1. Queen Victoria- -ruled Great Britain and colonies for over 63 years celebrating her Diamond Jubilee in 1899 -related to most of the royalty heading the other European nations -so complete was her reign that the time period became known as the Victorian Age -her death in 1901 at age 81marked the end of the old imperial age and the beginning of modern nations
20 th CENTURY WORLD HISTORY STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1 : Entering a New Century (1900 - 1920) NAME___________________________________________________CLASS PERIOD ________ Write a question for each term in the large left margin. Be sure that the term is the answer for the question you create. Changing Times 1. Queen Victoria- -Ruled GB & colonies for over 63 years…Diamond Jubilee 1899. -Related to most royalty in European nations. -So complete was her reign that the time period became known as Victorian Age -Death in 1901 marked end of old imperial age and beginning of modern times 2. Robert Peary- 3. Roald Amundsen - 4. Robert Scott-
Jump ahead to class time tomorrow… <ul><li>When you walk through the door, get out your </li></ul><ul><li>study guide (keeping your preparation points </li></ul><ul><li>and that A+) and begin writing </li></ul><ul><li>your questions - YES, BEFORE </li></ul><ul><li>THE BELL EVEN RINGS! </li></ul>
20 th CENTURY WORLD HISTORY STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1 : Entering a New Century (1900 - 1920) NAME___________________________________________________CLASS PERIOD ________ Write a question for each term in the large left margin. Be sure that the term is the answer for the question you create. Changing Times 1. Queen Victoria- Who ruled Great Brit. -Ruled GB & colonies for over 63 years…Diamond Jubilee 1899. For 63 years? -OR- -Related to most royalty in European nations. Who’s reign marked -So complete was her reign that the time period became known as Victorian Age End of imperial age? -Death in 1901 marked end of old imperial age and beginning of modern times 2. Robert Peary- 3. Roald Amundsen - 4. Robert Scott- 5. Patens-
2. Robert Peary- -American explorer who first reached the North Pole in 1909 -today, his claim has been disputed
3. Ronald Amundsen- -Norwegian polar explorer -first to reach the South Pole and first to reach both Poles -disappeared in 1928 during a rescue mission -one of several who led the Heroic Age of Polar Exploration
4. Robert Scott - -British naval officer who led two expeditions to the South Pole -he and Ernest Sheckelton first to Antarctica on the ship the Discovery -set out in 1910 to be the first to reach the South Pole, but found themselves in a race with Amundsen -arrived at the Pole on Jan. 17, 1912 only to find they had been beaten -party of five were killed when caught in a blizzard
British Princess Anne inspects the outside of British explorer Robert Falcon Scott's Terra Nova Hut at Cape Evans in Antarctica in this Feb. 8, 2002 file photo. The Antarctic base occupied by the British explorer on his ill-fated expedition to the South Pole on foot early last century has been included on a list of the world's 100 most endangered sites. The list, compiled by an international panel and released by the World Monuments Fund, identifies what are considered to be the world's most endangered historic, architectural and cultural treasures.
This is a normal photo taken on an overcast day of Robert Scott's original hut with McMurdo in the background.
5. Ernest Shackleton -Irish explorer who wanted to be first to the South Pole but was beaten by Amundsen and Scott -changed plans to cross the Antarctic continent -most known for the Expedition between 1914 and 1916 -his ship,the Endurance got trapped in the ice in 1914 -led an 800 mile open sea mission to rescue his men -although given up for dead, all were saved after 22 months in the Antarctic
6. Albert Einstein- -German physicist most known for his theory of relativity developed in 1905 - E=MC2 -generally considered to be a genius -went on to develop several other theories including nuclear fission
7. Nobel Prizes- -developed by Alfred Nobel, a chemist who invented dynamite in 1895 and first awarded in 1901 -world’s most prestigious award -awarded in the areas of Peace, Literature, Chemistry, and Medicine (others have been added) -presented by Swedish Academy of Science each December 10th, anniversary of Nobel’s death
8. Industrial Revolution - -describes the time in the 18th, 19th and early 20th century characterized by major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation -also had major effect on culture and society in Europe and North America
9. Wright Brothers- -Orville and Wilbur -credited with building the first airplane and making the first flight by air -developed a fix-winged flying machine with controls
Actual Wright Brothers plane located in the National Air and Space Museum
10. Henry Ford- -revolutionized the transportation system -developed the Model T automobile, affordable auto for working families -developed the assembly line, which led to mass production
“ The basic concept behind the Ford Assembly Line developed around 1915 at Ford’s Highland Park Plant to produce the Model T was not substantially altered over the twentieth century.”
