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Les00 Intoduction
 

Les00 Intoduction

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    Les00 Intoduction Les00 Intoduction Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction
    • Objectives
      After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
      Discuss the theoretical and physical aspects of a relational database
      Describe the Oracle implementation of the RDBMS and ORDBMS
      Describe how SQL and PL/SQL are used in the Oracle product set
      Describe the use and benefits of PL/SQL
    • System Development Life Cycle
      Strategy
      and
      Analysis
      Design
      Build
      and
      Document
      Transition
      Production
    • System Development Life Cycle
      Strategy
      and
      Analysis
      Design
      Build
      and
      Document
      Transition
      Production
    • Data Storage on Different Media
      Database
      Electronic spreadsheet
      Filing cabinet
      SALGRADE
      GRADE LOSAL HISAL
      --------- --------- ---------
      17001200
      212011400
      314012000
      420013000
      530019999
      DEPT
      DEPTNO DNAME LOC
      --------- -------------- ---------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
      20 RESEARCH DALLAS
      30 SALES CHICAGO
      40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
    • Relational Database Concept
      Dr. E. F. Codd proposed the relational model for database systems in 1970.
      It is the basis for the relational database management system (RDBMS).
      The relational model consists of the following:
      Collection of objects or relations
      Set of operators to act on the relations
      Data integrity for accuracy and consistency
    • Table Name: DEPT
      Table Name: EMP
      DEPTNO DNAME LOC
      10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
      20 RESEARCH DALLAS
      30 SALES CHICAGO
      40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
      EMPNO ENAME JOB DEPTNO
      7839 KING PRESIDENT10
      7698 BLAKE MANAGER30
      7782 CLARK MANAGER 10
      7566 JONES MANAGER20
      Definition of a Relational Database
      A relational database is a collection of relations or two-dimensional tables.
      Database
    • Data Models
      Server
      Model ofsystemin client’smind
      Entity model ofclient’s model
      Table modelof entity model
      Tables on disk
      • Create an entity relationship diagram from business specifications or narratives
      • Scenario
      • “. . . Assign one or more employees to a department . . .”
      • “. . . Some departments do not yet have assigned employees . . .”
      Entity Relationship Model
      DEPARTMENT
      #* number
      * name
      olocation
      EMPLOYEE
      #* number
      * name
      ojob title
      assigned to
      composed of
    • Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions
      Entity
      Soft box
      Singular, unique name
      Uppercase
      Synonym in parentheses
      Attribute
      Singular name
      Lowercase
      Mandatory marked with “*”
      Optional marked with “o”
      DEPARTMENT
      #* number
      * name
      olocation
      EMPLOYEE
      #* number
      * name
      ojob title
      assigned to
      composed of
      Unique Identifier (UID)
      Primary marked with “#”
      Secondary marked with “(#)”
    • Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions
      Entity
      Soft box
      Singular, unique name
      Uppercase
      Synonym in parentheses
      Attribute
      Singular name
      Lowercase
      Mandatory marked with “*”
      Optional marked with “o”
      DEPARTMENT
      #* number
      * name
      olocation
      EMPLOYEE
      #* number
      * name
      ojob title
      assigned to
      composed of
      Unique Identifier (UID)
      Primary marked with “#”
      Secondary marked with “(#)”
    • 2
      3
      4
      6
      5
      1
      Relational Database Terminology
      EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO
      ------------- ------------ --------------------- -------- ---------------- ----------- -------------- -----------
      7839KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81500010
      7698BLAKEMANAGER 783901-MAY-81285030
      7782CLARK MANAGER783909-JUN-81245010
      7566JONES MANAGER783902-APR-81297520
      7654MARTINSALESMAN 769828-SEP-811250140030
      7499ALLEN SALESMAN 769820-FEB-81160030030
      7844TURNER SALESMAN 769808-SEP-811500030
      7900JAMES CLERK 769803-DEC-8195030
      7521WARDSALESMAN 769822-FEB-81125050030
      7902FORDANALYST 756603-DEC-81300020
      7369SMITH CLERK 790217-DEC-8080020
      7788SCOTTANALYST 756609-DEC-82300020
      7876ADAMS CLERK 778812-JAN-83110020
      7934MILLER CLERK 778223-JAN-82130010
    • Relating Multiple Tables
      Primary key
      Primary key
      Foreign key
      • Each row of data in a table is uniquely identified by a primary key (PK).
