Claim: Parents are responsible.Claim: Schools are responsible.Belief: Child’s welfare is the responsibility of the parent.Belief: Child’s welfare is the responsibility of the society (school is a part of society). Claim: Parents on fertility drugs should not be able to receive welfare.Belief: Parents made a choice to create more children than they are naturally supposed to; therefore, they should take responsibility for those children.Belief: Taking fertility drugs comes with the responsibility to deal with the consequences. Claim: Employers should be prosecutedBelief: Human beings should not be exploited for labor.Belief: Labor merits at least a minimum compensation or wage. Claim: People should pay congestion tax to drive in a crowded city.Belief: ( A congestion tax will reduce the number of people on the road) The environment needs to be protected.Belief: There should be consequences for those who damage the environment.Claim: Poor are responsible for their position.Belief: Hard work pays off. (American Dream, Self-made man)
This ad, published in September 2009, is from ENPA (EnteNazionaleProtezioneAnimali), the Italian national board for the protection of animals. It is about animal testing for cosmetic products. The aim of the campaign is raising funds to build a rehab center for the animals that survived the tests. “Help us to cure the victims of cosmetic tests. Send a sms to 48585 to give 1 euro and to contribute creating a rehab center.”
Ap lang apsi 2012 presentation kristen
How do Arguments Work? Introduction to Rhetoric
Adapted from Dynamic ArgumentLamm & Everett, 2007WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT?
A Moment with Monty PythonListen to their discussion of an argument.
Activity What is an argument? What makes an argument successful or effective? What detracts from an argument? Consider the clip we just watched. 8 minutes
An Argument is NOT… A verbal duel Quibbling A shouting match An altercation
An Argument is Not Quite… A one-sided presentation of beliefs A reader relies on a writer to present a fair account of all important aspects of the issue being discussed A series of contradictions
An Argument IS… An organized presentation of ideas intended to change the way one thinks or acts The desired change is presented as a claim and supported by reasons
Elements of an Argument CLAIM: SUPPORT: An thesis; an assertion that Reasons you provide to needs support from specific convince an audience to acceptreasons to be accepted as true your claim EVIDENCE: Information that proves or strongly suggests the claim is true or valid EXPLANATION: Clarification, interpretati on, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of evidence
Truth and Belief Truth... Is often subjective; "the values we hold true are largely constructed by our cultural beliefs" (10). Our response to issues or arguments is shaped by what we value and believe to be true.
Activity: Truth and Claims From Page 10 In groups of 2 or 3, list the claim that particular people make. What is the belief that underlies each claim? 1. Who is responsible for the obesity epidemic among children? 2. If people have large numbers of children because they use fertility drugs, should they be able to receive welfare to support their huge families? 3. What, if anything, should be done about people who hire undocumented workers (illegal immigrants) and pay them at rates below the minimum wage? 4. Should people pay a "congestion tax" for driving their cars in overcrowded cities? 5. Are some poor people being oppressed by society, or are they ultimately responsible for their own station in life because of the choices they make?
Different Audiences Require DifferentArguments When analyzing an argument, we must consider the targeted AUDIENCE... Some audiences can have different or varied beliefs Some audiences will share similar beliefs and concerns It is important to identify the audience, as claims are tailored to reach a particular group of people.
Your Assignment Write a 1,000 to 1,500 word essay analyzing the rhetorical strategies found in your ad/ commercial/song, etc. Focus on the techniques or strategies that the author uses to appeal to ethos, pathos, and logos. Your analysis should discuss the effectiveness of the argument, not the author’s views on the subject.
Expected Outcomes By analyzing the rhetorical strategies of ads/ commercials/ songs, you will learn how to apply several skills that you can use to: Understand social and political arguments presented in the media in your daily life Analyze the different rhetorical structures and techniques in source material Apply these rhetorical strategies to your own writing (particularly in Project 3)
Rhetorical Appeals:Authority, Emotion & Logic Ethos Pathos “Reasonable people can be persuaded in several ways— appealing to their trust in Logos authority, their emotions, and their logic…Seldom is just one of these approaches adequate to convince an audience to accept a claim. Instead, all can be brought into play when arguments are made” (12). Argument
Authority (Ethos) A key component in an argument is establishing the credibility of the author; if the author isn’t credible, why should we bother to read? Authors establish authority in two ways: Research Tone
Emotion (Pathos) Authors also attempt to make an emotional connection with the reader Emotional appeals create sympathy between the reader and the writer This connection can also reinforce the reader’s notion of the author’s credibility In creating an emotional appeal, authors use a variety of rhetorical strategies Activity
Logic (Logos) Authors also use logic to support their claims. Logical appeals include: Factual information, such as statistics and data Definitions Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Hypothetical situations Analogies
Activity: Evaluating Media ArgumentsBased on these two advertisements... What issue is being considered? Who is the target audience for each ad? What does each ad suggest about its audiences race, lifestyle, income level, and education level? In "The Enforcer," why is it significant that the woman is in the foreground? What is significant about the placement of the boy? What does each facial expression suggest? Background? In "Protect Our Children," why is the girl smiling? It takes more than a hero to keep kids away What does this suggest about beliefs regarding from marijuana. It takes parents strong freedom of choice and individuality? How is this enough to make rules and back them up. A different from claims made about freedom of little discipline today could make all the choice in "The Enforcer" ad? difference tomorrow. You are more powerful than you know. What is each ads claim? What evidence supports the claim? How does this ad use ethos, pathos, and logos to sell the claim?
