III BA LITERATURE FEB 11 2011

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III BA LITERATURE FEB 11 2011

  1. 1. Greetings
  2. 2. This Semester Papers I Deal With <ul><li>Core Subject 3 Literary Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Unit III </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>Core Subject 5 Commonwealth Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Unit V </li></ul><ul><li>The Swamp Dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>-Wole Soyinka </li></ul>
  3. 4. Dryden <ul><li>An Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden as a Critic </li></ul><ul><li>4 Topics </li></ul><ul><li>10 Questions </li></ul>
  4. 5. An Introduction
  5. 7. John Dryden <ul><li>English Poet </li></ul><ul><li>Literary Critic </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatist </li></ul><ul><li>Translator </li></ul><ul><li>Leader in Restoration Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Poet Laureate </li></ul>John Dryden, (1631-1700), English poet, literary critic, dramatist and leader in Restoration comedy wrote the comedic play  Marriage A-la-Mode  (1672), and the tragedy  All for Love  (1678).
  6. 8. Dryden’s Birth <ul><li>Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, England </li></ul><ul><li>Eldest son among 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Erasmus Dryden and Mary Pickering </li></ul>John Dryden was born in Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, England, the eldest of fourteen children of Erasmus Dryden (c.1602–1654) and Mary Pickering (d. 1676).
  7. 9. Dryden’s Education <ul><li>King’s Scholar </li></ul><ul><li>Classics at Westminster </li></ul><ul><li>Entered Trinity College in 1650 </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated in 1654 </li></ul>
  8. 10. Dryden’s Marriage <ul><li>Married Lady Elizabeth Howard </li></ul><ul><li>Daughter of the Earl of Berkshire </li></ul><ul><li>On December 1 1663 </li></ul><ul><li>Later Three Sons </li></ul>
  9. 11. Dryden in Kings Theatre <ul><li>Dryden entered into contact with Kings Theatre company </li></ul><ul><li>In 1668 </li></ul><ul><li>To Produce three play a year </li></ul>
  10. 12. Honours <ul><li>Archbishop of Canterbury Awarded him an M. A. in 1668 </li></ul><ul><li>Became Poet Laureate in the same year </li></ul><ul><li>Became Royal Historiographer in 1970 </li></ul>
  11. 13. Dishonours <ul><li>Beaten by thugs in 1679 </li></ul><ul><li>Ordered by Earl of Rochester </li></ul><ul><li>For collaboration on An Essay Upon Satire </li></ul><ul><li>Not upon Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>On Suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>William III becomes King </li></ul><ul><li>Loses his Laureateship in 1688 </li></ul>
  12. 14. His works <ul><li>Heroic Stanzas  (1658), on the death of Oliver Cromwell is his first important work </li></ul><ul><li>Poem Astræa Redux  (1660).  </li></ul><ul><li>To His Sacred Majesty, a Panegyrick on his Coronation  (1661) </li></ul><ul><li>First play The Wild Gallant  was first staged in 1662 </li></ul>
  13. 15. His Works contd. <ul><li>The Rival Ladies  (1663 ) [play] </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to it is one of his famous Prefaces where he describes his principles of dramatic criticism </li></ul><ul><li>His first successful play, written in heroic couplets was The Indian Emperor  (1665) </li></ul>
  14. 16. His Works Contd. <ul><li>Annus Mirabilis (1666) celebrates the English Navy's victory over the Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>The Maiden Queen  was composed in blank verse, rhyming couplets and prose in 1667 </li></ul><ul><li>The Assignation, or Love in a Nunnery   in the same year </li></ul>
  15. 17. His Works Contd. <ul><li>An Essay of Dramatic Poesy  (1668) was written two years after the Restoration with the reopening of the theatres </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage A-la-Mode  (1672) </li></ul><ul><li>The Conquest of Granada (1672) </li></ul><ul><li>His unsuccessful work on the theme of Paradise Lost,  The State of Innocence , was staged in 167 4 </li></ul>
  16. 18. His Works Contd. <ul><li>He produced his best play, All for Love  in 1678. </li></ul><ul><li>It is Dryden's most famous masterpiece based on Anthony and Cleopatra </li></ul><ul><li>Troilus and Cressida (1679) </li></ul><ul><li>Absalom and Achitophel , Dryden's allegorical poem appeared in 1681 </li></ul><ul><li>Well-known political satire of Shaftesbury </li></ul><ul><li>An Allegory </li></ul>
  17. 19. His Works Contd. <ul><li>Religio Laici  (1682 ) </li></ul><ul><li>A didactic poem </li></ul><ul><li>Argues the case for Anglicanism </li></ul><ul><li>Threnodia Angustalis  (1685) is an ode to Charles II </li></ul><ul><li>The Hind and the Panther  (1687 ) </li></ul><ul><li>It marked Dryden's final conversion to Roman Catholicism </li></ul>