      • You can logically relate data from multiple tables using foreign keys (FK).
      Table Name: EMP
      Table Name: DEPT
      EMPNO ENAME JOB DEPTNO
      7839 KING PRESIDENT10
      7698 BLAKE MANAGER30
      7782 CLARK MANAGER 10
      7566 JONES MANAGER20
      DEPTNO DNAME LOC
      10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
      20 RESEARCH DALLAS
      30 SALES CHICAGO
      40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
    • Relational Database Properties
      A relational database
      Can be accessed and modified by executing structured query language (SQL) statements
      Contains a collection of tables with no physical pointers
      Uses a set of operators
    • Communicating with a RDBMS Using SQL
      SQL statementis entered
      Statement is sent to database
      SQL> SELECT loc
      2 FROM dept;
      Database
      Data is displayed
      LOC
      -------------
      NEW YORK
      DALLAS
      CHICAGO
      BOSTON
    • Relational Database Management System
      Server
      User tables
      Data
      dictionary
    • Oracle8: Object Relational Database Management System
      User-defined data types and objects
      Fully compatible with relational database
      Support of multimedia and large objects
      High-quality database server features
    • Defining an Object
      An object
      Is a person, place, or thing
      Knows things about itself and performs actions
      Has an identity
      I am a clock. I knowmy time zone, and Ican display time.
    • Using an Object Model
      Objects model a problem to solve.
      The model is stated in terms of the interactions between objects.
      Object models closely resemble the real world.
      Buy
      Sell
      Customers
      Business
    • Characteristics of Object Systems
      Present information in object form
      Classify objects into object types
      Inherit attributes and code
      Hide data, code, and attributes
      Interact with other objects
      Recognize different objects without analysis
      Interpret the same command in different ways
    • Oracle Complete Solution
      Database
      Applications
      HR
      Financials
      Manufacturing
      ...
      Oracle Developer
      Discoverer
      Oracle Designer
      SQL* Plus
      SQL
      PL/SQL
      Oracle7/8
      Data dictionary
      Data tables
    • SQL Statements
      SELECT
      INSERT
      UPDATE
      DELETE
      CREATE
      ALTER
      DROP
      RENAME
      TRUNCATE
      COMMIT
      ROLLBACK
      SAVEPOINT
      GRANT
      REVOKE
      Data retrieval
      Data manipulation language (DML)
      Data definition language (DDL)
      Transaction control
      Data control language (DCL)
    • About PL/SQL
      PL/SQL is an extension to SQL with design features of programming languages.
      Data manipulation and query statements of SQL are included within procedural units of code.
    • PL/SQL Environment
      PL/SQL engine
      PL/SQL
      Procedural
      Statement
      Executor
      PL/SQL
      block
      PL/SQL
      block
      SQL
      SQL Statement Executor
      Oracle Server
    • Tables Used in the Course
      DEPT
      DEPTNO DNAME LOC
      --------- -------------- ---------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
      20 RESEARCH DALLAS
      30 SALES CHICAGO
      40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
      SALGRADE
      GRADE LOSAL HISAL
      --------- --------- ---------
      17001200
      212011400
      314012000
      420013000
      530019999
      EMP
      EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO
      --------- ---------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
      7839 KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81500010
      7698 BLAKE MANAGER 783901-MAY-81285030
      7782 CLARK MANAGER 783909-JUN-81245010
      7566 JONES MANAGER 783902-APR-81297520
      7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 769828-SEP-811250140030
      7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 769820-FEB-81160030030
      7844 TURNER SALESMAN 769808-SEP-811500030
      7900 JAMES CLERK 769803-DEC-8195030
      7521 WARD SALESMAN 769822-FEB-81125050030
      7902 FORD ANALYST 756603-DEC-81300020
      7369 SMITH CLERK 790217-DEC-8080020
      7788 SCOTT ANALYST 756609-DEC-82300020
      7876 ADAMS CLERK 778812-JAN-83110020
      7934 MILLER CLERK 778223-JAN-82130010
    • Summary
      Relational databases are composed of relations, managed by relational operations, and governed by data integrity constraints.
      The Oracle Server allows you to store and manage information by using the SQL language and PL/SQL engine.
      PL/SQL is an extension to SQL with design features of programming languages.