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  • 1. E UROPEAN V IEW Volume 2 - Autumn 2005EUROPE, ITS BORDERS AND ROLE IN THE WORLD Wilfried Martens EU-US Relations: Old Challenges and New Opportunities • Antonio López-Istúriz & Kostas Sasmatzoglou Democracy-building in Europe and Beyond • Elmar Brok The EU as a Global Player in the 21 st Century Perspectives for the Common Foreign and Security Policy • Fraser Cameron The EU and Global Governance • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Turkey - The Missing Link in the European Puzzle • Benita Ferrero-Waldner Future Prospects for the European Neigh- bourhood Policy • Franco Frattini Europe, Global Security and the Fight Against Terrorism • Ingo Friedrich Quo Vadis? Europe’s Role in a Globalised World • Lawrence Gonzi Mediterranean Security and Regional Management • Leonid Gozman Russia and Europe: Between Love and Hate • Annette Heuser Europe’s World - A Global Power in the Making • John Howard Australia - EU Relations: Shared Interests, Common Challenges • Ioannis Kasoulides Cyprus: Becoming Europe’s Hub in the Middle East • Jyrki Katainen Releasing the Northern Potential: Benefiting from Baltic Area Investment • John McCain Transatlantic Relations: An American View • Don McKinnon The Commonwealth and the European Union • John Edwin Mroz Securing Europe and Its Neighbours • Per Stig Møller Working Even Closer: the EU, the United Nations and the Reform of the Security Council • Ong Keng Yong Advancing ASEAN- EU Relations in the 21st Century • Jan Petersen Europe’s Role in Solving Conflicts and Building Peace • Mariano Rajoy EU and Latin America - A Special Relationship • Dimitrij Rupel Security and Cooperation in Europe - A View of the Future • Mikheil Saakashvili Democratic Choice • Nicolas Sarkozy France for a More Ambitious Europe • Jacek Saryusz- Wolski Belarus: The Gate of Europe • Mirek Topolánek Enlargement, European Neighbourhood Policy and the Role of New Member States • Yannis Valinakis Paving the Western Balkans’ European Path • René van der Linden The Council of Europe and the EU - Partners for a Stable Europe • Victor Yushchenko Ukraine Towards the European Project A Journal of the Forum for European Studies
  • 2. EUROPEAN VIEW European View is a Journal of the Forum for European Studies, published by the European People’s Party. European View is a biannual publication that tackles the entire spectrum of Europe’s political, economic, social and cultural developments. European View is an open forum for academics, experts and decision-makers across Europe to debate and exchange views and ideas. EDITORIAL BOARD Chairman: Wilfried Martens, President of the European People’s Party, former Prime Minister, Belgium Carl Bildt, former Prime Minister, Sweden Elmar Brok, Member of the European Parliament, Germany John Bruton, former Prime Minister, Ireland Mário David, Member of Parliament, Portugal Vicente Martínez-Pujalte López, Member of Parliament, Spain Loyola de Palacio, former Vice-President of the European Commission, Spain Chris Patten, former Member of the European Commission, United Kingdom Jan Petersen, former Foreign Minister, Norway Hans-Gert Poettering, Chairman of the EPP-ED Group in the European Parliament, Germany Alexander Stubb, Member of the European Parliament, Finland József Szájer, Vice-Chairman of the EPP-ED Group in the European Parliament, Hungary Andrej Umek, former Minister for Science and Technology, Slovenia Per Unckel, former Minister of Education and Science, Sweden Yannis Valinakis, Deputy Foreign Minister, Greece ADVISORY BOARD Antonio López-Istúriz, Christian Kremer, Luc Vandeputte, Kostas Sasmatzoglou, Ingrid Goossens, Guy Volckaert EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Tomi Huhtanen Assistant Editors: Michèle Cimenti, Mélanie Dursin, Galina Fomenchenko For editorial inquiries please contact: European View Editor-in-Chief Rue d’Arlon 67 1040 Brussels email: Tel. +32 2 285 41 49 Fax. +32 2 285 41 41 Url: The Forum for European Studies is a think-tank dedicated to Christian Democrat and like-minded political values, which is engaged in open, comprehensive and analytical debate. European View and its publishers assume no responsibility for facts or opinions expressed in this publication. Articles are subject to editing and final approval by the Editorial Board. This publication is partly funded by the European Parliament.2 European View
  • 3. CONTENTS• Editorial: Democracy-building in Europe and Beyond ................................................................................................5 Antonio López-Istúriz & Kostas Sasmatzoglou• EU-US Relations: Old Challenges and New Opportunities ........................................................................................13 Wilfried Martens• The EU as a Global Player in the 21st Century - Perspectives for a Common Foreign and Security Policy ..............................................................................................................................................................................19 Elmar Brok• The EU and Global Governance .................................................................................................................................................27 Fraser Cameron• Turkey - The Missing Link in the European Puzzle .......................................................................................................33 Recep Tayyip Erdoğan• Future Prospects for the European Neighbourhood Policy .......................................................................................41 Benita Ferrero-Waldner• Europe, Global Security and the Fight Against Terrorism ........................................................................................47 Franco Frattini• Quo Vadis? Europe’s Role in a Globalised World ............................................................................................................53 Ingo Friedrich• Mediterranean Security and Regional Management ...................................................................................................57 Lawrence Gonzi• Russia and Europe: Between Love and Hate......................................................................................................................65 Leonid Gozman• Europe’s World - A Global Power in the Making .............................................................................................................71 Annette Heuser• Australia - EU Relations: Shared Interests, Common Challenges .........................................................................77 John Howard• Cyprus: Becoming Europe’s Hub in the Middle East ....................................................................................................83 Ioannis Kasoulides• Releasing the Northern Potential: Benefiting from Baltic Area Investment..................................................87 Jyrki Katainen• Transatlantic Relations: An American View......................................................................................................................95 John McCain• The Commonwealth and the European Union ..............................................................................................................103 Don McKinnon• Securing Europe and its Neighbours ....................................................................................................................................107 John Edwin Mroz 3 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 4. • Working Even Closer: the EU, the United Nations and the Reform of the Security Council .............................................................................................................................113 Per Stig Møller • Advancing ASEAN-EU Relations in the 21st Century ................................................................................................119 Ong Keng Yong • Europe’s Role in Solving Conflicts and Building Peace ...........................................................................................125 Jan Petersen • EU and Latin America - A Special Relationship ...........................................................................................................131 Mariano Rajoy • Security and Cooperation in Europe - A View of the Future .............................................................................. 137 Dimitrij Rupel • Democratic Choice ............................................................................................................................................................................143 Mikheil Saakashvili • France for a More Ambitious Europe ...................................................................................................................................147 Nicolas Sarkozy • Belarus: The Gate of Europe .......................................................................................................................................................153 Jacek Saryusz-Wolski • Enlargement, European Neighbourhood Policy and the Role of New Member States.........................159 Mirek Topolánek • Paving the Western Balkans’ European Path .................................................................................................................165 Yannis Valinakis • The Council of Europe and the EU - Partners for a Stable Europe ..................................................................171 René van der Linden • Ukraine Towards the European Project ..............................................................................................................................177 Victor Yushchenko4 European View
