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  • William Shakespeare: William Shakespeare (baptised 26 April 1564; died 23 April 1616) was anEnglish poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre- eminent dramatist He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.[3] Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnetand Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He then wrote mainlytragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. In 1623, two of his former theatrical colleagues published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's. Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry".In the 20th century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.
  • Romeo and Juliet: Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of playwright William Shakespeareabout two young star- crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately unite their feuding families. It is among Shakespeare's most popular archetypal stories of young, teenage lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Its plot is based on an Italian tale, translated into verse as The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562 and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painterin 1582. Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both but, to expand the plot, developed supporting characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris. Believed written between 1591 and 1595, the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597. This text was of poor quality, and later editions corrected it, bringing it more in line with Shakespeare's original. Shakespeare's use of dramatic structure, especially effects such as switching between comedy and tragedy to heighten tension, his expansion of minor characters, and his use of sub-plots to embellish the story, has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play. Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times for stage, film, musical and opera. During the Restoration, it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant. David Garrick's 18th-century version also modified several scenes, removing material then considered indecent, and Georg Benda's operatic adaptation omitted much of the action and added a happy ending. Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman's, restored the original text, and focused on greater realism. John Gielgud's 1935 version kept very close to Shakespeare's text, and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama. In the 20th century the play has been adapted in versions as diverse as MGM's comparatively faithful 1936 film, the 1950s stage musical West Side Story, and 1996's MTV-inspired Romeo + Juliet.
  • William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was born in 26 April 1564 and died in 23 April 1616.He was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and the twins Hamnet and Judith. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century. Some of his most famous plays are: Romeo and Juliet, Othello, Hamlet, and Macbeth. The most striking feature of Shakespeare is his command of language. It is all the more astounding when one not only considers Shakespeare's sparse formal education but the curriculum of the day. There were no dictionaries; the first such lexical work for speakers of English was compiled by schoolmaster Robert Cawdrey as A Table Alphabeticall in 1604. Although certain grammatical treatises were published in Shakespeare's day, organized grammar texts would not appear until the 1700s. Shakespeare as a youth would have no more systematically studied his own language than any educated man of the period. Shakespeare is credited by the Oxford English Dictionary with the introduction of nearly 3,000 words into the language. His vocabulary, as culled from his works, numbers upward of 17,000 words. In the words of Louis Marder, "Shakespeare was so facile in employing words that he was able to use over 7,000 of them— more than occur in the whole King James version of the Bible—only once and never again."
  • Shakespeare's English is only one linguistic generation removed from that which we speak today. Although the Elizabethan dialect differs slightly from Modern English, the principles are generally the same. There are some anomalies today with prepositional usage and verb agreement, and certainly a number of Shakespeare's words have shifted meanings or dropped, with age, from the present vocabulary. Word order, as the language shifted from Middle to Early Modern English, was still a bit more flexible, and Shakespeare wrote dramatic poetry, not standard prose, which gave some greater license in expression. However, Elizabethan remains a sibling of our own tongue, and hence, accessible. This facility with language, and the art with which he employed its usage, is why Shakespeare is as relevant today as he was in his own time. Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of playwright William Shakespeare about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately unite their feuding families. It is among Shakespeare's most popular archetypal stories of young, teenage lovers. The play, set in Verona, begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet supporters who are sworn enemies. The Prince of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Later, Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter, but Capulet is wary of the request because Juliet is only thirteen. Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball. Lady Capulet and Juliet's nurse try to persuade Juliet to accept Paris's courtship. Meanwhile, Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo, Montague's son, about Romeo's recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline, one of Capulet's nieces. Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio, Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. However, Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet. After the ball, in what is now called the "balcony scene", Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and overhears Juliet at her window vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues. Romeo makes himself known to her and they agree to be married. With the help of Friar Laurence, who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are secretly married the next day. Juliet's cousin Tybalt, incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him to a duel. Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Mercutio is offended by Tybalt's insolence, as well as Romeo's "vile submission," and accepts the duel on Romeo's behalf. Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight. Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo confronts and slays Tybalt.
