power political public policyrelations laws economic production, distribution, and consumption
cultural political/ economic adapted from jason hart
cultural political/ economicvalues, attitudes, patterns political/economic of behavior – and the forces that produce effect these have on and reproduce the children’s lives material conditions of children’s lives human relations and interactions institutions and their workings local, micro-level national/global or macro-level adapted from jason hart
Why are there low rates of enrollment andparticipation in schooling in some countries?cultural reasons structural reasons (e.g. political economic) adapted from jason hart
“We cling to a fantasy that once upon atime childhood and youth were years of carefree adventure…The notion of a long childhood, devoted to education and free from adult responsibilities, is a very recent invention, and one that became a reality for a majority of children only after World War II.” – Steven Mintz, Huck’s Raft
why do we need a political-economicfocus on children’s lives?
parents societychildren are dependent future members of society and polity parents bear economic responsibility for intervention on laborchildren’s physical needs and education issues autonomy over house funding for social and household programs depends on economic interpretations
children’s legal rights children’s workchildren as consumers
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE END OF CHILD FACTORY WORK: development of universal, compulsory educationtechnological advances in machinery unionization of labour, which led to higher wages – enough for a “breadwinner”to support a family
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE CONTINUATION OF CHILD FACTORY WORK IN THE SOUTH: lack of technological advance due to role of ‘global South’ in the globaleconomy (i.e. source of cheap labour)effect of free trade rules that prevent growth of indigenous industries in ‘global South’
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE CONTINUATION OF CHILD FACTORY WORK IN THE SOUTH:lack of social mobility for poor children who remain in school banning or constraint of trade unions acceptance of child factory work
“These experiences have the advantage also of creating in the child a sense of personal, as well as family, pride inownership, and eventually teaching him that his personality can be expressed through things.” – White House, 1931
is there such a thing as auniversal childhood?
Children of the World Industrialized Peripheral Countries Countries (United States, Europe) (Latin America, Asia) Working Class Middle Class Working Class Middle Class Peasants Industrialists Daily Reality BASIS FOR Daily Reality Emulates Universal Common UNIVERSAL Common (American)(Mis-)perceptions CHILDHOOD (Mis-)perceptions Childhood
contexts ofchildren’s daily lives family community school work media
Childhood is socially constructed asa consequence of children’s and adult’s political-economic activities across different historical periods and cultural variables – yielding a range and variety of “childhoods”, rather than a universal phenomenon.
A universal culture ofcapitalism and consumerism.
“The world seen from the point of view of the consumer is very different from the world as seen from the perspective of worker, capitalist, or people of other cultures around the world.” – Richard Robbins Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism
“who owns children?”children’s legal & political rights children’s work children as consumers “the universal childhood”