  • 5. Antonio López-Istúriz & Kostas Sasmatzoglou Editorial Democracy-building in Europe and Beyond By Antonio López-Istúriz & Kostas SasmatzoglouWith the fall of the Berlin Wall and Beyond our immediate neighbour-the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the hood, the EPP is particularly concernedEuropean Union faced enormous with the democratic challenges ofchallenges in its effort to stabilise the Middle East and North Africaand gradually integrate the newly and the grave dangers of religiousestablished, but fragile Central and and political extremism. The post-Eastern European democracies. A major part September 11 global environment and the surgeof this challenge was to help build strong of terrorist acts – many of them on European soiland reliable democratic foundations in these – has made us particularly sensitive to the needcountries, based on the fundamental political for greater stability, democracy and prosperityvirtues of post-WWII Europe; the same ones that in the problematic parts of the world.inspired the creation of a common and unitedEuropean home. Another region that was, is, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future politicallyThe European People’s Party (EPP) – whose problematic is Latin America. The EPP and ourfounding fathers and member-parties have global partners have, for many years, been atpioneered the European project from its the forefront of assisting democratic forces andinception – was determined to take a leading exposing authoritarian regimes, such as Cubarole, despite the magnitude of the task (dozens and Venezuela, and will not rest until democracyof countries, hundreds of economic and social takes root throughout the region.problems, limited EU resources, etc.). Theprimary aim was to bolster the political forces Enlarging through Enlargementthat were committed to democracy, socialmarket economy and the rule of law, particularly The integration of the newly-establishedsince many of them were kept marginalized democracies of Central and Eastern Europeby refurbished post-communist political elites, was a pain-staking process with politicalgroomed by the European Socialists. reform at its heart. With the swift submission of EU membership applications by the CzechThe hard work of the last 15 years has brought Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,impressive results since our like-minded political Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia the EPP, soonpartners have entered the center-stage of national enough, received a wave of applications byand European politics and have managed to political parties eager to join our political familybring the most recent EU enlargement cycle to and to utilise our political experience, resourcesa successful conclusion. Nevertheless, the drive and democratic methods. This eagernessfor democracy-building by the EPP is far from was understandably acute in countries whereover. Our work in the Western Balkans is still yesterday’s communists became today’sevolving and we have only started becoming ‘democrats’ who helped preserve largeengaged in Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus, not parts of the old economic and bureaucraticwithstanding our ad hoc activities in the Trans- establishments while dipping into the newCaucasus and the Russian Federation. ‘spoils’, generated by the free-market economy. 5 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 6. Democracy-building in Europe and Beyond More importantly, these post-communist The results from all these efforts proved to politicians quickly found refuge in the Party be very positive since, slowly but surely, most of European Socialists (PES) and the Socialist of these parties entered the center-stage of International (SI) who, due to their traditional national and, eventually, European politics. By ‘flexibility’ towards such politicians and practices, gradually integrating with the EPP as observers rose triumphantly to the occasion. and associate members they managed, at the pre-accession stage, to become well-acquainted The EPP, therefore, had the task of commencing with European-level political behaviours and its own enlargement process that would also practices. For example, with the participation complement the overall enlargement policy of of their leaders at the EPP Summit – which the European Union. It would, first, have to prepares the agenda of the EU Council Summit identify potential political partners that would – they had the opportunity to become engaged generally adhere to the basic ideological with EU policies prior to the accession of their principles and values of the EPP and that countries. Furthermore, political leaders from would also represent a noteworthy portion of these countries began playing a role in the the national electorate. After identifying such a internal decision-making process of the EPP. party and before even considering any type of At the October 2002 EPP Congress in Estoril membership affiliation1, European political think (Portugal) for example, two out of the eleven tanks2 affiliated to the EPP would overtake the EPP Vice-Presidents elected came from the challenge of offering training and educational enlargement countries: the Hungarian leader of programmes to the leaders, advisers, youth and FIDESZ and former Prime Minister Victor Orban to any other party member that was considered and the Bulgarian leader of UDF4 and former important for the greater democratization and Minister of Foreign Affairs Nadezhda Mihailova. ‘Europeanization’ of the political party. In parallel, the EPP would pool all other available By May 2004, when the European Union resources – particularly those from the EPP-ED welcomed 10 new Member States, the EPP had Group in the European Parliament – to organize accepted 18 political parties as full members: conferences, seminars, and other relevant one from the Czech Republic5, two from Estonia, activities in all these countries. The coordinating two from Hungary, three from Latvia, two from role for all these activities was handled by long- Lithuania, two from Poland, three from Slovakia, standing EPP Vice-President Wim van Velzen3. and three from Slovenia.6 The success of the The experienced Dutch politician, chairing both EPP in these countries was also reflected in the the EPP Working Group on “Enlargement & EPP June 2004 European elections in which the EPP- Memberships” and the Working Group of the ED Group in the European Parliament secured EPP-ED Group on Central and Eastern Europe, 268 seats and first place, with MEPs from all was uniquely placed to manage this Herculean the recently acceded Member States (and from task on behalf of the EPP. all other EU Member States). In the newly enlarged European Commission, 3 out of the 9 1 The EPP offers three types of membership status: a) observer member, b) associate member (maximum status for parties belonging to EU candidate countries, EFTA countries, & Stability Pact countries), and c) full member (maximum status for parties belonging to EU member countries). 2 The Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (KAS – by far the largest, linked to the CDU), together with the ÖVP Political Academy, the Eduardo Frei Foundation (CDA), the Hanns Seidel Stiftung (CSU), FAES (PP), along with the Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute (directly affiliated to the EPP), a.o. 3 Wim van Velzen is the former leader of the Dutch CDA and former Vice President of the EPP-ED Group and Member of the European Parliament. He continues to Chair EPP Working Group “Enlargement & EPP Memberships.” 4 The EPP has accepted three parties as associate members from Bulgaria, including the UDF, with the application of Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria still outstanding. 5 Our EPP-ED Group also accepted MEPs from the ODS in its ED section - the EPP application of ODS remains outstanding. 6 The EPP also accepted one member from Cyprus and one from Malta. For a full listing of EPP members, please visit www. European View
  • 7. Antonio López-Istúriz & Kostas SasmatzoglouEPP Commissioners came from the enlargement In this asymmetrical political jigsaw puzzle, thecountries.7 Currently in the European Council, European People’s Party has, for many years,4 out of 11 EPP heads of government are from been actively engaged and making its ownthe new EU Member States8. With the imminent contribution in the stability and democratisationaccession of Romania and Bulgaria, the influence of the region. In the late 1990s, for example, EPPof the EPP is, once again, well represented in Vice President and President of Greece’s Neathe political mainstream of these countries. In Demokratia Kostas Karamanlis, launched onRomania, two out of three EPP member parties behalf of the EPP the ‘Western Balkan Democracycomprise the current government coalition and Initiative’10 – a series of training seminarsRomanian President Train Basescu is the former and conferences that introduced the politicalPresident of the Democratic Party.9 practices and ideology of the EPP to the center- right political parties of the region. Furthermore,New Candidates - New Neighbourhood the EPP applied in the Western Balkans a similar methodology to that of the Central and EasternThe Western Balkans European countries for building strong and reliable political partnerships, although in someIn the Enlargement portfolio of the Barroso countries the work is still in progress or has justCommission, the entire Western Balkan region began.has been added for potential candidates to jointhe European Union. The enlargement drive of Croatia has been a model case for the EPP. Itsthe region is spearheaded by Croatia, a candidate main partner in the country, the HDZ, began itscountry, which began accession negotiations quest for EPP membership at a time when thein 2005, despite initial resistance by some EU shadow of Franjo Tudjman was still present in theMember States. Serbia and Montenegro and party and Croatian nationalism was still thriving.the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia The EPP, with the help of its member-parties,(FYROM) are also making inroads in their think-tanks, and associations, helped steer theaccession aspirations, but it will be a long and HDZ11 in the right direction and facilitated itshard road since many political questions – such reform into a pluralistic and European-orientedas the future status of Kosovo in Serbia and political force. HDZ leader and Prime Ministerthe implementation of the Ohrid agreement Ivo Sanader has repeatedly proven his statesmanand other problematic issues in FYROM – are qualities, his commitment to ICTY and hisstill open. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the dedication to transform Croatia into a EuropeanEuropean Union is still largely responsible for ‘island’ of stability in this fragile region ofthe stability and nation-building of this fragile Europe. Although these efforts were, for somecountry, whose wounds from the war are still time, not fully appreciated by some Europeanhealing. Lastly, Albania, although politically and international cycles, our painstaking effortsstable, remains one the most economically bore fruit and Croatia is finally on its way tobackward countries in Europe. becoming the 28th EU Member State.127 Commissioners Jan Figel (Slovakia), Andris Piebalgs (Latvia), plus Joe Borg (Malta).8 Prime Ministers Aigars Kalvitis (Latvia), Mikulaš Dzurinda (Slovakia), Janez Janša (Slovania), plus Laurence Gonzi (Malta).9 In Romania, the EPP accepted two parties as associate members and in September 2005 also accepted, initially, the Democratic Party (PD) as an observer. The PD is the first ever political party to abandon the PES and join the EPP.10 See The Western Balkan Democracy Initiative Report: Working Together, Moving Forward. European People’s Party, Athens: September 2002.11 In April 2004, the HDZ was upgraded from observer to associate member of the EPP.12 In September 2005, at the initiative of EPP President W. Martens, a letter was sent on behalf of 9 EU Prime Ministers to British Prime Minister Tony Blair, asking for the immediate commencement of Croatia’s accession negotiations. 