  • Montague argues that Romeo has justly executed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio. The Prince, now having lost a kinsman in the warring families' feud, exiles Romeo from Verona and declares that if Romeo returns, "that hour is his last." Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber, where they consummate their marriage. Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride." When she then pleads for the marriage to be delayed, her mother rejects her. Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a drug that will put her into a death-like coma for "two and forty hours." The Friar promises to send a messenger to inform Romeo of the plan, so that he can rejoin her when she awakens. On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt. The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, Romeo learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant Balthasar. Heartbroken, Romeo buys poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, finding Romeo dead, stabs herself with his dagger. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star- cross'd lovers". The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. The play ends with the Prince's elegy for the lovers: " For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo."
  • WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE William Shakespeare was born in April 1564 and died on April 23, 1616. Was an English poet and playwright. Is widely regarded as the most important writer who wrote in English and one of the most important playwrights pagkosmios.Sychna called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". The surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and several other poems. His works have been translated into many languages of the world and more often interpreted the works of any other playwright. They have saved only a few records on the private life of Shakespeare have been considerable speculation about issues such as external appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. Shakespeare wrote most of the known works between 1589 and 1613 and managed to deal with absolute mastery both comedy and drama and tragedy. His works are inspired by a deep understanding of human nature and remain relevant. Its effect, especially in English literature, is enormous. The Romantics recognized his genius and the Victorians loved in a way that George Bernard Shaw called "vardolatreia". Shakespeare was born in the village of Stratford-upon-Avon (or simply Stratford) in 1564. The exact date of birth remains unknown to date. The only known information that exists is that the baptism took place on April 26, as recorded in church registers of Stratford. Moreover, it is known that at the time of the christening ceremony was only a few days after birth. Traditionally it has come to be regarded as the birthday of Shakespeare the 23rd April, St George's Day. This date, which comes from an incorrect estimate of a scholar of the 18th century, proved attractive to biographers since Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616.
  • William Shakespeare was the third of eight children and the largest surviving son of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden. Mary Arden was the daughter of a wealthy landowner and John Shakespeare was one of the elders of the village [20]. John Shakespeare also belonged to the association of manufacturers of gloves, but participated in other businesses such as trade in hides. He had political acquaintances and several times was appointed to senior positions. For a while even when William was 4 years old, was mayor of Stratford. So as a member of a prominent family of both William Shakespeare learned from very small to read and write. Although attendance does not have survived that period, most biographers agree that Shakespeare probably trained at the New School in Stratford, which was founded in 1553 by King Edward VI. During the Elizabethan era, schools varied in quality but the curriculum was dictated by law throughout England and the school providing classical education and intensive training in the Latin language. Having studious character, Shakespeare read widely in his youth, though not writing much. Most of his time spent in studying Latin, reciting by heart long passages from poems. Without even guessing, so sharpened his memory and his speech, which are essential for subsequent career as an actor. Stated in 1592 as a member of the London theater scene. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as the "lost years" of Shakespeare. Much has been written about Shakespeare's efforts to impose as an actor and writer in London, but hardly reflect the reality. A history of the 18th century brought Shakespeare to the theatrical launches career as groom earned a living fylagontas horses of wealthy spectators and patrons of the theater. However there is no historical evidence to prove that Shakespeare was in that position. In contrast, at 28, he was a veteran actor. And as the 52, who died, was always popular and sought after. It is not known exactly when he began to write Shakespeare, but reports of his time and records show that some performances of his works had risen in London's scene since 1592. His biographers believe that his career should be started after the mid-1580. Later Shakespeare and the whole theater group to which he belonged, was under the favor of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Often playing in front of the queen and the court of the days of Christmas or other holidays. Elizabeth Chamberlain was the sponsor for being there and saying "Humans Chamberlain" (The Lord Chamberlain's Men). The works of Shakespeare performed only by the Lord Chamberlain's Men, who were now the leading theater company in London. After the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, England's King James I took over. " When the new king came to London, Shakespeare, along with other distinguished actors and writers in the country
  • greeted the entrance of the city. Fortunately for Shakespeare's King James loved the theater as much as the predecessor. Scholar he argued that literature and the arts protected. Ten days after the coronation of the king officially got under the protection of the Shakespeare troupe. Since then, the theater group was renamed "The People's King" (The King's Men). Some of Shakespeare's works began to be published in 1594. In 1598, and since he had already become known, the name of Shakespeare and started appearing on the covers. Despite his success as a dramatist, Shakespeare continued to play both in his own works and in works of other dramatists. The poet and playwright Ben Jonson mentions it to the actors who played in his works [39] hence the absence of his name from the list of actors who played in 1605 in "Volpone" is regarded by some scholars as an indication that Shakespeare's career as an actress was coming to an end. But later, Shakespeare appears as one of the main actors in projects that went for the first time on stage after "Volpone", although we can not know for certain what roles he played. During his career, Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford. In 1596, the year before purchased New Place in Stratford, Shakespeare lived in the parish of St. Helen Bisopsgkeit of London, north of the River Thames. He moved to the other side of the Thames in London Saouthgouork, in 1599, ie the year of construction of the theater baton [43]. In 1604 he moved back north of the river, an area with many nice homes north of the Cathedral of St. Paul. There he rented rooms from a French Huguenots that made wigs for ladies. After 1606, Shakespeare wrote a few projects and none attributed to him after 1613. He died on April 23, 1616 leaving behind his wife and two daughters. Shakespeare was buried two days after his death, the temple of the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon. On his tomb was placed after his one desire inscription carved in stone slab covering the tomb. The inscription contains a curse against moving the bones, which carefully avoided during the restoration of the temple in 2008.
  • The first recorded works of Shakespeare is "Richard III" and the three parts of "Henry VI", written in early 1590, at a time when the historical drama was fashionable. But the works of Shakespeare is difficult to dated and textual studies show that the "Titus Andronicus", the "comedy of misunderstanding", the "Taming of the Shrew" and "Two Princes of Verona" also belong to the first period Shakespeare. The first stories, which are drawn from the "Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland" by Raphael Cholinsent, dramatize the destructive results of weak or corrupt and power have been interpreted as a justification of the origin of the House of Tudor. The first works were influenced by the works of other Elizabethan dramatists, the traditions of medieval drama and the works of Seneca. The "comedy of misunderstanding" was also based on classical models, but found no source for "Taming of the Shrew", although associated with another project with the same title and can be derived from the folk tradition. Like "Two Lords of Verona," in which two friends appear to approve of rape, so the history of the Shrew, where the independent spirit of a woman tamed by a man, sometimes puzzle the modern critics and directors. In mid 1590, early and classic Italian style comedies of Shakespeare yielding their place in the romantic atmosphere of the major comedies. The "Midsummer Night's Dream" is a witty mixture of romance, magic and comedy scenes. The next comedy by Shakespeare, the equally romantic "Merchant of Venice ', depicting the vengeful Jew usurer Sailok a way that reflects the views of the time but in today's audiences may seem pejorative. The clever wordplay of "Much Ado About Nothing", the enchanting environment of "Like Love" and the live celebration of "Twelfth Night" complete turn of the great comedies of Shakespeare. After the lyric "Richard II", which is written almost entirely in rhyming verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy in the works "Henry IV" (1st and 2nd place) and "Henry V" at the end of early 1590. His characters are becoming more complex and skillfully alternating comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, achieves the narrative variety of mature work. This period begins and