A Different Mirror African Americans and Their Fight for Equality in the United States Civil War Era and Beyond Caitlin Scully Tara Melby Alison Fishburn Melanie Slavin Dezaray Carafano
Chapter 5 <ul><li>Son of slave father and free mother </li></ul><ul><li>Whites were true barbarians: enslaves blacks, selling & whipping slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of savagery not civilization were perceived </li></ul><ul><li>Killed or be killed was a common sentiment </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World was Walker’s plea to the world </li></ul>David Walker
Racial Borders in Free States <ul><li>Very few blacks lived in the North because Northern states had abolished slavery after American Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>They represented one percent of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced discrimination and segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked by white mobs </li></ul>
Stereotypes <ul><li>Blacks encountered a cluster of negative racial images </li></ul><ul><li>These negative images contributed to racial degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks were denounced as immature, indolent and good for nothing </li></ul><ul><li>They were also seen as criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to racial purity were an issue </li></ul>Old cartoon stereotype of a black man
Segregated Schools <ul><li>Started by fear of interracial unions </li></ul><ul><li>Committee of Education said that blacks were inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts prohibited racial discrimination in public schools </li></ul>
Blacks in the South <ul><li>Unlike in the North, blacks represented 35 percent of total population </li></ul><ul><li>Relegated to plantation work </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the enslaved labor force came in three types </li></ul><ul><li>: kindness, absolute submission, brainwashing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Crisis – blacks never became men or women; they were stuck in a childlike state </li></ul><ul><li>In 1860 only 5.5 of southern white population were slave owners </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sambos” – were slaves that seemed to be loyal and content in their position </li></ul>
Urban Slaves <ul><li> In 1860, there were 70,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in textile mills, iron furnaces, and tobacco factories </li></ul><ul><li>Working as wage-earners because of “hired out” system </li></ul>
Civil War <ul><li>“ If the North whups, you will be free as a man as I is. If the South whups, you will be slaves all your days.” p119 </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the master-slave conditions, Abram Harris (and other slaves) felt lost and sorrowful when his master died in the war </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, slave Dora Franks started praying for freedom when her master died </li></ul><ul><li>Many slaves started bolting for the Union lines </li></ul>
Martin Delany <ul><li>He was a leading black nationalist of nineteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Bitterness was sharpened when he along with another two blacks were accepted to Harvard Medical School on the condition they studied medicine in Africa after graduation </li></ul><ul><li>Had no confidence that blacks would change situation in America </li></ul><ul><li>If slavery was abolished, he believed racism would still exist </li></ul>
What did Black citizens want? <ul><li>Would rather live in own separate communities than to be among whites, because discrimination would take years to overcome </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted more education and voting rights </li></ul><ul><li>Landownership was a basis in economic power, and all realized this </li></ul>
New South <ul><li>During economic boom, blacks were drawn into the factories and mills and were an important source of industrial labor </li></ul>
<ul><li>Was raised mostly by his mother, did not experience racism as much as a child until a little girl refused to play with him because he was black. </li></ul><ul><li>Du Bois went to college, and then went on to Harvard, and graduated from Harvard in 1890, being the first African American to earn a PhD from there. </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote 22 novels, some of his most famous being The Souls of Black Folk, and The Negro . </li></ul><ul><li>He was labeled ‘The Father of Pan Africanism’ </li></ul><ul><li>Was one of the founders of the NAACP </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged blacks to strive for higher education, and to challenge white authority </li></ul><ul><li>Was investigated by the FBI because of socialist writings. </li></ul>W. E. B. Du Bois Born: February 1868 Died: August 1963
Booker T. Washington <ul><li>Was born into slavery, and then freed after the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>His mother was black, his father was white </li></ul><ul><li>He was labeled the Great Accommodator by Du Bois </li></ul><ul><li>Believed education was the path to acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Became the first leader of Tuskegee Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Had three wives, the first two died, and the third outlived him </li></ul><ul><li>His autobiography is called Up From Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>First African American to be depicted on a postage stamp </li></ul>Born: April 1856 Died: November 1915
Frederick Douglass <ul><li>Is considered an abolitionist, women’s suffragist, author, orator, and statesman </li></ul><ul><li>First African American to be nominated to be Vice President </li></ul><ul><li>Born into slavery, and raised by his grandmother </li></ul><ul><li>Sophia Auld began to teach Douglass to read and write, until her husband forbade her to continue. Douglass continued to learn by observing white children and the writing of other people he knew </li></ul><ul><li>He escaped in 1838 by disguising himself, and made it to New York in less than 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>He participated at the Seneca Falls Convention </li></ul><ul><li>He married Anna Murray, and had five children with her </li></ul><ul><li>He was a US Marshal </li></ul><ul><li>First African American to receive a vote for President </li></ul>Born: February 1818 Died: February 1895
Chapter 13 <ul><li>The 20 th century was a huge turning point for people of color. During this time period, tens of thousands of southern blacks were migrating north for hope of their futures. </li></ul><ul><li>“ And black men’s feet learned roads. Some said goodbye cheerfully..others fearfully, with terrors of unknown dangers in their mouth…others in their eagerness for distance said nothing. They daybreak found them gone.” –Sharecropper’s daughter p340 </li></ul><ul><li>These blacks joined European immigrants in the Midwest and Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>In Georgia, farmers awoke to every male negro over 21 gone. </li></ul>