7 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 8. Democracy-building in Europe and Beyond In Serbia and Montenegro, the EPP was able to the country for most of 2004, since he was build strong partnerships in Serbia proper. The given the responsibility by the country’s High DSS of Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica and Representative to apply his diplomatic skills for the G17plus of Deputy Prime Minister Miroslav the creation of a BiH national police force. His Labus, have proven to be strong and reliable repeated contacts with political parties from partners and, in fact, the only serious political all three ethnic communities helped the EPP forces which are capable of bringing Serbia identify three potential partners – the Muslim/ closer to Europe. A major challenge for Prime Bosniak SDA, the Croat HDZBiH, and the Minister Kostunica will be the management Serbian PDP. In this particular case, the EPP of the future of Kosovo and the ultimate applied a modified version of its methodology stabilization of his country. The question of the for accepting parties by implementing a common future of Montenegro in the State-Union also approach and imposing strict requirements for all remains outstanding. Nevertheless, regardless three parties. Essentially, all three parties were of the political future of Montenegro, the obliged to open-up their membership to the EPP is committed to identifying in the near other ethnic groups and to commit themselves future partners in this country and to counter- on having a positive working relationship with balance the current domination of Montenegrin each other, based on political ideology. Despite Socialists/post-communists. initial difficulties, the approach was accepted by all three parties and the EPP reciprocated In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, by accepting them collectively as observers13 the EPP has just inaugurated its activity in the (December 2004). country with the implementation of a Fact- Finding Mission (September 2005). This venture Albania is another small EPP success story. will prove particularly challenging since the Although it was not difficult to identify the center-right forces in the Slav-Macedonian parties that represented the center-right, the majority are fragmented and personalized democratic practices of these parties were, and have become distant from their Albanian- initially, far from acceptable, particularly in the Macedonian counterparts, who are in decline. case of Sali Berisha’s Democratic Party (DP). However, these forces are the only real hope Nevertheless, after being in opposition for a in reforming the country and bringing it closer number of years and having the opportunity to Europe since they are not associated with to understand and gradually implement the the corrupt post-communist establishment, political standards presented by the EPP, the which continues to dominate public and private DP and its leader made a political about-face. interests. After being accepted at the Estoril Congress of 2002 as an observer, Mr Berisha was a regular In Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the EPP participant of EPP activities and a frequent visitor was faced with a unique a situation since, in of Brussels. More recently, we both had the practice, the country is governed (through opportunity to personally witness his maturity the High Representative), policed (through as a political leader at the DP Congress in April the peacekeeping mission) and financed 2005, a prelude to his electoral comeback. The (through European donors and investors) by EPP sincerely hopes that Prime Minister Berisha the EU in the complex and labyrinthine Dayton will now turn words into deeds and transform agreement setting. Fortunately, EPP President Albania into a reliable and stable European Wilfried Martens was actively engaged in partner. 13 The SDA was the first Muslim-oriented party in the history of the EPP to become an observer member.8 European View
  • 9. Antonio López-Istúriz & Kostas SasmatzoglouTurkey Group in the Council of Europe - with members of parliament from Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia,For many years, the EPP was in search of a Armenia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation.political party that would be compatible with Nevertheless, a more systematic engagement on aits ideological principles and values. In the country-by-country basis was deemed necessary,past, there were only indirect contacts with the in view of the growing need to support theMotherland party and the True Path party – via democratic forces of these countries.the European Democrat Union - but there wasno real incentive to build relations. This situation Ukraine was the first test-case of this newchanged dramatically with the entrance, in the strategy. Following a request by VictorTurkish political landscape, of the Justice and Yushchenko and his ever-expanding democraticDevelopment Party (AKP) of Recep Tayyip movement, the EPP organized in early 2003Erdoğan. His manifold reform drive, to bring a Fact-Finding Mission for the purpose ofTurkey in line with the Copenhagen criteria and assessing the needs of his movement and theto begin accession negotiations in 2005, also likelihood of influencing Ukrainian society. Theincluded an openness to build political relations result of the mission was quite promising sincewith European leaders from the center-right. the EPP delegation recognized the potential ofAKP repeatedly declared that it was a secular this movement and the leadership qualities ofconservative party, inspired by the country’s Victor Yushchenko. Since then, contacts betweenIslamic tradition, that was open to relations the two sides gradually increased to the pointwith like-minded, even Christian Democrat, were Mr Yushchenko addressed the FebruaryEuropean political parties. The EPP was, of 2004 EPP Congress in Brussels and, in turn,course, the obvious choice since it included received widespread political backing from mostall those elements the AKP was searching for. EPP member-parties. Soon after, Mr YushchenkoFrom the point of view of the EPP, the AKP submitted an application for EPP observer statuswas perceived as a serious political force which and expressed his commitment to join ourdefended the same values, and which had the political family. In the fall of 2004, during thepotential of becoming integrated as any other critical election-campaign period, Yushchenkomember party. Finally, after months of contacts and his ‘Nasha Ukraina’ movement receivedand negotiations, the EPP admitted in January manifold support by the EPP, at a time when2004 the AKP as an observer member, as the few others from Europe and the internationalinitial step to its integration. This was truly a community were offering a helping hand.groundbreaking development since it was thefirst time in EPP’s history to accept a major The highlight of this support occurred in thepolitical party from Turkey, with millions of midst of the crisis – between the first andsupporters belonging to the Muslim faith.14 second rounds of the elections – when EPP President Wilfried Martens formally endorsed,The European Neighbourhood in joint press conference with Mr Yushchenko, his candidacy15. Moreover, in the critical periodThe European People’s Party always had an between the second round the re-run of elections,interest in the transition countries of the for- President Martens extended an invitation to Mrmer Soviet Union. Apart from its high profile Yushchenko to participate at the December 17involvement in the Baltics, the EPP had EPP Summit of heads of government, as a show ofestablished contacts – via its parliamentary support for his Orange revolution16. Finally, his14 When the AKP joined the EPP, some analysts coined the term ‘Muslim Democrats’, inspired by the long-standing ideological concept of Christian Democracy. AKP rejects the term and considers itself a ‘Conservative’ party.15 The report of the International Election Observation Mission (IEOB) states that: “although it was a lower profile endorsement, Victor Yushchenko received the backing of the European People’s Party.” IEOB – European Parliament, Council of Europe, OSCE-ODIHR, OSCE-PA, NATO-PA – Presidential Elections (Second Round), Ukraine: Preliminary Findings and Conclusions. Kiev: 22/11/04, p.916 Due to intense campaigning, Yushchenko was represented at the EPP Summit by current Foreign Minister Borys Tarasyuk. 9 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 10. Democracy-building in Europe and Beyond triumphant election as President was followed unacceptable current state of affairs. by the granting of observer status by the Nevertheless, there is great interest in developing EPP.17 On the other hand, the first months our involvement with non-governmental of the Yushchenko administration have been organizations and individuals, committed to true rather difficult and, at times, turbulent, while democratic reform of this pivotal country. the post-Orange revolution political landscape remains particularly fluid. Nevertheless, the In the Caucasian states of Georgia, Armenia and EPP and all its resources remain committed Azerbaijan, the EPP has been present largely to this emerging democracy and will continue through a number of ad hoc activities from our to work hard for its European future.18 associations and think tanks. The preparation of a wider strategy for these countries is currently In Moldova, our engagement has been modest. underway. Various resolutions have stressed the need to strengthen democratic forces and a number of Looking beyond Europe ah hoc activities by EPP partners have helped bolster the Moldovan Christian Democrats In recent years, the EPP has been expanding (PPCD). As a show of collective support, and on its interest and involvement in regions beyond the eve of the March 2005 national elections, the the continent in order to offer its experience EPP decided to grant the PPCD observer status. and expertise to common international efforts Nevertheless, a broader range of activities of democracy-building. In doing so, we have is being planned, in light of the continued begun to widen our bilateral and multilateral domination of communists/post-communists in relations with like-minded political parties the country. and organizations that are dedicated to similar goals. Belarus, the last European dictatorship that exists in complete isolation from the rest of Europe,19is Specifically, our longstanding affiliation with the a country of high priority for the EPP. As it is Christian/Centrist Democrat International (CDI) well documented, the Belarusian democratic has offered the EPP an influential multilateral opposition is suffocating from the Luckashenko platform to offer its input in regions such as regime and has very limited access to European Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia, which and international support. The EPP has taken the CDI is particularly active. Recently, we have the decision to become actively engaged and also started to develop a tangible relationship to offer any possible support. Later this year, with the International Democrat Union (IDU), the EPP will organize a Fact Finding Mission with a view to strengthening the transatlantic to Minsk in order to get first-hand information dimension of our international activities. In on the situation and to assess the needs of the fact, because of our emphasis on international Belarusian opposition. democracy-building – a goal shared by both the CDI and the IDU – the EPP aspires to act as In the Russian Federation, our engagement a bridge for the two organisations to improve has also been modest due to the lack of any global synergy and cooperation. serious political alternatives to the increasingly 17 At the January 2005 EPP Political Bureau meeting, observer status was granted to Yushchenko (as an individual) and his political platform. Since then, a number of political parties that originated from the platform have also applied for observer status. 18 In October 7, 2005, EPP President Wilfried Martens met with Yushchenko’s newly appointed Prime Minister Yuri Yekhanurov in Brussels and invited him to participate in the next EPP Summit. In the previous day, Yekhanurov met Commission President José Manuel Barroso who stated: “Our door remains open, the future of Ukraine is in Europe - the best way is not to talk all the time about membership but to achieve concrete results, show commitment to European standards and values.” 19 For example, Belarus was suspended from the Council of Europe because it “does not respect minimum democratic standards and violates the principles of separation of powers and the rule of law” – see the Council of Europe 13 January 1997 decision on Belarus.10 European View