11. Panama Canal- -one of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken -helped shape U.S. foreign policy -reason for world wide control of disease, especially malaria and yellow fever
12. RMS Titanic- -symbol of early 20th century optimism, industrialism, and extravagance -it’s sinking in 1912 foreshadowed changes about to take place world wide
13. New Imperialism- -refers to the colonial expansion of European nations, Japan, and the United States during the end of the 19th and early 20th century -became an aggressive competition to acquire land -denied self-government to many regions on the basis of race
17. White Man’s Burden- -written by English poet Rudyard Kipling and first published in McClure’s magazine in 1899 -used to justify European policies of Imperialism
Rudyard Kipling, The White Man's Burden, 1899 <ul><li>Take up the White Man's burden-- </li></ul><ul><li>And reap his old reward: </li></ul><ul><li>The blame of those ye better, </li></ul><ul><li>The hate of those ye guard-- </li></ul><ul><li>The cry of hosts ye humour </li></ul><ul><li>(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-- </li></ul><ul><li>"Why brought he us from bondage, </li></ul><ul><li>Our loved Egyptian night?" </li></ul><ul><li>Take up the White Man's burden-- </li></ul><ul><li>Ye dare not stoop to less-- </li></ul><ul><li>Nor call too loud on Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>To cloke your weariness; </li></ul><ul><li>By all ye cry or whisper, </li></ul><ul><li>By all ye leave or do, </li></ul><ul><li>The silent, sullen peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Shall weigh your gods and you. </li></ul><ul><li>Take up the White Man's burden-- </li></ul><ul><li>Have done with childish days-- </li></ul><ul><li>The lightly proferred laurel, </li></ul><ul><li>The easy, ungrudged praise. </li></ul><ul><li>Comes now, to search your manhood </li></ul><ul><li>Through all the thankless years </li></ul><ul><li>Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, </li></ul><ul><li>The judgment of your peers! </li></ul>Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Man's burden-- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek another's profit, And work another's gain. Take up the White Man's burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought. Take up the White Man's burden-- No tawdry rule of kings, But toil of serf and sweeper-- The tale of common things. The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not tread, Go mark them with your living, And mark them with your dead.
14. Berlin Conference- -held in 1884 to regulate European the colonization of Africa -began a period known as the “Scramble for Africa” a major increased of colonial activity in Africa
15. Cecil Rhodes- -British-born South African businessman and miner -founder of De Beers Diamond mining and trading, owning 60% of the world’s diamonds -controlled large regions of Southern Africa eventually known as Rhodesia -wanted to create a Cape to Cairo Railroad
16. Boer War- -British gold miners began to over run the Dutch Boers (farmers) in Cape Colony of South Africa -the Dutch ruled colony made the British second-class citizens which led to uprisings -to protect their citizens, and to expand their empire, the British got involved in 1899 -a multi-colony force was used by the British against a more guerrilla Boer army -the British were uncommonly brutal, killing 26,000 civilians -Britain took over all territory in Cape Colony
