, give it the strongest possible interpretation.
  • 18. Critical Thinking Principle of Sufficient Reason
  • 19. Principle of Sufficient Reason: for or any claim, give reason why it is true, or not.
  • 20. Critical Thinking A Method of Questioning
  • 21. Controlling the Question Is drinking milk healthy for humans? What are the healthiest drinks for humans? What Constitutional rights should we keep? Has the Constitutional right to bear arms outlived its usefulness? Are single-sex schools better for education? What is the best method of education?
  • 22. Controlling the Question Open Questions What are the healthiest drinks for humans? What Constitutional rights should we keep? What is the best method of education? Yes-or-no Questions Is drinking milk healthy for humans? Has the Constitutional right to bear arms outlived its usefulness? Are single-sex schools better for education?
  • 23. Open Questions Are Topic or Theme Questions What are the healthiest drinks for humans? What Constitutional rights should we keep? What is the best method of education?
  • 24. Yes-or-no Questions Are Issue Questions Is drinking milk healthy for humans? Has the Constitutional right to bear arms outlived its usefulness? Are single-sex schools better for education?
  • 25. An Issue Question: is a yes-or-no question, and is the way to formulate questions for the disputed question method (quaestio disputata).
  • 26. The Disputed Question Method yes: Reasons supporting the yes answer or refuting the no answer. Which side has the better reasons? the question no: Reasons supporting the no answer or refuting the yes answer.
  • 27. The Disputed Question Method yes: Reasons supporting the yes answer or refuting the no answer. Is drinking milk healthy? Which side has the better reasons? no: Reasons supporting the no answer or refuting the yes answer.
  • 28. The Disputed Question Method yes: Reasons supporting the yes answer or refuting the no answer. Is the right to bear arms still useful? Which side has the better reasons? no: Reasons supporting the no answer or refuting the yes answer.
  • 29. The Disputed Question Method yes: Are singlesex schools better for education? Reasons supporting the yes answer or refuting the no answer. Which side has the better reasons? no: Reasons supporting the no answer or refuting the yes answer.
  • 30. A virtue is an excellence, a mean between two extremes called vices.
  • 31. Virtues Extreme Mean Extreme
  • 32. Virtues vice Virtue vice
  • 33. Virtues vice? Courage cowardice
  • 34. Virtues foolhardy Courage cowardice
  • 35. Virtues vice? Fair Minded vice?
  • 36. Virtues gullible Fair Minded prejudiced
  • 37. Virtues vice? Inquisitive vice?
  • 38. Virtues obsessed Inquisitive indifferent
  • 39. Virtues vice? Careful vice?
  • 40. Virtues pedantic Careful careless