  • 11. Antonio López-Istúriz & Kostas SasmatzoglouMoreover, the EPP is building, on a bilateral Lebanon is currently undergoing a dramaticlevel, international partnerships with influential transition towards democratization and politicalpolitical parties and organizations that are active self-sufficiency, despite terrorist attempts toin the area of democracy-building. For example, sabotage this the United States the EPP had, historically,contacts with the National Democratic Institute North Africa, a region that is largely an extension(NDI) and collaborated from time to time on of the Middle East, is significantly more stableissues related to the Balkans. This year, the EPP but problematic, nevertheless. Egypt, thebegan its cooperation with the International bridge of the two regions, has subtly begunRepublican Institute (IRI) and has already proven to implement democratic reforms but, at theto be very fruitful on a variety of related issues20. same time, terrorism and religious extremismWe also established contacts with important like- are obvious detriments to this process. Algeriaminded parties such as the Conservative Party and Morocco are facing, in varying degrees, theof Canada, led by Stephen Harper, the Liberal same problems and democratic solutions haveParty of Australia, led by Prime Minister John not been easy to implement.Howard, the Liberal Party of Japan, led by PrimeMinister Junichiro Koizumi, a.o. In all of the above-mentioned countries, the EPP has in one way or another offered its goodMiddle East & North Africa services: be it monitoring missions, conferences, training seminars, bilateral contacts (parties,The Middle East is a region of protracted organizations) and multilateral contacts (i.e.instability with numerous players and complex Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly).levels of interests. Although the Israeli- The extension of the European NeighbourhoodPalestinian problem has, undoubtedly, been Policy to North African and Middle Easternthe epicenter of this instability, since September countries has been welcomed by the EPP and it’s11, Iraq has dominated the Middle Eastern committed to helping it succeed. Together withagenda. Iraq, of course, has been a particularly our international partners, we look forward tocontentious foreign policy issue for many seeing these regions transform from problematiccountries and very divisive within the European barriers to stable and democratic global hubs.Union and, not surprisingly, within the EPP.Nevertheless, everyone has now reached the Latin Americacommon understanding that post-Saddam Iraqmust become stable and democratic, free from Latin America is a region with significantterrorism and, ultimately, free from foreign democratic deficits. And in countries withtroops. In parallel, the Israeli-Palestinian established, but weak, democratic foundationsconflict has made progress with the bold step compounded by enormous economic difficulties,taken by Israel of withdrawing unilaterally all its they are being systematically manipulated by thetroops and settlers from the Gaza strip; but the populist/neo-communist regime of Hugo Chávezremaining occupied territories and recognition in Venezuela and by the almost infinite presenceof Palestine as a sovereign nation continue of communist dictator Fidel Castro in Cuba. Theto remain outstanding, with all the negative combination of resources by the two leadersimplications that this entails. The potential – i.e. Chávez’s control of oil and other naturalnuclear capability of Iran, on the other hand, resources and Castro’s longstanding ideologicalhas emerged as a worrisome issue and the EU baggage – has proven to be particularlyis actively engaged in containing it21. Lastly, dangerous for the democratic stability of other20 Since the July 2005 visit of the EPP delegation to Washington - headed by President W. Martens and including both writers – the EPP and the IRI have cooperated on election monitoring issues (e.g. Afghanistan), fact-finding missions (e.g. Belarus) and activities for improving the transatlantic partnership.21 In August 2005, EPP-ED Chairman Hans Gert Poettering visited Iran and lobbied for the adoption of the EU-3 nuclear comprehensive package. 11 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 12. Democracy-building in Europe and Beyond countries in the region. Bolivia22, for example, a country with seven different frontiers in South America, is being targeted by the two leaders in an effort to create a populist domino effect. The EPP, our partners in the CDI and all our other global partners, have a duty to prevent this nightmare scenario. We must continue to assist and bolster the democratic forces and governments of the region, while also exposing the regimes of Cuba, Venezuela and their accomplices – in any shape or form - in other Latin American countries. We must pool everyone’s resources to make sure that democracy will, ultimately and irreversibly, take root throughout the region. Conclusion The impact of democracy-building by the European People’s Party has been acknowledged as a great success story. The EPP is recognised, in Europe and globally, as a significant stabilising factor in emerging democracies and as a reliable partner for the promotion of democracy in sensitive regions of the world. Our commitment to improve and expand our activities, together with our partners, is a clear and unmistakable message to all those who are trying to undermine democracy and freedom. With every new breakthrough, our resolve becomes stronger and bolder and, in turn, Europe becomes stronger and bolder. After all, freedom and democracy - the foundations of our United Europe - are ideals worth fighting for. Antonio López-Istúriz is Secretary General of the EPP and Member of the European Parliament. Kostas Sasmatzoglou is Secretary of External Relations of the EPP. 22 Evo Morales could become a likely imitator of Chávez - Bolivia holds the second largest gas reserves in Latin America.12 European View
  • 13. Wilfried Martens EU-US Relations: Old Challenges and New Opportunities By Wilfried Martens EU-US relations, the Commission President José Manuel Barroso. cornerstone of the This set the stage for a successful June 2005 transatlantic partnership, EU-US Summit in Washington, where Summit have experienced in participants confirmed that Presidents Bush on recent years varying the one hand, and Juncker and Barroso (both degrees of ‘ups and leading EPP personalities) on the other, moveddowns’. The aftermath of the appalling September briskly from topic to topic, exchanging views11 terrorist attacks in the United States, coupled succinctly, agreeing often and disagreeingby the subsequent attacks in Madrid and, most sometimes. Even when disagreement occurred,recently, London, were bound to have an impact the proceedings were conducted in a friendlyon these relations. Nevertheless, the initial vein as between people who knew one anotherstrain, highlighted by the disagreements over well and shared basic principles, assumptionsIraq, was replaced by the recognition, from both and values.sides, of the necessity to tackle our commonnew challenges together, side by side. Clearly, The Summit also produced important policythe turning point of this realisation was the advances, including a number of declarationssecond Administration of US President George for joint action toward such issues as theW. Bush and the new European Commission led promotion of democracy, freedom, and humanby President José Manuel Barroso. rights, continuing the fight against terrorism and non-proliferation, supporting peace andA fresh start stability in the Middle East, reform of the United Nations, and an initiative to enhance transatlanticAs he entered his second term, President Bush economic integration and growth.made clear that a closer relationship with theEU would be a key US foreign policy goal. This While these declarations are indeed important,is not to say that relations with the EU were not the comments of President Bush during theproductive during the first Bush Administration, Summit press conference were even morein combating terrorism, non-proliferation, and in striking. Following the French and Dutch nomany other issues, but it cannot be denied that votes on the Constitutional Treaty, the Europeantransatlantic and intra-EU disagreements over Union had not yet fully recovered its composureIraq had caused serious tensions in the EU-US as an institution. At such a sensitive moment,relationship. Other US policies were perceived President Bush chose to be warm and positiveby Europeans as lacking in appreciation for about the European Union as an institution,the need to pursue international cooperation. and especially so about Presidents Juncker andA more positive atmosphere characterised the Barroso personally.relationship in late 2003 and into 2004, as hardfeelings over Iraq eased and moving the political The President’s message was particularly helpfuland economic reconstruction forward became a as some in the US had seized on the failedmutual focus. referenda to suggest that the EU was somehow going out of business. While this is of coursePresident Bush delivered this more positive false, it does raise an important point. If Europemessage personally during his February 2005 wishes to influence US thinking, it can best bevisit to the EU institutions in Brussels, including done if Europe speaks clearly and forcefully anda private meeting with new, EPP-backed, in a single voice. 