Topic 2 - Images of Childhood
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Topic 2 - Images of Childhood

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  • 1. IMAGES OFCHILDHOOD Perspectives on Children Sociology of ChildrenEastern Washington University, Children’s Studies
  • 2. How do we define ‘Childhood’?
  • 3. How do we define ‘Childhood’?What does Childhood mean?
  • 4. How do we define ‘Childhood’?What does Childhood mean? How is it constructed?
  • 5. “The thing itself [childhood] cannot be praised, only its potential.” – Cicero, 106-43 BC
  • 6. William-Adolphe Bougeureau, 1900
  • 7. "Why rob these innocentsof the joys which pass soquickly? Why fill withbitterness the fleeting earlydays of childhood, dayswhich will no more returnfor them than for you?" – Jean Rousseau, 18th c.
  • 8. “Thus parents, by humouringand cockering them whenlittle, corrupt the principlesof nature in their children,and wonder afterwards totaste the bitter waters, whenthey themselves havepoison’d the fountain.” – John Locke, 1693
  • 9. "Unless you give children allthey ask for, they arepeevish and cry, aye, andstrike their parentssometimes; and all this theyhave from nature. Yet are thyfree from guilt, neither maywe properly call themwicked ... because wantingthe free use of reason theyare exempted from all duty." – Thomas Hobbes, 1642
  • 10. From the day your baby is born, you must teach him to do without things. Children today love luxury too much. They have execrable manners, flaunt authority, have no respect for their elders. They no longer rise when their parents or teachers enterthe room. What kind of awful creatures will they be when they grow up?"
  • 11. From the day your baby is born, you must teach him to do without things. Children today love luxury too much. They have execrable manners, flaunt authority, have no respect for their elders. They no longer rise when their parents or teachers enterthe room. What kind of awful creatures will they be when they grow up?" – Socrates, 469-399 BC
  • 12. ANALYZING IMAGES
  • 13. Do imagesrepresent a culture’s values?
  • 14. Do imagesrepresent a culture’s values?
  • 15. Do imagesshape aculture’svalues?
  • 16. Do imagesshape aculture’svalues?
  • 17. Do imagesshape aculture’svalues?
  • 18. Who creates the images?
  • 19. Who creates the images?
  • 20. Who are they created for?
  • 21. How dothese imagesaffect you?
  • 22. How dothese imagesaffect you?
  • 23. Do images represent a culture’s values?Do images shape a culture’s values? Who creates the images? Who are they created for? How do these images affect you?
  • 24. Images of ChildrenThroughout History
  • 25. The ChildAs ObjectRogier van der Weyden, after 1454
  • 26. “In medieval society the idea of childhood did not exist; this is not to suggest that children were neglected, forsaken ordespised. The idea of childhood is not to be confused with affection for children; it corresponds to an awareness of the particular nature of childhood ... which distinguishes the child from the adult. Inmedieval society this awareness was lacking.
  • 27. “In medieval society the idea of childhood did not exist; this is not to suggest that children were neglected, forsaken ordespised. The idea of childhood is not to be confused with affection for children; it corresponds to an awareness of the particular nature of childhood ... which distinguishes the child from the adult. Inmedieval society this awareness was lacking. – Philippe Ariès, 1962
  • 28. The ChildAs ObjectRogier van der Weyden, after 1454
  • 29. The ChildAs ObjectEllis Island MadonnaLewis Hine, 1910
  • 30. Madonna and Child with Cherubs Andrea Mantegna, 1490
  • 31. The Child As ObjectIntegrated Within Community...
  • 32. ... or Central to the FamilyThe First Born, Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten, Dutch, 17th c.
  • 33. Post-mortem photograph F.X. Filteau, late 19th c.
  • 34. The Child As an IndividualErnesta with NurseCecilia Beaux, American, 1894
  • 35. Innocent,Ernesta with NurseCecilia Beaux, American, 1894
  • 36. vulnerable, Girl Coming through a DoorwayGeorge Washington Mark, American, 1845
  • 37. Helen Levitt, 1970s
  • 38. ...and fragile.Girl on a Sea-SawJohn G. Brown,, American, late 19th c.
  • 39. Sleeping ChildArthur Leipzig, American, 1950
  • 40. But also as active...UntitledHeinrich Heidersberger, German, 1927
  • 41. ...intelligent Two Children Reading Heinrich Kuehn, Austria, 1900
  • 42. honest, responsive, and free. Luxembourg Garden Andre Kertesz, American, 1928
  • 43. In The StreetsHelen Levitt, 1930s
  • 44. In The StreetsHelen Levitt, 1930s
  • 45. Presentedwith little status... Waterloo , Edwin H. Blackfield, American, late 19th c.
  • 46. Presented withlittle... relative status,relative to to adultsadults... Mother and Child Dorothea Lange, American, 1952
  • 47. ... and little importance... Black Boy and Great Dane, George Zimbel, Canadian, 1960
  • 48. ...in relation to society.
  • 49. The ChildAs a Learner of Adult Culture
  • 50. Imitating adults
  • 51. Modeling adults
  • 52. Emulating adults
  • 53. Socializedby adults.
  • 54. The ChildAs a Victim
  • 55. In ad campaigns“This image generated2,598 pieces of mail inabout 15 days... Of this,2414 containedcontributions.” – Mabel S. Faust, Life Letters Chief, 1961
  • 56. “Perhaps never before hasan exhibit been mountedwith such urgency.” – Charles Kuralt, on LIFE’sUnited Nations photo exhibition “Somalia’s Cry”
  • 57. In ad campaigns“Perhaps never before hasan exhibit been mountedwith such urgency.” – Charles Kuralt, on LIFE’sUnited Nations photo exhibition “Somalia’s Cry”
  • 58. and policy campaigns
  • 59. and policy campaigns
  • 60. The ChildAs a Deviant The First Cigarette D. Wilson, American, late 19th c.
  • 61. which can seemenduring... The First Cigarette D. Wilson, American, late 19th c.
  • 62. The First CigaretteD. Wilson, American, late 19th c. William Gedney, Kentucky, 1964
  • 63. Child with a Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park Diane Arbus, American, 1962
  • 64. or threatening.Child with a Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park Diane Arbus, American, 1962
  • 65. The Child as a Consumer Ginny Nyrall, Grey Villet, American, 1956
  • 66. Ginny Nyrall, Grey Villet, American, 1956
  • 67. Where Children SleepJames Mollison, English, 2010
  • 68. Images of Children are...
  • 69. Images of Children are... Produced by adults for adults,
  • 70. Images of Children are... Produced by adults for adults, Designed to elicit emotions,
  • 71. Images of Children are... Produced by adults for adults, Designed to elicit emotions, or to sell a product.
  • 72. Images of Children are... Produced by adults for adults, Designed to elicit emotions, or to sell a product. What is the message?
  • 73. Is work for childrendangerous?
  • 74. ...Or Empowering?
  • 75. Are children victims of violence?
  • 76. OrPerpetrators?
  • 77. Can Images Discriminate?
  • 78. How do they shape howwe view infants, young children...
  • 79. Teenagers andyoung people?
  • 80. What is themessage?
  • 81. Children in Cinema
  • 82. “We like to say that the child is competent but it is not enough just todeclare this. If we really want the child to be competent, we have to change time, space, roles and rules to permit this competent child to exist.” – Carlina Rinaldi, Reggio Emilia