Les00 Intoduction
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Les00 Intoduction Les00 Intoduction Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction
  • Objectives
    After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
    Discuss the theoretical and physical aspects of a relational database
    Describe the Oracle implementation of the RDBMS and ORDBMS
    Describe how SQL and PL/SQL are used in the Oracle product set
    Describe the use and benefits of PL/SQL
  • System Development Life Cycle
    Strategy
    and
    Analysis
    Design
    Build
    and
    Document
    Transition
    Production
  • System Development Life Cycle
    Strategy
    and
    Analysis
    Design
    Build
    and
    Document
    Transition
    Production
  • Data Storage on Different Media
    Database
    Electronic spreadsheet
    Filing cabinet
    SALGRADE
    GRADE LOSAL HISAL
    --------- --------- ---------
    17001200
    212011400
    314012000
    420013000
    530019999
    DEPT
    DEPTNO DNAME LOC
    --------- -------------- ---------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
    20 RESEARCH DALLAS
    30 SALES CHICAGO
    40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
  • Relational Database Concept
    Dr. E. F. Codd proposed the relational model for database systems in 1970.
    It is the basis for the relational database management system (RDBMS).
    The relational model consists of the following:
    Collection of objects or relations
    Set of operators to act on the relations
    Data integrity for accuracy and consistency
  • Table Name: DEPT
    Table Name: EMP
    DEPTNO DNAME LOC
    10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
    20 RESEARCH DALLAS
    30 SALES CHICAGO
    40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
    EMPNO ENAME JOB DEPTNO
    7839 KING PRESIDENT10
    7698 BLAKE MANAGER30
    7782 CLARK MANAGER 10
    7566 JONES MANAGER20
    Definition of a Relational Database
    A relational database is a collection of relations or two-dimensional tables.
    Database
  • Data Models
    Server
    Model ofsystemin client’smind
    Entity model ofclient’s model
    Table modelof entity model
    Tables on disk
    • Create an entity relationship diagram from business specifications or narratives
    • Scenario
    • “. . . Assign one or more employees to a department . . .”
    • “. . . Some departments do not yet have assigned employees . . .”
    Entity Relationship Model
    DEPARTMENT
    #* number
    * name
    olocation
    EMPLOYEE
    #* number
    * name
    ojob title
    assigned to
    composed of
  • Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions
    Entity
    Soft box
    Singular, unique name
    Uppercase
    Synonym in parentheses
    Attribute
    Singular name
    Lowercase
    Mandatory marked with “*”
    Optional marked with “o”
    DEPARTMENT
    #* number
    * name
    olocation
    EMPLOYEE
    #* number
    * name
    ojob title
    assigned to
    composed of
    Unique Identifier (UID)
    Primary marked with “#”
    Secondary marked with “(#)”
  • Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions
    Entity
    Soft box
    Singular, unique name
    Uppercase
    Synonym in parentheses
    Attribute
    Singular name
    Lowercase
    Mandatory marked with “*”
    Optional marked with “o”
    DEPARTMENT
    #* number
    * name
    olocation
    EMPLOYEE
    #* number
    * name
    ojob title
    assigned to
    composed of
    Unique Identifier (UID)
    Primary marked with “#”
    Secondary marked with “(#)”
  • 2
    3
    4
    6
    5
    1
    Relational Database Terminology
    EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO
    ------------- ------------ --------------------- -------- ---------------- ----------- -------------- -----------
    7839KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81500010
    7698BLAKEMANAGER 783901-MAY-81285030
    7782CLARK MANAGER783909-JUN-81245010
    7566JONES MANAGER783902-APR-81297520
    7654MARTINSALESMAN 769828-SEP-811250140030
    7499ALLEN SALESMAN 769820-FEB-81160030030
    7844TURNER SALESMAN 769808-SEP-811500030
    7900JAMES CLERK 769803-DEC-8195030
    7521WARDSALESMAN 769822-FEB-81125050030
    7902FORDANALYST 756603-DEC-81300020
    7369SMITH CLERK 790217-DEC-8080020
    7788SCOTTANALYST 756609-DEC-82300020
    7876ADAMS CLERK 778812-JAN-83110020
    7934MILLER CLERK 778223-JAN-82130010
  • Relating Multiple Tables
    Primary key
    Primary key
    Foreign key
    • Each row of data in a table is uniquely identified by a primary key (PK).