13 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 14. EU-US Relations: Old Challenges and New Opportunities Before considering the many policies that preparation of the constitutional referendum comprise the EU-US relationship, it is important and providing €30 million for the preparation of to underline the shared values and close the December elections. emotional bonds between our peoples. Policy declarations and summits are important but have The EU has also signed a “Political Declaration” little weight without the support of our societies with Iraq in launching a new political – this is a lesson that EU leaders should take dialogue that will cover EU support to the to heart when reflecting on the Constitutional political transition process and related issues. referenda. These social bonds are most evident This Declaration will help pave the way for in the transatlantic solidarity expressed at times cooperation to cover a wide range of trade and of crisis, including the 9/11 terrorist attacks in development issues. Washington and New York, the subsequent terrorist bombings in Madrid and London, and Similarly, in Afghanistan the EU and US have most recently in reaction to Hurricane Katrina, worked closely in providing humanitarian and which brought a rapid and generous response reconstruction assistance and supporting the from the EU. transition to democratic government. The EU (EC and Member States) will provide more A broad foreign policy agenda than €2 billion over the 2001-6 period, per the Bonn process, and most recently supported EU leaders, particularly those belonging to the September 2005 parliamentary elections, European People’s Party, share President Bush’s which were also reviewed by an EU Observer emphasis on combating terrorism, bolstering Mission. homeland security, and promoting democracy, the rule of law and human rights. Our approach The EU-3 non-proliferation negotiations with may sometimes differ, but we are working Iran, fully supported by the Bush Administration, together successfully around the world, and offer a reminder that we must not underestimate particularly in dealing with a number of difficult the challenges we face, as has also been regional issues, including the Broader Middle demonstrated by the setbacks in Uzbekistan and East, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Belarus, and even Ukraine. Georgia. We must also redouble our efforts toward the The EU and US have worked with our Quartet developing world. Eradicating poverty and partners in furthering the Middle East peace promoting development are moral imperatives process. The successful Gaza disengagement which the world’s richest nations are obligated was a very positive step forward for Israel and to address. European Commission President the Palestinian Authority, and all sides must now Barroso recently compared the modern scourges focus on next steps in implementing the Road of poverty, hunger and disease to slavery Map. 200 years ago. “Slavery” he said, “was then considered an inevitability; a natural part of the Regarding Iraq, the EU hosted a successful June order of things. But that was wrong.” Equally, it 2005 donors’ conference and has contributed is wrong for us today to think of poverty as a to political and economic reconstruction. The fact of life. Commission has provided €518 million of assistance to date, including support for the That is why reconfirming our commitment to the rehabilitation of the provision of basic services Millennium Development Goals and setting target to respond to the most urgent needs of the dates for their achievement is so vital. The EU is ordinary Iraqi people. As part of this assistance already the world’s biggest donor, providing 55% of worldwide official development assistance package, the Commission is supporting the between the Commission and Member States,14 European View
  • 15. Wilfried Martensworth $43 billion in 2004. Earlier this year we Our two economies are thus interdependent tocommitted ourselves to further and substantially an unparralleled degree – we are joined at bothincrease this amount – by 2010 we will provide hip and shoulder. Close to a quarter of all US-nearly an extra $26 billion, and by 2015 we will EU trade consists of transactions within firmsreach the recommended 0.7% of gross national based on their investments on either side of theincome. Atlantic.In tackling poverty we also move a step closer The transatlantic relationship defines theto human security. If the US, the word’s second shape of the global economy as a whole asbiggest donor, were to join us in this commitment either the EU or the US is also the largest tradeand follow the EU’s lead on increasing ODA, and investment partner for almost all otherthe impact on poverty and security would be countries. Being the largest players in globaltremendous. trade, the EU and US are therefore committed to a politically and economically significantThe successful conclusion of the 60th UN cooperation agenda, be it on bilateral issues orSummit is another example of the prospect for in the multilateral framework of the WTO. Thecloser EU-US cooperation in the second Bush few trade-related disputes hitting the headlinesAdministration. While EU and US approaches affect a small proportion of the world’s largestto multilateral cooperation frequently differ, trading relationship.with such cooperation a first reflex for the EU, While trade flows continue to increase year-by-here also President Bush and Secretary Rice year, there are still a number of areas wherehave made clear that the new Administration is more work can be done to facilitate trade, mosttaking a more positive approach. notably in non-tariff barriers and regulatory differences. The EU and the US have consistentlyWhere EU and US approaches are in fundamental sought progress in this regard. In 1998, thedisagreement, as in the case of the China Arms EU and the US launched, in the context of theEmbargo, it is important to speak calmly, as New Transatlantic Agenda, the Transatlanticpartners. Too much rides on our work together Economic Partnership (TEP). This “Partnership”around the globe to allow a single issue to divert aimed to create an open and more accessibleour focus. world trading system, while also improving and further developing the economic relationshipTransatlantic and global trade between the EU and US, and included a rolling ‘Action Plan.’The EU and the US share the largest bilateral In 2002, the EU and US launched a Positivetrade and investment relationship in the world Economic Agenda (PEA) for bilateral cooperation– the overall volume of EU-US trade in goods in specific sectors. An initial indicative list ofand services amounts to more than €600 billion items led to the adoption in December 2002 ofannually, with no less than 2% of that total a so-called “Roadmap” which fleshes out thesubject to the trade spats that attract so many commitments taken by the EU and the US toheadlines. Investment flows are even greater cooperate in a number of areas such as electronic– the EU accounts for roughly 75% of FDI in tendering, electronic customs, financial marketsthe US and by 2003 the total stocks of two- dialogue, and the wine trade.way investments amounted to €1.4 trillion. Therelationship directly supports 12 million jobs, At the EU-US Summit in June 2004, leaderswith combined EU and US GDP at around 60% adopted the ‘EU-US Declaration on Strengtheningof the world total. our Economic Partnership’ looking into new ways 15 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 16. EU-US Relations: Old Challenges and New Opportunities to make the transatlantic economic relationship the new technological paradigm without the stronger and give it new impetus. The US entrepreneurship of its CEOs (in companies Government and the European Commission both big and small) and their readiness to subsequently launched consultation exercises embrace radical innovation despite the risks with civil society requesting comments and and the costs entailed. The structure of the US proposals from stakeholders. On the basis of financial sector was also better fit for the new the replies received, the EU and US adopted paradigm. And the US, in its firms, laboratories the ‘EU-US Initiative to Enhance Transatlantic and universities possesses a larger population Economic Integration and Growth’ at the EU- of the scientists, innovators, entrepreneurs, and US Summit in June 2005. The Initiative sets financial managers needed to lead the new a framework for further work in ten areas: economy. regulatory co-operation; capital markets; innovation and technology; trade, travel and Labour market flexibility and labour mobility security; energy; intellectual property rights; at all levels have also been key factors in the investment; competition; procurement; and US success: without this, it would have taken services. It thus complements the existing much longer for ICT investment to become co-operative framework, in particular the profitable, weakened the momentum behind the Transatlantic Economic Partnership and the adoption of new technologies, and dampened Positive Economic Agenda. the productivity dynamics of the last ten years. Last but not least, the structure of incentives The 2005 EU-US summit also cemented our to promote the goals of economic growth and readiness to work together, not only on productivity has been strengthened. our bilateral links, but equally importantly multilaterally. In addition to deepening the It is important to remember that the US re- transatlantic trade and investment relationship, established its productivity growth leadership we need to stand up for trade liberalization over the EU only a decade ago. Furthermore, by coordinating our efforts to secure decisive population dynamics (much stronger in the US progress this year in the completion of the Doha than in the EU) explains much of the growth Development Round. differential. In per capita terms, in the last five years growth has been only moderately stronger Economic and Financial Relations in the US than in the EU. Over the last ten years the European Union lost The EU-US productivity gap could start to close, economic ground against the United States. As a in particular if the European countries adopt the result, the EU-US GDP gap has started to widen right policies and re-launch forcefully, through again. This large and widening gap (currently the Lisbon Agenda, the process of structural the EU15 GDP per capita is about 70% of the US reform. There are a number of fields where the GDP per capita) is the outcome of a different European Union is stronger and more competitive utilization of resources, with the US employment than the US. The US is also burdened by large rate and working hours higher than the EU, macroeconomic imbalances (a large and growing as well as productivity trends related to the current account deficit, speculative housing Information and Communications Technology prices in some areas) that, if not addressed, will (ICT) revolution and to investment dynamics hamper its economic performance. Recently favouring the US. border security issues have hindered the inflow of science and technology graduate students There is no doubt that the US economy from abroad, threatening one of the pillars of would not have succeeded in adapting to the “new economy” success story.16 European View