ends with two tragedies: the "Romeo and Juliet", the famous romantic drama about adolescence, love and death, and "Julius Caesar"-based on a translation made in 1579 by Sir Thomas North Plutarch in his "Parallel Lives" - introduced a new type of drama. Hamlet, Horace, the Marcellus and the Ghost of Hamlet's Father (table Fysli Heinrich, 1780-1785, Kounstchaous, Zurich) In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote comedy "Measure for Measure," "Troilus and Cressida" and "End of All Good Well" and some of the most famous tragedies. Many critics believe that the greatest of Shakespeare's tragedies represent the peak of his art. Hamlet, the hero of the famous tragedy by William Shakespeare, probably has been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for the famous monologue "To be or not to live, here's the question" [76]. Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose hesitation proved fatal, the
  • heroes of the tragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, characterized by hasty and incorrect assessment. The evolution of Shakespeare's tragedies often depends on such fatal errors or shortcomings that compromise the order of things and destroy the hero and those who love [78]. In "Othello", the malicious Iagos causes jealousy of Othello, who goes as far as to murder the innocent wife who loves him. In "King Lear", the king commits the tragic mistake to abandon the throne marked the beginning of events leading to the murder of his daughter and the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester. In "Macbeth," the shortest of Shakespeare's tragedy [80], the uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and the wife, Lady Macbeth, to murder the lawful king and usurp the throne, until he destroyed the last great guilt tous.Oi tragedies of Shakespeare, "Antony and Cleopatra" and "Coriolanus", containing some of the best poems were considered the most successful tragedies by the poet and critic Thomas Stern Eliot. In the last period, Shakespeare turned to romance and tragicomedy and completed three other major projects: "Kymvelinos," "The Winter's Tale" and "The Tempest" and the result of cooperation "Pericles." Less murky than his tragedies, these four projects are more serious in tone than the comedies of the decade of 1590 and end with reconciliation and forgiveness of potentially tragic errors [84]. Some commentators have seen this change in mood as evidence of a more serene view of life from the hand of Shakespeare, but may merely reflect the theatrical fashion of the era [85]. Shakespeare with another dramatist collaborated on two further surviving plays: the "Henry VIII" and "The Two Relatives Lords." Views The restored theater baton to London It is not clear what theater companies Shakespeare wrote his first works. The cover of "Titus Andronicus" version of the 1594 reveals that the project had been played by three different companies. After the epidemics of the Black plague years 1592-1593, the works of Shakespeare interpreted by his own theater troupe in the north of the Thames. When the troupe was in dispute with the owner of the plot, the actors demolished the theater and used the wood to build on the south bank of the Thames theater baton, the first theater built by actors for actors [86]. The clubs opened in the fall of 1599 and "Julius Caesar" was one of the first projects that came up on stage. Most of the works written by Shakespeare were written after 1599 for the baton, including "Hamlet," of "Othello" and "King Lear" [87] [88]. Despite the fact that recordings of performances is fragmentary, it seems that Shakespeare's troupe played seven times in the court of King James I on November 1, 1604 until October 31,
  • 1605, including reported and two performances of "Merchant of Venice ". Then in 1608 they played in the closed theater Blakfraiars during the winter and the baton during the summer. The interior space combined with the fashion of the season, allowed Shakespeare to introduce more elaborate stage sets. In "Kymvelino" for example, Jupiter descends amid thunder and lightning sitting up in a kite, so throw a lightning and ghosts fall on their knees [89]. The fact that Shakespeare except that he wrote his works already played, made him unrivaled among other authors. Shakespeare did not write just to write, but to live. He lived his work. As viewers watched him, and so he watched the audience and watched their reactions. There were few times when the scene was changing his words trying to convey as much meaning could better and satisfy most viewers. He had such capacity to correspond to the demands of the public, that even today his works continue to fascinate the viewer with its brightness [90]. Written sources Cover version of 1623 with works of Shakespeare. Etching of Martin Droeshout. In 1623 two actors, who were friends of Shakespeare, issued a collection of his works, consisting of 36 texts, of which 18 were printed for the first time. Many of his works had already appeared in various publications for which there is no evidence that Shakespeare approved them [91]. There are projects where the surviving copies differ from one another. These differences may be due to