    • You can logically relate data from multiple tables using foreign keys (FK).
    Table Name: EMP
    Table Name: DEPT
    EMPNO ENAME JOB DEPTNO
    7839 KING PRESIDENT10
    7698 BLAKE MANAGER30
    7782 CLARK MANAGER 10
    7566 JONES MANAGER20
    DEPTNO DNAME LOC
    10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
    20 RESEARCH DALLAS
    30 SALES CHICAGO
    40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
  • Relational Database Properties
    A relational database
    Can be accessed and modified by executing structured query language (SQL) statements
    Contains a collection of tables with no physical pointers
    Uses a set of operators
  • Communicating with a RDBMS Using SQL
    SQL statementis entered
    Statement is sent to database
    SQL> SELECT loc
    2 FROM dept;
    Database
    Data is displayed
    LOC
    -------------
    NEW YORK
    DALLAS
    CHICAGO
    BOSTON
  • Relational Database Management System
    Server
    User tables
    Data
    dictionary
  • Oracle8: Object Relational Database Management System
    User-defined data types and objects
    Fully compatible with relational database
    Support of multimedia and large objects
    High-quality database server features
  • Defining an Object
    An object
    Is a person, place, or thing
    Knows things about itself and performs actions
    Has an identity
    I am a clock. I knowmy time zone, and Ican display time.
  • Using an Object Model
    Objects model a problem to solve.
    The model is stated in terms of the interactions between objects.
    Object models closely resemble the real world.
    Buy
    Sell
    Customers
    Business
  • Characteristics of Object Systems
    Present information in object form
    Classify objects into object types
    Inherit attributes and code
    Hide data, code, and attributes
    Interact with other objects
    Recognize different objects without analysis
    Interpret the same command in different ways
  • Oracle Complete Solution
    Database
    Applications
    HR
    Financials
    Manufacturing
    ...
    Oracle Developer
    Discoverer
    Oracle Designer
    SQL* Plus
    SQL
    PL/SQL
    Oracle7/8
    Data dictionary
    Data tables
  • SQL Statements
    SELECT
    INSERT
    UPDATE
    DELETE
    CREATE
    ALTER
    DROP
    RENAME
    TRUNCATE
    COMMIT
    ROLLBACK
    SAVEPOINT
    GRANT
    REVOKE
    Data retrieval
    Data manipulation language (DML)
    Data definition language (DDL)
    Transaction control
    Data control language (DCL)
  • About PL/SQL
    PL/SQL is an extension to SQL with design features of programming languages.
    Data manipulation and query statements of SQL are included within procedural units of code.
  • PL/SQL Environment
    PL/SQL engine
    PL/SQL
    Procedural
    Statement
    Executor
    PL/SQL
    block
    PL/SQL
    block
    SQL
    SQL Statement Executor
    Oracle Server
  • Tables Used in the Course
    DEPT
    DEPTNO DNAME LOC
    --------- -------------- ---------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
    20 RESEARCH DALLAS
    30 SALES CHICAGO
    40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
    SALGRADE
    GRADE LOSAL HISAL
    --------- --------- ---------
    17001200
    212011400
    314012000
    420013000
    530019999
    EMP
    EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO
    --------- ---------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
    7839 KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81500010
    7698 BLAKE MANAGER 783901-MAY-81285030
    7782 CLARK MANAGER 783909-JUN-81245010
    7566 JONES MANAGER 783902-APR-81297520
    7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 769828-SEP-811250140030
    7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 769820-FEB-81160030030
    7844 TURNER SALESMAN 769808-SEP-811500030
    7900 JAMES CLERK 769803-DEC-8195030
    7521 WARD SALESMAN 769822-FEB-81125050030
    7902 FORD ANALYST 756603-DEC-81300020
    7369 SMITH CLERK 790217-DEC-8080020
    7788 SCOTT ANALYST 756609-DEC-82300020
    7876 ADAMS CLERK 778812-JAN-83110020
    7934 MILLER CLERK 778223-JAN-82130010
  • Summary
    Relational databases are composed of relations, managed by relational operations, and governed by data integrity constraints.
    The Oracle Server allows you to store and manage information by using the SQL language and PL/SQL engine.
    PL/SQL is an extension to SQL with design features of programming languages.