<ul><li>An old black women explained that although she was content and did not want to leave, she would go crazy if she stayed. Passing by old friends abandoned houses, she states “There aint even enough people here I now know to give me a decent burial.” </li></ul><ul><li>After emancipation, blacks were “pushed” to leave. Although they were “free” they were still dependent on whites and enslaved with debts. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Working hard on southern soil, someone softly spoke; Toil and toil and toil and toil, and yet I’m always broke.” –p341 </li></ul><ul><li>WW1 virtually cut off the flow European immigrants so the North recruited for labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories, mills and workshops were being opened to the blacks with much higher wages. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Job Listing: “Men wanted at once. Good steady employment for colored. Thirty and 39 ½ cents per hour. Weekly payments. Good warm sanitary quarters free…” </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks were writing home to tell their family and friends how much better life was here. The pay was way higher and they could even vote! </li></ul><ul><li>But deeper than economics was a new life style. A new generation with new ideals and appreciation for their race. </li></ul><ul><li>With each new generation, the attitude towards slavery changed. Slave customs were being cut and blacks were starting to stick up for themselves. An example is given of a man describing that slavery is all his father knew but when he was born his father let some of the customs slip. Now that he is bringing up his own son, he is letting more customs slip and the chain will continue to go as so. </li></ul>
<ul><li>However, with this new attitude the white people were starting to think of the blacks as “worthless” and they lacked the habits of “diligence, order and faithfulness” </li></ul><ul><li>In the north, other problems started to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>As blacks were responding to the labor needs during WW1, housing conflicts came into play. Although whites wanted their help, they did not want them taking over their neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>A black Union was started to help the blacks but ended up as a failure due to the lack of knowledge of what it actually meant. </li></ul><ul><li>White and black gangs started a lot of trouble with each other. Bombs, threats and fights added fuel to the racial competition and hatred </li></ul>
<ul><li>Soon Garvey offered the black nation a different approach on their race. He claimed that the color of their skin was beautiful and that being African was something to be proud of. Africans colors: red , black and green represent the color of their blood, the color of their skin and the greatness for their future. </li></ul><ul><li>Garvey also promoted his shipping company, The Black Star Line. Soon 40,000 blacks were buying shares. Soon, however, the leader was arrested for fraud. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, the black man is looked down upon. They are seen as not being as good as whites. Blacks started out as being embarrassed of their race and who they were. But with every generation opinions change and now being black is beautiful and something to be proud of. </li></ul>
Street Sweeper Stoplight Gas Mask Refrigerator
Insight into Communication Patterns <ul><li>African/Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Style- Expressed with animation and close personal interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact- When talking with friends, will use direct eye contact but may avoid when talking to someone of higher socioeconomic status. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures- Handshakes, pointing at someone with index finger and the peace sign may be insulting </li></ul><ul><li>African American </li></ul><ul><li>Animated communication, some speak a variation of standard English. </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact- Tend to be direct and prolonged when speaking , less so when listening </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures- large gestures are sometimes common and are seen as enhancing communication </li></ul>
Insight into People and Relationships <ul><li>African/Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships- Place value on people, Has concern for social harmony. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism- Value loyalty to the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Taboo Subjects- Referring to someone as “native”, and reference to one’s mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict- Confrontation is considered rude </li></ul><ul><li>African American </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships- want to get to know you before doing business. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism- More collateral orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Taboo Subjects- Talking “black” </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict- Showing emotions during confrontation may be perceived as rude. </li></ul>
African American Proverbs <ul><li>You got eyes to see and wisdom not to see. </li></ul><ul><li>Muddy roads call the milepost a liar </li></ul><ul><li>Every bell ain’t a dinner bell. </li></ul><ul><li>The graveyard is the cheapest boarding house. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, we are going to the north! </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t care to what state, </li></ul><ul><li>Just so I cross the Dixon Line, </li></ul><ul><li>From this southern land of hate, </li></ul><ul><li>Lynched and burned and shot and hung, </li></ul><ul><li>And not a word is said. </li></ul>
American Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s One of the most defining movements of the 20 th century, it was aimed at racial segregation and discrimination. African Americans in the South were not able to vote without fear of violence, so suffrage rights were of upmost importance to Civil Rights leaders.
… the struggle was about far more than just civil rights under law; it was also about fundamental issues of freedom, respect, dignity, and economic and social equality. Major Events in the Civil Rights Movement On May 17 th , 1954 the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional. This court case was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. This decision was in direct opposition to the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson from 1896. This was the case that coined the phrase ‘separate but equal’. Brown v. Board of Education made it so that black and white students could go to the same schools. Thurgood Marshall, attorney on the case, later was appointed to the Supreme Court.