copying or printing errors, notes from the actors or the public or even the actual documents of Shakespeare [92]. In some cases, for example in "Hamlet", in "Troilus and Cressida" and "Othello," Shakespeare may after the first edition have been revised texts. However in the case of "King Lear" there are significant differences between the first edition and in that of 1623 [93]. Poems In 1593 and 1594, when the theaters were closed because of plague, Shakespeare published two narrative poems on erotic themes, "Venus and Adonis" and "The Rape of Lucretia." At first an innocent Adonis rejects the sexual challenges of Venus while the second is the virtuous Lucretia raped by the lustful Tarkinio. With influence from the "Metamorphoses" of Ovid [94] the poems show the guilt and moral confusion that result from an uncontrolled desire. Both proved very popular and were reprinted several times during the life of Shakespeare. ROMEO and JULIET
  • Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of playwright William Shakespeare about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately unite their feuding families. It is among Shakespeare's most popular archetypal stories of young, teenage lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Its plot is based on an Italian tale, translated into verse as The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562 and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painter in 1582. Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both but, to expand the plot, developed supporting characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris. Believed written between 1591 and 1595, the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597. This text was of poor quality, and later editions corrected it, bringing it more in line with Shakespeare's original. Shakespeare's use of dramatic structure, especially effects such as switching between comedy and tragedy to heighten tension, his expansion of minor characters, and his use of sub-plots to embellish the story, has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play. Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times for stage, film, musical and opera. During the Restoration, it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant. David Garrick's 18th-century version also modified several scenes, removing material then considered indecent, and Georg Benda's operatic adaptation omitted much of the action and added a happy ending. Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman's, restored the original text, and focused on greater realism. John Gielgud's 1935 version kept very close to Shakespeare's text, and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama. In the 20th century the play has been adapted in versions as diverse as MGM's comparatively faithful 1936 film, the 1950s stage musical West Side Story, and 1996's MTV-inspired Romeo + Juliet.
  • William Shakespeare was born to John Shakespeare and mother Mary Arden some time in late April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. There is no record of his birth, but his baptism was recorded by the church, thus his birthday is assumed to be the 23 of April. His father was a prominent and prosperous alderman in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon, and was later granted a coat of arms by the College of Heralds. All that is known of Shakespeare's youth is that he presumably attended the Stratford Grammar School, and did not proceed to Oxford or Cambridge. The next record we have of him is his marriage to Anne Hathaway in 1582. The next year she bore a daughter for him, Susanna, followed by the twins Judith and Hamnet two years later. Seven years later Shakespeare is recognized as an actor, poet and playwright, when a rival playwright, Robert Greene, refers to him as "an upstart crow" in A Groatsworth of Wit. A few years later he joined up with one of the most successful acting troupe's in London: The Lord Chamberlain's Men. When, in 1599, the troupe lost the lease of the theatre where they performed, (appropriately called The Theatre) they were wealthy enough to build their own theatre across the Thames, south of London, which they called "The Globe." The new theatre opened in July of 1599, built from the timbers of The Theatre, with the motto "Totus mundus agit histrionem" (A whole world of players) When James I came to the throne (1603) the troupe was designated by the new king as the King's Men (or King's Company). The Letters Patent of the company specifically charged Shakespeare and eight others "freely to use and exercise the art and faculty of playing Comedies, Tragedies, Histories, Inerludes, Morals, Pastorals, stage plays ... as well for recreation of our loving subjects as for our solace and pleasure." Shakespeare entertained the king and the people for another ten years until June 19, 1613, when a canon fired from the roof of the theatre for a gala performance of Henry VIII set fire to the thatch roof and burned the theatre to the ground. The audience ignored the smoke from the roof at first, being to absorbed in the play, until the flames caught the walls and the fabric of the curtains. Amazingly there were no casualties, and