  • 17. Wilfried MartensEuropean structural reform has been more positive impact on our relations. Above all, ourwidespread than generally perceived in the shared values and our unwavering dedication toUS, with increasing financial and product democracy will always form the bedrock of ourmarket integration and stronger competition, inimitable partnership.the EU can again become a thriving home forinnovative companies and brilliant minds. Withbetter environmental standards, a smaller crimerate, and a stronger social cohesion than the US, Wilfried Martens is President of the Europeanthe European economy has the potential to lead People’s Party and Chairman of the Editorialagain, if not in terms of per capita GDP, at least Board of the European terms of welfare and quality of life.Such a renewed dynamism in the EU would begood news for the US, since it would help reducesome of the current US external imbalances andcreate room for a widening and strengtheningof the transatlantic economic relationship.A Positive OutlookThis broad but far from exhaustive overviewof recent developments in EU-US relations,leads to the conclusion that our partnershiphas weathered a rocky period following theinvasion of Iraq, with focus again on workingtogether to meet bilateral, regional, and globalchallenges. Some differences in approachremain, particularly in emphasizing internationalcooperation as a first reaction, but it would beshort-sighted and self-defeating for the EU tooverlook the opportunity presented by policytrends in the second Bush Administration.We should also recognize and seek to promotethe strong ties between our peoples. Thetransatlantic relationship gains legitimacy whenit contributes directly to the interests of oursocieties. That’s why the recent initiative by theEuropean People’s Party to establish partnershipswith the International Republican Institute andother important American organisations, is animportant example for achieving this goal.By effectively addressing common globalconcerns and by sharing best practices inaddressing common economic and socialchallenges, it will inevitably have a lasting and 17 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 18. Elmar Brok The EU as a Global Player in the 21st Century Perspectives for the Common Foreign and Security Policy By Elmar Brok The EU’s Common was able to prevent a civil war. Similarly in Foreign and Security Ukraine, Javier Solana, the European Parliament Policy (CFSP) was and Polish president Kwasniewski provided established as the second successful mediation. The mediating role the EU pillar of the European played when addressing Iran’s use of nuclear Union in the 1993 Treaty technology, where the United Kingdom, Franceon the European Union signed at Maastricht. and Germany took the lead in the EU of 25,Since then, with the European Councils of indicates that preventive diplomacy does notAmsterdam, Laeken and Nice, a number of stop at the EU’s front door.important changes have been introduced.Within a little more than a decade, the CFSP However with the increasing scope assumed byhas evolved considerably and at amazing speed. the CFSP, responsibilities as well as expectationsInterim structures have now become powerful have grown. It is not only in the light of thepermanent instruments. Today, it is obvious that above-mentioned negotiations on Irans nuclearthe EU has become a global player: policy that the EUs ability to secure the diplomatic success has been questioned. It has− Via over 120 delegations and offices, the EU often been remarked that the EU, contrary to the maintains relations in every region and with USA, lacks the necessary enforcement capability almost all countries in the world. A plethora to assert its role as an influential global player. In of political and economic partnership the past, other shortcomings and inefficiencies agreements strengthens this network and of EU foreign policy were revealed, notably the guarantees the EUs influence in world affairs diplomatic and military failures in the Balkans, through an ever closer cooperation with the painstakingly slow progress in the Middle partner countries throughout the world. East negotiations and the quarrels with the USA− 20% of world trade is accounted for by the over the approach to the Iraq crisis which in EU, making it the largest trading block in the the end even led to division among the EU world. partners.− The European Union as a whole is the world’s largest donor in humanitarian and Consequently, the question is, what are the development aid, providing for more than perspectives and limits for the EUs CFSP? half of all global development assistance. What needs to be undertaken to overcome the− With the ongoing development of European weaknesses and set-backs and to secure the EUs Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) role as a global player in 21st century foreign the EU has taken over several peace policy? In this article, I will outline some of the keeping missions, including mandates in areas where the EU needs to take further steps comparatively remote places such as the and enhance its capabilities in order to stand its Democratic Republic of Congo. ground as a global player in the future. Since it is impossible to address all relevant fields ofSome of the EUs endeavours in foreign and CSFP here, I will focus on what will be some ofsecurity policy have become success stories. the major issues for the next two years:European diplomacy is gaining increasinginfluence: In the former Yugoslav Republic of − Strengthening the Unions relations with itsMacedonia (FYROM), the High Representative neighbours and its most important partners, 19 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 19. The EU as a Global Player in the 21st Century - Perspectives for the Common Foreign and Security Policy especially creating new pillars for the Naturally, the Transatlantic Partnership will Transatlantic Partnership, remain crucial to the EU’s foreign policy − Adopting a European Security Culture in activities. Since it is vital for a number of CFSP order to achieve greater coherence in its issues (such as security policy, which will be foreign policy instruments by linking and focused on below) it should be discussed in enhancing diplomatic, military and industrial more detail. The war in Iraq led to a split on capabilities, both sides of the Atlantic and to some extent − Strengthening the fight against terrorism, also within Europe. These tensions over how − Introducing the necessary institutional to face the common enemy, in other words changes as provided by the European the tyranny of Saddam Hussein, come as no Constitution in order to make CFSP more surprise. They were the consequence of idealist efficient. rhetoric on both sides. Yet despite the rhetorical tensions, the climate has been frostier than the The EU needs strong partners: new pillars actual relationship itself. So how did all this for the Transatlantic Partnership happen? The most important cornerstone in enhancing The answer is simple: we allowed our most the Union’s foreign policy capabilities will be important relations to be based on chance. tightening its relations with third partners. These While the European Union cherishes Treaties “strategic partnerships” with third countries1 and Association Agreements with numerous must be based on the sharing and promotion countries all over the world, nothing comparable of common values. In particular, an assessment exists between the USA and the EU bilaterally. of the strategic partnerships governing relations The UN, NATO and the WTO alone cannot with the old and the new super powers will be carry the transatlantic partnership sufficiently, a key to success in this regard. thus leaving a structural gap to be bridged. The EU and the US need permanent coordination With regards to the relationship with our biggest on topics as diverse as trade, terrorism, nuclear neighbour, Russia, our common interests and non-proliferation, environmental protection and values have to be based on human rights, the health threats. rule of law and democracy. The developments in crisis management in Transnistria and South The common interests of the USA and the EU are Caucasus as well as the problem of finding a much greater than their differences. In the long political solution to the Chechnya conflict run the USA cannot be successful in their “war” will be milestones on the way to a genuine against terror alone. They need partners with partnership. It is regrettable that relations them to exert moral pressure, to prove to the with China thus far have only made progress world that they are fighting a just cause. Even in the fields of trade and economics without in many other fields, especially in trade issues, any substantial achievement on human rights the rest of the world is quietly happy to see the and democracy issues. Here, political relations US and the EU quarrel while others move on. need to be deepened, in particular with regards The EU in turn has an interest in taking a more to armament, the situation of Taiwan and the active part in agenda setting, which in part it progress of democratic structures. Relations already does (Kyoto, ICC). Both sides have an with India are also to be upgraded: conflict interest in achieving the mentioned common prevention, cooperation in development affairs goals without frictional inefficiencies. and non-proliferation will be the critical issues. 1 Third countries are defined as those inside and outside Europe which are neither members of the EU nor states associa- ted with the Framework Programme (Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, Israel: from 1.1.2004).20 European View
