AUTHORITARIAN Interactions Have Clear Boundaries Relationship Lacks WarmthAdult Controls Child through Fear (e.g., punishment)
PERMISSIVE Interactions Lack Boundaries Relationship Involves WarmthAdult does not typically attempt to control child
AUTHORITATIVE Interactions Have Clear BoundariesRelationship Involves WarmthAdult Controls Child through Status (e.g., authority)
UNINVOLVEDInteractions Lack BoundariesRelationship Lacks WarmthAdult typically neglects child
We can also examine...PHILOSOPHIES /ORIENTATIONS OF PARENTING
PARENTING PHILOSOPHIESTraditionalist – Emphasizes Recreating Family History and Culture in Adults Maximizing Options — Emphasizes Utilizing Resources to Improve Child’s Chances as an AdultPresent-Oriented — Emphasizes Meeting Children’s Immediate Needs
Some ways how...SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASS CAN INFLUENCE AND DISTINGUISHPARENTING PHILOSOPHIES (From Annette Lareau’s “Unequal Childhoods”, 2003)
CLASS BACKGROUNDS & PARENTING Middle/Upper-Middle Class Parents Maximize Options Foster Discussion Promote Relative Equality Control Children’s Time
CLASS BACKGROUNDS & PARENTING Working/Lower Class Parents Support Traditions Use Directives Foster Clear Boundaries Control Children’s Actions
What does parentingACTUALLY involve, though?
PARENTING: “An Ethic of Care”A parent’s work involves balancing growth while socializing children (Sara Ruddick)
Based on this “Ethic of Care,” can we find... NEW APPROACHESTO RELATING WITH CHILDREN?
DEMOCRATIC / INFLUENTIAL Present-Oriented Interactions Based on Mutual Respect and Negotiation Relationships Involve Warmth Adult Inﬂuences Child through Empathy and Communication
ANALYSIS QUESTIONS:1) What does [a person] know about children in general, and in a specific situation? 2) What do they believe about children, etc.?3) How does this knowledge belief system affect their actions/interactions with children?
(Examples with scenes fromLITTLE MISS SUNSHINE) “Having Dinner” “Breakfast On the Road”
Grounding What We Do InCHILDREN’S NEEDS
Infants Need: 1) Environmental variety 2) Predictability 3) Caretaking by adults4) Opportunities to practice motor skills (Jerome Kagan, 1984)
Preschoolers Need (in addition): 5) Opportunities to master body and object problems 6) Receive actions, gestures, and communications that afﬁrm worth (Jerome Kagan, 1984)
What Should New Models of Parenting Look Like? What Should They Include? Protection/Safety Support/Growth Socialization/Compliance Communication/Empowerment
Safety & <-> Children’sStandards Autonomy
Guiding <-> Children’sChildren Creativity
Social <-> AccountabilityAccountability to Children
Preparing <-> Predicting the Children Future?
WHY DOES ALL OF THIS MATTER?
(SEE ALSO:Ken Robinson on “Approaching an Unknown Future.“)
GRIT & RESILIENCE (See: Paul Tough’s work)
TRUST(e.g. The Marshmallow Study)
A Relevant Question...IS “OBEDIENCE” THE GOAL?
“Disobedience is not an issueif obedience is not the goal.” – Doran Quinian
Further Examples:RE-IMAGINING EDUCATION
“We like to say that the child is competent but it is not enough just to declare this. If wereally want the child to be competent, we have to change time, space, roles and rules to permit this competent child to exist.” — Carlina Rinaldi
Time, space, roles and rules
THINK ABOUT IT... What Would Your OwnParenting Book, or Recipe foran Ideal Childhood, Look Like?
ALTERNATELY...What Would Your Ideal School, or Mode of Education (Formal orInformal), Look Like for a Child?
HOMEWORK: * Your Own Parenting Book/Recipe for Childhood * Relationship Map* Finish Reading Sternheimer – Readings from Part 4 (pp. 181-197, 237-246, 266-280)