the next spring the company had the theatre "new builded in a far fairer manner than before." Although Shakespeare invested in the rebuilding, he retired from the stage to the Great House of New Place in Statford that he had purchased in 1597, and some considerable land holdings ,where he continued to write until his death in 1616 on the day of his 52nd birthday. In his time William wrote 13 Comedies, 13 Historical Plays, 6 Tragedies, 4 Tragicomedies, as well as many sonnets (154) , which were mostly dedicated to his patron, Henry Wriothsley, The Earl of Southampton. Comedies “Comedies of Errors” 1952 , “The Taming of the Shrew” 1592-94, “Love’s Lador’s Lost” 1594-95, “Two Gentleman of Verona” 1594-95 “A midsummer Night;s Dream” 1595-96 The Merchant of Venice” 1596-97 “Much Ado About Nothing” 1598-99 “As You Like It” 1599-1600 “Twelfth Night” 1599-1600 e.t.c. Historical "Henry VI" parts I, II, III 1590-92 , “Richard III” 1590-92 , “King John” 1594-96, “Richard II” 1597-? e.t.c. Tragedies Titus Andronicus 1593-94, Romeo and Juliet 1594-95, Hamlet 1600-01, Othello 1604-05 e.t.c Tragicomedies “Timon of Athens” 1607 -? , “Cymveline” 1609-10 ,. “The Winder’s Tale” 1610-11 , “Tempest” 1611-12 . 1556 - Anne Hathaway is born. 1564 - William Shakespeare is born in April (probably the 23rd) in Stratford-On- Avon (94 miles from London.) 1582 - Marries Anne Hathaway on November 27. 1583 - Susanna Shakespeare is born. 1585 - The twins Judith and Hamnet Shakespeare are born. 1592 - After leaving Stratford for London, William was recognized as a successful actor, as well as a leading poet. He was a member of 'The Chamberlain's Men'. 1596 - Hamnet dies at the age of eleven. Shakespeare becomes a "gentleman" when the College of Heralds grants his father a coat of arms. 1597- He bought a large house called "The Great House of New Place". 1599 - The 'Globe Theater' is built from the pieces of 'The Theater' in July. 1603 - 'The Lord Chamberlain's Men' became 'The King's Men' on May 19. 1613 - The 'Globe Theatre' burns during a performance of Henry VII when a canon fired on the roof sets fire to the straw thatch. The theatre is rebuilt, but Shakespeare retires. 1616 - April 23, in Stratford, on his 52nd birthday he died.
  • Romeo and Juliet Synopsis The play, set in Verona begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet supporters who are sworn enemies. The Prince of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Later, Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter, but Capulet is wary of the request because Juliet is only thirteen. Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball. Lady Capulet and Juliet's nurse try to persuade Juliet to accept Paris's courtship. Meanwhile, Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo, Montague's son, about Romeo's recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline, one of Capulet's nieces. Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio, Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. However, Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet. After the ball, in what is now called the "balcony scene", Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and overhears Juliet at her window vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues. Romeo makes himself known to her and they agree to be married. With the help of Friar Laurence , who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are secretly married the next day. Juliet's cousin Tybalt, incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him L’ultimo bacio dato a Giulietta da t o a duel. Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Mercutio is offended Romeo by Francesco Havez. by Tybalt's insolence, as well as Romeo's Oil on canvas, 1823. "vile submission," and accepts the duel on Romeo's behalf. Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight. Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo confronts and slays Tybalt. Montague argues that Romeo has justly executed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio. The Prince, now having lost a kinsman in the warring families' feud, exiles Romeo from Verona and declares that if Romeo returns, "that hour is his last." Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber, where they consummate their marriage. Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride." When she then pleads for the marriage to be delayed, her mother rejects her. Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a drug that will put her into a death-like coma for "two and forty hours." The Friar promises to send a messenger to inform Romeo of the plan, so that he can rejoin her when she awakens. On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt. The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, Romeo learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant Balthasar. Heartbroken, Romeo buys poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, finding Romeo dead, stabs herself with his dagger. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers". The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. The play ends with the Prince's elegy for the lovers: "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.