18. Qing (Manchu) Dynasty -last ruling dynasty of China, ending in 1911 -Chinese dynasties began ca. 1500 B.C.
19. Empress Dowager Cixi -born in the lower classes, became a concubine of the Emperor Xianfeng -became actual ruler of China in 1861 when her son, Tongzhi became emperor at age five -maintained control by replacing her son with her younger nephew, Guangxu -at first opposed anti-western movements but later found it necessary to support them -her rule ended with her death in 1908 and is largely associated with being one reason the Qing Dynasty ended
20. Boxers -Society of the Right and Harmonious Fists -a violent anti-imperialist movement beginning in Northern China -Boxers murdered thousands of Christians, both foreign and Chinese -expanded into capital city of Beijing
21. Eight Nation Alliance -Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, Russia, United States, and Japan -agreement in 1900 among nations with an interest in putting down the Boxer Rebellion -took over and destroyed important imperial places in Beijing -eventually drove the Boxers back to Manchuria and defeated them -another reason the Manchu Dynasty eventually ended
22. Sun Yat-sen -considered the “Father of Modern China” -educated in Hawaii, headed revolutionary movement in China to replace emperor with republic -met resistance from communists, local warlords, and other revolutionaries -left a fragile Republic of China at the time of his death in 1912 -brought an end to the Manchu Dynasty
23. Emperor Puyi -at age two, the Empress Dowager Cixi, while on her death bed, selected him to be the Qing Emperor -became known as “The Last Emperor of China” -lost power struggle with Republic movement in China in Xinhai Revolution -a treaty signed with Republic of China allowed a powerless Emperor and his court to remain
24. Cuban Rebellion- -during the 19th century Cubans fought to free their country from Spanish rule -weaker, less organized, and poorly equipped, the Cuban rebels relied on guerilla tactics -not a popular assignment, Spain sent the nations lesser soldiers and leaders to Cuba -although Spain was a world power, the Cuban Rebellion was a draw
25. Yellow Journalism- -sensationalism or unprofessionalism used in the media -the term originated with New York newspaper men William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer -each was trying to sell newspapers by sensationalizing the Cuban Rebellion
William Randolph Hearst <ul><li>Joseph Pulitzer </li></ul>
26. USS Maine- -fearing American interests were in jeopardy in Cuba, President McKinley sent the USS Maine to Havana Harbor -an unexplained explosion caused the ship to sink in 1898 -although never proven, the Spanish were blamed and the Spanish-American War began
27. George Dewey- -ordered to leave China and attack the Spanish fleet should the U.S. be attacked -the message to not attack was delayed by the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Teddy Roosevelt -cornered the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay and defeating them within six hours
28. Rough Riders- -nickname of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment -many of those making up the group were the adventurous friends of Teddy Roosevelt -fought in the bloodiest battle of the war, Kettle Hill (San Juan Hill)
29. Treaty of Paris- -war lasted 109 days -US was awarded Puerto Rico, Guam, West Indies, and some lesser Pacific Islands -US paid Spain $20 million for control of the Philippines -Cuba was technically independent
Ambassador John Hay, writing from London to Theodore Roosevelt after Spain wanted peace, declared that from start to finish it had been "a splendid little war."