  18. 20. His Works Contd. <ul><li>Don Sebastian  (1690),a tragi-comedy </li></ul><ul><li>  Love Triumphant  (1694) , a tragi-comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Translated poems from Latin and Greek </li></ul>
  19. 21. Dryden’s Death <ul><li>John Dryden died on 12 May 1700 </li></ul><ul><li>From inflammation caused by gout </li></ul><ul><li>Buried in the Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey, London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Nearby to his long time friend William Congreve </li></ul>
  20. 22. Dryden as a Critic
  21. 23. Dryden as a Critic <ul><li>Neo-Classicist </li></ul><ul><li>French Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Essay Of Dramatic Poesy </li></ul><ul><li>Prefaces </li></ul><ul><li>Unsystematic </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive </li></ul><ul><li>It is scattered </li></ul>
  22. 24. Neo- Classicist <ul><li>Gave importance to classical rules </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Compatibility with nature </li></ul><ul><li>New interpretation of rules based on the nature of poetry </li></ul>
  23. 25. French Influence <ul><li>During the civil war between parliament and Charles I many poets left for France and later influenced by French </li></ul><ul><li>To get royal favour they mixed English with French during the reign of Charles II and James II </li></ul>
  24. 26. Essay Of Dramatic Poesy <ul><li>Major Critical work of John Dryden </li></ul><ul><li>It is in the form of the Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>He defends English Dramatists </li></ul><ul><li>Defends tragi-comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Explains Unities in favour of English </li></ul>
  25. 27. Prefaces <ul><li>Epistle Dedicatory of the Rival Ladies </li></ul><ul><li>- advocates the use of heroic </li></ul><ul><li> purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication to Annus Mirabilis </li></ul><ul><li>- advocates four-line stanza for heroic verse </li></ul>
  26. 28. Prefaces <ul><li>A Defence of an Essay of Dramatic Poesy prefixed to The Indian Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>“Of Heroic Plays” prefixed to The Conquest of Granada [Part 1] </li></ul><ul><li>Epilogue and The Defence of the Epilogue to The Conquest of Granada [Part II] </li></ul><ul><li>- defend the use of rhymed couplet in tragedy </li></ul>
  27. 29. Prefaces <ul><li>“The Apology of Heroic Poetry” prefixed to The State of Innocence eulogises Milton’s achievements in heroic poetry </li></ul><ul><li>“The Grounds of Criticism in Tragedy” prefixed to Troilus and Cressida contains an exposition of Aristotle’s tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>“A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire” prefixed to the translation of The Satires of Juvenal </li></ul>
  28. 30. Prefaces <ul><li>“ Dedication of the Aenies” prefixed to the translation of Virgil’s Works </li></ul><ul><li>Preface to the Fables </li></ul>
  29. 31. To Be Continued…
  30. 32. Literary Criticism Portion for Second Internal John Dryden
  31. 33. Model Question Paper Section- A Answer any five questions [1x 5=5] <ul><li>1. “Dryden is the father of English criticism” are the words uttered </li></ul><ul><li>by----- [a] Dr. Johnson [b] Ben Jonson [c] Magic Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>2. Dryden wrote An Essay of Dramatic Poesy to vindicate the </li></ul><ul><li>honour of------dramatists. </li></ul><ul><li>[a] French [b] English [c] German </li></ul><ul><li>3. “The Apology of Heroic Poetry” is prefixed to----- </li></ul><ul><li>[a] The State of Innocence [b] All for Love [c] The Rivals </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden considers Epic superior to--- </li></ul><ul><li>[a] tragedy [b] comedy [c] tragi-comedy </li></ul><ul><li>5. “The Grounds of Criticism in Tragedy” is prefixed to ---- </li></ul><ul><li>[a] Troilus and Cressida [b] The Conquest of Granada </li></ul><ul><li>[c] All for Love </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden’s criticism is unsystematic. </li></ul><ul><li>[a] True [b] False </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>8. Dryden’s criticism is inconsistent. </li></ul><ul><li>[a] True [b] False </li></ul><ul><li>9. Dryden’s Criticism is repetitive. </li></ul><ul><li>[a] False [b] True </li></ul><ul><li>10. A Defence of an Essay of Dramatic Poesy prefixed to </li></ul><ul><li>[a] The Indian Emperor [b] The Rival Ladies </li></ul><ul><li>Section- B </li></ul><ul><li>Answer any question in 200 words[1 x5=5] </li></ul><ul><li>11. Write a short note on Dryden as a critic. </li></ul><ul><li>List the critical works of Dryden. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer any question in 500 words[1x 10=10] </li></ul><ul><li>13. Dryden’s career as a critic-Discuss. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Write an analysis of Dryden’s critical works </li></ul>

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