  • 20. Elmar BrokThis is why a Transatlantic Partnership The EU wants to be a credible actor in securityAgreement (TPA) should be established. The matters. It seeks to handle crises more activelyso-called “New Transatlantic Agenda” between and above all to prevent them. It will developthe EU and the USA of December 1995 must the necessary diplomatic, military and industrialbe fundamentally overhauled and extended. capabilities with greater determination andThis must include NATO, WTO, UN topics and will make more coherent use of its differentpersonnel, to coordinate special transatlantic instruments of foreign policy.issues in those organisations. Additionally, inorder to strengthen economic cooperation Ten years after its diplomatic and militaryto the benefit of both partners, we need a failure in the Balkans, it is in the same place, in“Transatlantic Marketplace” as a part of the TPA. Bosnia-Herzegovina, that the EU now intendsThis marketplace could become reality by 2015 to implement this comprehensive approachand, according to an OECD Study, could increase through the “ALTHEA” mission, combining civilGDP per capita by 2 to 3%. The TPA will come and military elements of crisis management.with regular EU-US consultations, ensuring that The European approach distinguishes itselfco-operation towards our common goals is most strikingly against the background of theensured and is not left to chance. difficulties experienced by the US-lead coalition forces in Iraq, notably not only to win a fast warTowards a European Culture of Security with the means of technological advantage, but also with the aim of winning peace.A topic which is increasingly incorporated inagreements between the EU and its international The crisis in Kosovo made us realise that onlypartners is security. Consequently, it becomes a regional approach can really ensure peaceever more important for the Union to clarify - providing it with aspects of security, ofwhat shape its security policy should take. democratic, constitutional and legal principles,The Member States need to adopt a common of human rights and last but not least economicunderstanding on this matter: a European development. All aspects of this approach mustCulture of Security. be well-timed and well-balanced.In the 21st century, security cannot be provided This approach goes back to the CSCE final actby military means alone, nor can it be based of Helsinki (1975), which covers three areas:on just one country’s national powers. This security, democracy and economic the credo the EU laid down in its Security It determined the structure of the stability pactStrategy of December 2003. New threats, such for South-East Europe and has become theas terrorism, the spread of weapons of mass predominant feature of European foreign policydestruction, “failed states” and organised crime in recent years.demand an integrated approach to securitypolicies. This must comprise military instruments Yet the possibility for the EU to guaranteeand capabilities alike, ranging from conflict security remained the missing link for a longprevention to “nation building”. time. Only the progress achieved in the past five years is bringing the EU closer to closingThe European Security Strategy, which was fully that gap and to hold in one hand the above-supported by the European Parliament, pursues mentioned diplomatic, economic and militarythree strategic goals: instruments and capabilities, with which it can− coping with various threats, emerge as a credible actor in international crisis− creating security in the EU Neighbourhood, management. European security policy is still in− supporting an international order, based on its infancy and shows signs of fragmentation. The an effective multilateralism. common Security Strategy set the framework. The 21 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 21. The EU as a Global Player in the 21st Century - Perspectives for the Common Foreign and Security Policy outlines are already visible and the competence The EU will not be able to avoid certain areas are gradually becoming clearer: 7.000 responsibilities much longer if the UN was to EURFOR soldiers in Bosnia-Herzegovina, plus ask it, if it received a mandate and if its presence police, reconstruction programmes (CARDs) was requested by both sides of the conflict. and stability and association agreements (SAP). These same responsibilities would apply if the The EU acts at once as a protecting power, as mission was coordinated with the USA and thus a reconstruction partner and as a provider of a with NATO, and if such crisis management was general perspective for the country. to be accepted by the European public. This is where the European Parliament together with A similar responsibility for Kosovo lies ahead. National Parliaments must initiate an opinion- In this case, the international community must forming debate. no longer hide behind the military mission of NATO. The Balkans remain the number one After decades of development aid with very security interest for Europe. limited effect, not least in Africa, it has become clear that without security there can be no With European diplomacy being increasingly development. In Congo, the EU completed its successful, the perspective will remain a global first autonomous military mission (Artemis) one and many conflicts will only be resolved requested by the UN and headed by France, and together with our American partners. The Middle handed it over to UN peacekeeping forces as East belongs in this category. The initiative will foreseen. Now the EU is helping to establish an remain with the quartet (USA, EU, Russia, UN) integrated police unit in Kinshasa. in cooperation with the Arab partners. The EU must seize every possibility in the post-Arafat The European Security Strategy has delivered phase to achieve a revival of the peace process. an analysis of the threats and a definition of Again, the unity of security, democracy and European security interests. The Constitution economic development is important. Today the will deliver further elements for a modern EU region is already closely connected to the EU defence policy (see below) and EU Member with respect to trade and economics. The EU States agreed last year to the concept of battle could also contribute valuable know-how in groups, the goal for the forces in 2010 and the building up a functioning democratic Palestinian creation of a European Defence Agency. It is this State. mosaic of individual decisions in the framework of the Security Strategy that lays the foundation Can European peace forces combine with for the growth of a genuine European security a strong police presence in Gaza? Why not? culture. NATO’s Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer is already offering military capacities. Fight against terrorism Would a European mission not be much more suitable, with strong elements of civil, police The fight against terrorism will continue to be and law enforcement? The answer probably a priority for the EU and a key element of its lies elsewhere. Can such a young “baby” security and external relations policy. However, already master such a complex task? Would greater coherence and decisiveness in the there be enough European troops for such a Union’s counter-terrorism policy vis-à-vis third peace keeping mission? Would there be enough countries is needed. Consequently, cooperation political will within the common foreign policy with international and regional organisations of the EU-25 to undertake such a major burden, (in particular with the UN Counter-Terrorism thus going much further than just signing a Committee and with NATO) as well as political cheque? dialogue on terrorism with third partners is22 European View
  • 22. Elmar Brokto be improved. Important elements in this a terrorist attack (or a natural or man-madecontext, are the further implementation of disaster), the other Member States shall assist itthe 2004 EU-US Declaration on Combating at the request of its political authorities”. To thatTerrorism, the Commission’s targeted assistance end, the Member States will have to coordinatestrategy (such as CARDS, TACIS, MEDA, etc.) between themselves in the Council of Ministers.and the strict application of the anti-terrorist Further improvements in the CFSP which willclause inserted in agreements with countries be introduced by the Constitution are outlinedwhere there is evidence of terrorist threats or below:specific terrorist activities, such as recruitment,training or financing. Reinforcing the use of the Further enhancement of the CFSP throughRapid Civil or Military Reaction Mechanisms the Constitutionand making full use when necessary of specificESDP operations will also form part of the EU’s The Convention and the Intergovernmentalcounter-terrorism strategy. Conferences were under the immanent impression of the shortcomings andAt the same time, the EU’s own contribution to inefficiencies in the EU’s foreign policy, notablythe fight against terrorism must be strengthened. in the Balkans, the Middle East and Iraq.During recent months the developments in this Consequently, the Constitution envisaged a leaparea received new stimulus through a number forward particularly in EU foreign affairs issues.of declarations and decisions by different EU-institutions: However, this does not mean a complete− The EU Counter-terrorism Co-ordinator, Gijs harmonisation of the EU’s foreign policy. On the de Vries, presented the Plan of Action on contrary, it will still be based on the principle combating Terrorism to the Council. of unity in diversity, which is at the heart of the− At the same time, the European Parliament Constitution. Only through the expansion of the forwarded a number of recommendations to CFSP can we Europeans expect our values to be the other EU institutions, most notably on defended and our interests to be guaranteed in preventing, preparing for and responding the world. to terrorist attacks, protecting critical infrastructure and combating terrorist This is why the EU Constitution calls for the financing. establishment of an EU Minister for Foreign− In its priorities for the second half of the Affairs, who would belong to both the year, the European Council refers in Commission and the Council representing the particular to strengthening police and judicial 25 Member States. He will embody the EU’s cooperation, e.g. information exchanges and common decisions regarding foreign policy. In the new arrest warrant. order to be able to fulfil his duties, the EU Foreign− In the shadow of the London attacks at the Minister will need a European External Action beginning of July, the Council decided to Service (EEAS) with the necessary worldwide increase efforts and speed up the adoption representations. It will be a cornerstone of the of EU counter-terrorism legislation. EU’s foreign policy, ensuring consistency and effectiveness of the EU’s Foreign Minister andThese efforts within the domain of security his mission to promote our common values inand justice constitute a very good example of our neighbourhood states and the internal and external measures in the EUneed to complement each other. They will be To avoid building up a huge bureaucracy, theendorsed by the so-called "solidarity clause" service should be attached to the Europeanas envisaged in the Constitutional Treaty: “In Commission, which already has more than 120the case of a Member State falling victim to representations outside the EU. These could 23 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 23. The EU as a Global Player in the 21st Century - Perspectives for the Common Foreign and Security Policy easily be converted into full EU embassies, with with the force of arms. There will, however, have personnel drawn from the Member States on a to be a unanimous decision from the Council for rotating basis. Today’s representations would such operations. then no longer be just trade representations, but could represent