On December 1 st , 1955, Rosa Parks, an African American woman in Alabama, refused to give up her bus seat to a white person. This was basically unwritten law in the South. She was arrested, and the Montgomery black community completely boycotted the bus system. Martin Luther King Jr. was instrumental in leading the boycott. Rosa Parks
The Little Rock Nine These nine black students were blocked from entering the all white Central High School on the orders of Governor Farbaus . President Eisenhower sent the National Guard and troops to help the students. They were called the ‘Little Rock Nine’.
In February of 1960, in Greensboro, NC, black students staged sit ins at restaurants that refused to serve black customers. This was an example of student non violent protest, and these events were helpful in integrating public places around the South.
In 1961 students took bus rides in the South, to call attention to the fact that even though the law said transportation couldn’t be segregated, it still was. They were called the “freedom riders” and were attacked by angry mobs frequently.
In 1962 James Meredith became the first black student enrolled at the University of Mississippi. Troops had to be sent AGAIN to deal with violence and riots.
1963 was a tumultuous year. Martin Luther King Jr. was jailed during protests in Birmingham, Alabama. His famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail”.
Bull Connor, the Commissioner of Public Safety used fire hoses and dogs to attack black protestors and non violent demonstrators. These riots were on TV and shocked the nation.
August 28 th , 1963. 200,000 people attended the March of Washington. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous “I have a Dream” speech in Washington after the march.
September 15 th , 1963 will always be remembered as a tragic day in the Civil Rights Movement. The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was a popular civil rights headquarters. During Sunday School a bomb went off killing four young girls. Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins died that day, in one of the saddest moments of the Movement.
January 1964. The 24 th Amendment abolished the poll tax, which had previously made it extremely hard for poor blacks to vote.
In July 1964 President Lyndon B Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin. The government can also enforce desegregation after this act.
Malcolm X was a black nationalist, and a leader in the Civil Rights Movement. In Harlem, on Feb 21, 1965, Malcolm X was violently shot to death. Many speculate that members of the Black Muslim faith killed him because he had abandoned them for a more orthodox Islam sect.
Black demonstrators marched from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama . Around 50 protesters were sent to the hospital after acts of police brutality. It was called “Bloody Sunday”.
In 1965, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed, making it exponentially easier for southern blacks to vote. Literacy tests, and other things blocking voting were done away with.
In August of 1965, race riots erupted in Watts, California.
On April 4 th , 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. was shot on his balcony of the hotel. James Earl Ray was convicted as the killer. Arguably the worst moment of the Civil Rights movement, it was not the end of the movement; the people carried on his cause.
Though the civil rights movement did not end with the death of MLK Jr, the most important events of the movement happened between 1963 and 1968. Equality of the races is not yet a reality, but our country everyday makes progress towards the goals of our past.
Colin Powell <ul><li>Born April 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>Former four-star general in the US Army </li></ul><ul><li>Was 65 th Secretary of State under George W. Bush, being the first African American to hold that position </li></ul><ul><li>Before that, he was National Security Advisor, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff </li></ul><ul><li>He is the only African American to ever hold that position </li></ul>He was born to Jamaican immigrant parents in Harlem, NYC Was succeeded by Condaleeza Rice Criticized the governments response to Hurricane Katrina Is considered a moderate Republican but is pro choice, and favors reasonable gun control Helped implement the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell policy Donated to McCain, but ended up publicly supporting Obama in the 2008 Presidential election
Oprah Winfrey <ul><li>Is famous for her TV talk show </li></ul><ul><li>She is considered to be the most philanthropic African American of all time </li></ul><ul><li>She was the world’s first black billionaire </li></ul><ul><li>She was born in rural Mississippi, and raised in inner city Milwaukee </li></ul><ul><li>She was raped at 9 years old, and sent to Juvenile Hall at 13 </li></ul><ul><li>When she was 14 she gave birth to a son, who died in infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated the National Child Protection Act. This created a database of child abusers </li></ul><ul><li>Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls is a boarding school in South Africa meant for bright girls from impoverished backgrounds. The school provides them with educational and leadership opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>She has put over 250 black men through college </li></ul><ul><li>Has given millions to Katrina Relief </li></ul>Born: January 1954
In 2004, Illinois Senate hopeful Barack Obama gave a moving keynote address at the Democratic National Convention. This sparked interest into the young Senator and in early 2007 Obama announced his intention to run for President in 2008.
Barack Obama <ul><li>Was born in Hawaii to his mother from Kansas, and his father from Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>His parents divorced when he was 3 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in Indonesia from age 6 to 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Obama’s mother died in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated from Columbia, and Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>First black student to be editor of the Harvard Law Review </li></ul><ul><li>Met his wife while working at a law firm in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008 after a heated election cycle Barack Obama became the first African American ever to be elected President of the United States </li></ul>Born: August 1961
Though we have not reached equality in America, every day teachers who impart a multicultural education to their students are paving the way to a more just and equal American society