Visual Rhetoric According to the OWL @ Purdue, "Visual rhetoric has been used to mean anything from the use of images as argument, to the arrangement of elements on a page for rhetorical effect, to the use of typography (fonts), and more.” “Visual rhetoric is a form of communication that uses images to create meaning or construct an argument” (stanford.edu). Your photo essay needs to use visual rhetoric to create a persuasive visual piece that makes a certain argument
Text is so highly visual that its visual nature and power is often invisible. RHETORIC OF TEXTAdapted from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/general/Visual_Rhetoric.pdf
Textual Personalities Even with just these four type faces, we can see different personalities, levels of formality, and even hints ethos. Which of these seems the most authoritative?
Textual Personalities While the first two fonts may not jump out at you as having a whole lot of cultural associations; that’s partly by design—the fonts are deliberately nondescript, and thus are use quite commonly. Not so with the fonts used for “Medieval History” and “Bigfoot Captured!”. The “Medieval History” text looks like our cultural conception of Medieval script. That is, the font looks almost like it was hand-written. Likewise, we’ve all seen tabloid papers in the checkout lanes of the supermarket, announcing in bold, loud text all sorts of incredible news.
Textual Personalities Again, the first two examples may not jump out at you. But if “In deepest sympathy” were on the front of a sympathy card, it would seem cold, callous, impersonal. With the “Lafayette Teen Center,” that font face may be appropriate in, say, a fundraising drive, but probably not for promotional materials to get teens to come there off of the streets (for that, we’d want a font that was exciting, more “youthful” in appearance). The “Chemistry Lab Report” example might seem OK at first glance (it’s formal, it evokes a sense of history with the word “chemistry”), but it fails rhetorically because it does not acknowledge the expectations of the general audience of chemists or chemistry instructors. Taken in that light, in fact, the text for “Chemistry Lab Report” looks ridiculous. Likewise with “Museum of Natural History”; we still see the tabloid headline in it, as though “Overtaken by Mutants” were the words we’d expect next!
Textual Personalities: Serif vs. SansSerif Serif Font Sans Serif Font Serif Font Sans Serif Font Serif Font Sans Serif Font Serif Font Sans Serif Font Serif Font Sans Serif Font Fonts with serif (the little shapes on the tails of the letters) are considered more formal than fonts without. This is why you use Times New Roman.
Headers vs. Body Text Again, the first two examples may not jump out at you. But if “In deepest Lunch Menu sympathy” were on the front of a sympathy card, it would seem cold, callous, impersonal.With the “Lafayette Teen Center,” that font face may be appropriate in, say, a fundraising drive, but probably not for promotional materials to get teens to come there off of the streets (for that, we’d want a font that was exciting, more “youthful” in appearance). While cool fonts may be appropriate for a section header, they may not work out so well for the body of the text.
Working with Color: Contrasting Colors Which of these blocks is easiest to read?Black text on white Aqua text on burgundy Burgundy text on aqua background background background Blue text on red Light aqua text on dark Dark Burgundy text on background burgundy background light aqua background Contrast is key. As you select colors for your text and your background, consider the contrast you create with your choices. Consider the colors themselves and the shade as you make your selection.
Working with Color: ContrastingColors Complementary colors (those opposite on the wheel) create contrast. Be careful to adjust the shade if you pick direct complements.
Working with Color: Emotional ImpactGenocide in Darfur Free Mani- Genocide in Free Mani- Pedis! Darfur Pedis! STOP! STOP! As you work with colors, try to pick hues that are appropriate to your subject matter.
Images often make as powerful a statement as words.Look at the following images and share your reactionto each. What is effective? Ineffective? RHETORIC OF IMAGES
1. 7,747 per year according to the US Department of State.2. 45,000 per year. Figure from Harvard Medical School and Cambridge Health Alliance.
Silk chiffon dress. Black dress and Glove with leather- scarf in silk chiffon. reinforced palm and Leather belt with fur interior. chrome-iron buckle.THERE ARE SOME BRANDS NO ONE SHOULD WEAR. Domestic violence is a crime.
Every kid on the street has a story.Many of the homeless youth on ourstreets have escaped from homes filled with abuse and violence. Directions is a 24 hour resource center where they can find thesupport and tools they need to get off the streets for good. Helpinghomelessyouth.ca
In India every year thousands ofgirls get killed just because they are girls.
My camp is MY home, and the men here are part of my family. I don’t want to let them die at the hands of the militiamen.So I made a DECISION; in order to keepthe men out of danger, I get the firewoodmyself. That IS my gift FOR them; to face RAPE everyday.
“By putting pen to paper, you can help end armed conflict in Darfur and Eastern Chad.Join thousands of others around the world in writing to Sudanese MPS and asking them(pleading with them if we must) to put an end to the atrocities being committed in thesecountries. To find out how you can make a difference, visithttp://www.amnesty.org/en/armed-conflict."
Overpopulation, violence, humiliations, lack of psychological and medical care, separation from family, lack of education…Does prison really work for reintegration? Take action. Support a
He’s done nothing. He’s just showing Amnesty’s phone number. Discriminating is not human. Denounce it.
“Help us to cure the victims of cosmetic tests.Send a sms to 48585 to give 1 euro and to contribute creating a rehab center.”
A rare SNOW LEOPARD coat:Outer: 5 back skin piecesstitched with 7 neck skin piecesfor maximum comfort.Inner: 13 chest skin pieces forsilky-soft feel.Bring out the real you, for JUST £9,999
1. Flip to the last pageof your compositionnotebook.2. Title that page“Quickwrite #1:Analyzing the use ofethos, pathos, andlogos in an image”3. In at least 50words, analyze/evaluate the use ofethos, pathos, andlogos in the image tothe right.