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6TH JULY 2011

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  1. 1. July 6, 2011 I BA Literature IV Hour nehru.wikispacescom nehru.wikispaces.com
  2. 2. Today’s Class <ul><li>My Allotment </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to A. K. Ramanujan </li></ul><ul><li>Works of A. K. Ramanujan </li></ul><ul><li>Features of A. K. Ramanujan’s Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>A River- An Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>A River- Poetry Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>A River- Notes </li></ul>
  3. 3. My Allotment <ul><li>Indian Writing in English </li></ul><ul><li>Unit II: Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>A. K. Ramanujan </li></ul><ul><li>Small Scale Reflections of a Great House </li></ul><ul><li>A River </li></ul><ul><li>Breaded Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Keki. N. Daruwalla </li></ul><ul><li>Death by Burial </li></ul><ul><li>The Epileptic </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>K. RAMANUJAN 1929-1993 </li></ul>
  5. 5. A. K. RAMANUJAN 1 <ul><li>Mysore </li></ul><ul><li>1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Attipat Krishnasamy Ramanujan </li></ul><ul><li>Poet </li></ul><ul><li>Translator </li></ul><ul><li>Playwright </li></ul><ul><li>Folklorist </li></ul>
  6. 6. A. K. RAMANUJAN 2 <ul><li>D. Bhanumiah’s High School </li></ul><ul><li>Maharaja College of Mysore </li></ul><ul><li>Fellow of Deccan College, Pune 1958-1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Fullbright Scholar in Indiana University in 1959-1962 </li></ul><ul><li>Mysore University </li></ul><ul><li>Ph.D in Linguistics from Indiana University </li></ul>
  7. 7. Works of A. K. Ramanujan 1 <ul><li>Poetry, fiction and drama </li></ul><ul><li>The Striders . London: Oxford University Press, 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkulalli Huvilla, No Lotus in the Navel . Dharwar, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Relations . London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Selected Poems . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Samskara . (translation of U R Ananthamurthy's novel) Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Mattu Itara Padyagalu and Other Poems . Dharwar, 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Sight . New York: Oxford University Press, 1986 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Works of A. K. Ramanujan 2 <ul><li>Translations and studies of literature </li></ul><ul><li>The Interior Landscape: Love Poems from a Classical Tamil Anthology , 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking of Siva , 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>The Literatures of India . Edited with Edwin Gerow. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Hymns for the Drowning , 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Poems of Love and War . New York: Columbia University Press, 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>Folktales from India, Oral Tales from Twenty Indian Languages , 1991 </li></ul>
  9. 9. FEATURES OF RAMANUJAN’S POETRY <ul><li>Inscape or inner meaning is the hallmark of Ramanujan’s poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Follows the tradition of interior landscape and exterior landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Imbibed this quality from Tamil poetics </li></ul><ul><li>His poems are compact </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Romantic </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Thought </li></ul>
  10. 10. A RIVER- AN INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Reality of the river </li></ul><ul><li>Against poets praise for river </li></ul><ul><li>Critique of the poets who praised only the glory of river </li></ul><ul><li>River in summer </li></ul>
  11. 11. A.K. Ramanujan A River In Madurai, city of temples and poets, who sang of cities and temples, every summer a river dries to a trickle in the sand, baring the sand ribs, straw and women's hair clogging the watergates at the rusty bars under the bridges with patches of repair all over them the wet stones glistening like sleepy crocodiles, the dry ones shaven water-buffaloes lounging in the sun The poets only sang of the floods. First Stanza
  12. 12. He was there for a day when they had the floods. People everywhere talked of the inches rising, of the precise number of cobbled steps run over by the water, rising on the bathing places, and the way it carried off three village houses, one pregnant woman and a couple of cows named Gopi and Brinda as usual. Second Stanza
  13. 13. The new poets still quoted the old poets, but no one spoke in verse of the pregnant woman drowned, with perhaps twins in her, kicking at blank walls even before birth. Third Stanza
  14. 14. He said: the river has water enough to be poetic about only once a year and then it carries away in the first half-hour three village houses, a couple of cows named Gopi and Brinda and one pregnant woman expecting identical twins with no moles on their bodies, with different coloured diapers to tell them apart. Fourth Stanza
  15. 15. A RIVER- NOTES <ul><li>This poem is a critique of the poets praising only the glory of the river. A.K. Ramanujan presents the stark reality of the river. He presents the negative aspects of the river. For this purpose he has taken a river in Madurai. </li></ul>
  16. 16. A RIVER- NOTES 2 <ul><li>Ramanujan presents what the other poets failed to do. Poets, both ancient and modern simply glorified the river. But Ramanujan says that their claims may be true only once in a year. </li></ul>
  17. 17. A RIVER NOTES-3 <ul><li>Flooding of river is not only a sign of prosperity but also a cover for the fatal consequences of the same. The poet presents two cows Gopi and Brinda. Cows are considered to be the symbol of prosperity. But they are washed away by the flood. It means only that prosperity is washed away. That is, flood is capable of bringing adversity at times. </li></ul>
  18. 18. A RIVER NOTES-4 <ul><li>Summer takes away the charm of the river. It is dry in the summer. It dries to a trickle. Women’s hair clog the watergates. Under the bridges one could find rusty iron bars. It reveals that for the most part of the year the river is dry. He presents the image of shaven water-buffaloes lounging in the sun. Here the poet brings out the contrast between the river in summer and during floods. During floods cow gets washed away but in summer buffalo lounges. Buffalo is a symbol of death or darkness and the cow is the symbol of prosperity. He cleverly uses the image of cow and buffalo.He uses the hue of black and white to bring out the summer and flood. </li></ul>
  19. 19. A RIVER NOTES 5 <ul><li>He presents a pregnant woman who expects identical twins. There is also reference to three villages washed away by the flood. The use of numbers one,two, three makes an interesting reading. The very beginning is like a opening of a folk song. It has also got a folk rhythm. The twins may suggest the twin reality of the river. The pregnant woman may suggest the poetic idea of prosperity and the identical twins may suggest the similarity in the perception of ancient and modern poets. His play with numbers and colours presents the twin nature of things and it adds up to his style of depiction. His images are more suggestive. The poem appears to be simple but it has more layers of significance. At times it appears to be vague. </li></ul>
  20. 20. A RIVER NOTES-6 <ul><li>It is unusual indeed, in both theme and treatment. </li></ul>
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