30. Platt Amendment- -passed by U.S. Congress in 1901 -limited Cuban independence by forcing U.S. approval of all international action by Cuba -gave U.S. control of Guantanamo Bay (which it still maintains today)
31. Porfirio Diaz- -Mexican American War hero who became President of Mexico -agreed to hold free election which he thought he could win by sending opposition leader Bernardo Reyes on a European mission
32. Francisco Madero- -became opposition leader after Reyes’s departure -when Diaz claimed victory following an obviously fraudulent election, Madero led a revolt against him -Madero became President after Diaz fled to France in 1911 -was eventually assassinated in 1913 by supporters of Huerta
33. Victoriano Huerta- -led revolts in favor of Madero, but later allied himself with the U.S. , Reyes, and Diaz’s nephew Felix - led a coup of the Mexican government and eventual assassination of Madero -his harsh military dictatorship cost him the support of the U.S. as well as his allies in Mexico -resigned the presidency and fled the country to save his life in 1914
34. Venustiano Carranza- -became the new President of Mexico after a new constitution was written in 1917 -was assassinated by those opposed to his governmental reforms
35. Emiliano Zapata- -joined Madero’s battle against the government of Diaz by organizing the rebellious outlaw bands -joined the outlaws after being passed over for advancement in Madero’s government -his rebels increased after the assassination of Madero -Carranza eventually put a price on his head and Zapata was killed in an ambush
36. Pancho Villa- -an outlaw in the northern regions of Mexico -united with Zapada’s southern band of outlaws to gain political power -angered by America’s support of Carranza he led attacks on American interests and murdering Americans
37. Columbus, New Mexico- -Villa led a raid against the city in 1916 -stole horses and ammunition, burned the town, and murdered 24 -launched an American invasion force into Mexico to capture Villa
38. John J. Pershing- -led calvary in Sioux City, Iowa against one of the last Lakota uprisings -taught military tactics at University of Nebraska-Lincoln where his division won the Omaha Cup -led the Buffalo Soldiers against the western Indian tribes -assigned by Woodrow Wilson lead Punitive Expedition (1916-1917) to apprehend Poncho Villa -U.S. lost interest as war in Europe became more widespread
39. Trans-Siberian Railroad- -6,000 mile long railroad begun in 1891 to open Siberia’s vast natural resources for industrial use in the west -to save money and distance, it crossed Manchuria in northern China -nearly caused the government to go bankrupt -a hastily constructed single line of varying gauge track made travel difficult -has had a major effected on Russian history
40. Port Arthur- -Russia wanted to control a Pacific warm water port for military and trade reasons -became opening battle of Russo-Japanese War in 1904 -the year long battle ended in a Russian defeat and near destruction of their Pacific fleet
41. Russo-Japanese War- -fought in 1904 and 1905 over northern China (Manchuria) and Korea -Russia wanted to negotiate over territory China lost in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) -to the surprise of the world, Russia was soundly defeated -exposed the corruption and inefficiency of the Czar and the Russian government -also showed the rapid industrial success of Japan
(1) Felix Yusupov wrote about his views on the Russo-Japanese War in his autobiography published in 1953. The war with Japan, one of the most terrible blunders made during the reign of Nicholas II, had disastrous consequences and marked the beginning of our misfortunes. Russia was not prepared for war, and those who encouraged the Tsar in his purpose betrayed their Sovereign as well as their country. Russia's enemies took advantage of the general dissatisfaction to set the Government and the masses against each other.
Russo-Japanese War… Nicholas II of Russia was playing tennis. When the Emperor was handed a telegram he had two tennis balls in his left hand, a raised racket, ready to serve, in his right. He took the telegram and read: “Russian Fleet annihilated at Shushima (stop) Nearly all our ships sunk.” The Czar shoved the telegram into his trouser pocket. “Thirty-fifteen.” he said, and served.
42. Theodore Roosevelt- -won Nobel Peace Prize for mediating treaty to end Russo-Japanese War -signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire on September 5, 1905 -neither was satisfied with treaty but both Japan (financial difficulties) and Russia (several sever defeats) needed quick end to war
43. Bloody Sunday (1905) -protests against the Czarist government grew dramatically following defeat by Japan -on January 22, 1905 a group of protesters made their way to the Winter Palace to present the Czar a petition -troops protecting the Palace shot into the unarmed crowd killing many -this action sparked riots, strikes, mutinies from the military, and street fighting across Russia
44. October Manifesto- -issued by Nicholas II in response to the 1905 Revolution -pledged to grant civil liberties like freedom of religion, speech, and assembly
45. Duma- -representative body of government established by the Czar in response to the Bloody Sunday in 1905 -Czar issued “Fundamental Laws” the following year -Czar could appoint and dismiss any government official and could call for new elections by dismissing the Duma at any time