the EU’s common positions on Furthermore, the Constitution obliges the all issues of EU competence. Member States to improve their civilian and military capabilities. First and foremost, this Some governments, in particular the former means a more efficient interlocking of national German government, sought to establish the capabilities through a European Defence EEAS outside the Commission, while at the Agency. With Europe-wide coordination and same time withdrawing the Commission’s cooperation it will be possible to reduce parallel responsibilities for external trade, development structures and, consequently, costs. and emergency aid. The Commission, which has to approve the establishment of an Finally, the Constitution will confer legal External Action Service, will hardly let itself personality to the Union. This will allow the be downgraded to a simple common market EU to participate more actively and exert organisation. In order to be effective, the EU more influence in multilateral affairs by being Foreign Minister must be able to make use of a represented in certain international multilateral service fit to respond to all foreign affairs related organisations, including in particular the United issues. The post will provide a bridge between Nations, the International Criminal Court (ICC), the EU Institutions, because he will be under the the Organization for Security and Cooperation responsibility of both Council and Commission, in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of Europe. and is legitimised by the European Parliament. Above all, a seat in the UN’s Security Council He will be the key contact and the world-wide would be the most genuine expression of a face of the EU. true and effective common foreign policy and would enable the Union to effectively support Now the recent crisis of the EU over the the reform of the United Nations. referenda on the Constitution Treaty might make some people think that the EEAS is The EU will remain a strong global player obsolete. I wholeheartedly disagree. People in foreign politics will not appreciate Europe more if we fail to defend their interests with one voice. One of the The setbacks which the CFSP has suffered in clearest signals from France and the Netherlands the past can be overcome. It has to be kept in was that Europe was not working satisfactorily: mind that the CFSP is still young and is not yet the EEAS is the main means to change that in sufficiently developed to live up fully to the the field of foreign policy. expectations that are placed in it already today. Similarly, it is important to realise that overall The Constitution, however, also provides several its development and success record are already other new elements for the CFSP - among rather impressive considering the relatively short others concerning European Defence Policy. period of 12 years since it became a stand-alone The Treaty binds the EU to the principles of the part of the Union’s spectrum of activity. Surely, United Nations Charter, especially to preserving nobody can doubt that in the meantime, the EU world peace and international security. With has become a powerful global player. the Constitution, civilian measures will have priority over military means for solving conflicts. As a next step, the Constitution will provide an Nevertheless, the Treaty also envisages that the enhanced institutional framework that ensures EU in certain circumstances may resort to the an increased responsibility and engagement in use of military means to defend our values i.e. foreign policy affairs for the future. It will help24 European View
  • 24. Elmar Brokto protect and spread our values of freedomand peace. Together with the other measuresthat have been proposed here, it will help theEU to secure and expand its influential positionamong the other world powers. In this way,the Union’s CFSP will remain a constant pointof reference for others on promoting stability,democracy and human rights in our world.Elmar Brok is Chairman of the EuropeanParliament’s Foreign Affairs Committee. 25 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 25. Fraser Cameron The EU and Global Governance By Fraser Cameron One of the prime (Russia, China, India, Japan and Canada) and motivations behind the above all the United States. But it is the US Constitutional Treaty, that has appeared to reject the very idea of and a point that achieved an international order. It has a poor record in wide consensus during recent years with regard to UN financing, the the Convention on rejection of the Kyoto protocol, the efforts tothe Future of Europe, was the desire that the undermine the International Criminal CourtEU should play a stronger and more effective (ICC) and the refusal to ratify a host of armsrole on the world stage. To this end, the treaty control treaties, notably the comprehensive testcontained a number of interesting proposals to ban treaty (CTBT). In the spring of 2005, theestablish an EU foreign minister and an external nominations of two leading neo-conservatives,service. However, with the future of the Treaty Paul Wolfowitz to head the World Bank andin the balance, it is highly unlikely that these John Bolton to be the US ambassador to theinstitutional changes can be introduced in the UN, caused considerable consternation inimmediate future. Directly related to this ambition Europe and renewed doubts about Washington’swas the desire to strengthen the institutions of commitment to strengthening internationalglobal governance. One of the central tenets institutions.of the European Security Strategy (ESS) wassupport for ‘effective multilateralism’. This was There are, however, some small signs of anever defined in the ESS although there were changed approach under the second Bushreferences to the importance of strengthening administration. There has been less hostilethe United Nations. rhetoric about the UN although right-wing republicans have strongly attacked Kofi AnnanNevertheless, given the necessary political will, for his alleged laxity in the ‘oil for food’ scandal.there is much the EU can do now to achieve At the same time, an important congressionalits aim of speaking with a united voice and commission (Gingrich/Mitchell) has beento strengthening the institutions of global broadly supportive of many proposals ingovernance. For example, despite its obvious the High-level panel report. Overall, the USdivisions over reform of the United Nations attitude may best be described as ‘à la carteSecurity Council (UNSC), the EU has played multilateralism’, a phrase first used by Richarda prominent role in supporting the proposals Haass of the Council of Foreign Relations.of the Kofi Annan High-level panel that wasdiscussed in September in New York. Who speaks for Europe?Partly because of its own history of sharing At present, the EU’s external representationsovereignty and constant inter-governmental currently varies between different policy areas,negotiations, the EU has been more willing CFSP, trade, financial, economic, environmentalthan the US and many other countries to work and development affairs. Every six monthsthrough multilateral institutions. It will be a the US Secretary of State has a new Europeanmajor challenge for the EU to build support interlocutor. It is little wonder, therefore, thatfor “effective multilateralism” amongst its Condoleezza Rice knows the telephone numberpartners. These include its strategic partners of the High Representative for CFSP, Javier 27 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 26. The EU and Global Governance Solana, better than whoever of the twenty-five establishment of an EU external action service, foreign ministers of the EU is currently holding strengthening the possibilities for some Member the presidency of the Council. Solana by dint States to act in the name of the Union on the of his experience and contacts has carved out defense front and creating an EU armaments an important role even though his position agency. These measures were intended to lead as described in the treaties is mainly “to assist to a more coherent and effective EU voice on the presidency”. He is, for example, the EU’s the world stage. The defense agency has already representative on the Quartet dealing with the been established outside the Treaty but moving Middle East peace process. When it comes to ahead on other issues, such as the EU Foreign military action, however, the first addresses for Minister, despite widespread support, would Washington are London, Paris and Berlin. be politically difficult. There are, however, a number of measures the EU could take without Although Condoleezza Rice has Solana’s any treaty changes to strengthen its external telephone number, Washington may need to call representation and internal coherence. These one of several Commissioners such as Benita include more high-profile missions for Solana Ferrero-Waldner or Louis Michel who deal with including speaking at the UN on behalf of the aspects of external relations. Washington may EU, inviting Solana to attend discussions on also wish to speak to one of the EU’s many external relations at Commission meetings and special representatives dealing with the Middle creating a joint Council-Commission planning East, the Caucasus, Bosnia or other regions and staff. There is also much preparatory work that issues. Depending on circumstances, the EU could be done to ease the transition of the may be represented, therefore, by Solana or Commission delegations to EU missions. the presidency alone, the presidency and the Commission, or by all three. If the US, with its Leaving aside institutional changes, the political lengthy history of close co-operation with the will to agree to common positions remains EU finds the situation baffling, other partners the key factor. There will remain areas of are even more perplexed. disagreement but the trend of the past decade (pace Iraq) is for the member states to agree The EU disposes by far the largest diplomatic increasingly on common policies toward third network in the world. More than 40,000 countries, regions and on functional issues. officials work in the foreign ministries of the member states and the circa 1500 diplomatic The EU and the UN/OSCE/Council of missions abroad. Each member state maintains Europe between 40 and 160 diplomatic missions while the Commission has a network of over 120 The UN poses a special problem for the EU. delegations around the world. In comparison, the Two of the member states, Britain and France, US has about one third of the human resources are permanent members of the UN Security that the EU devotes to diplomacy and one fifth Council and are supposed to inform and take of the diplomatic missions. However, as Solana into account the views of the Union as a whole. once remarked during a Convention debate, it Although co-ordination between member states was not apparent that the US was less effective at the UN has improved in recent years, there is than the EU in pursuing its policy objectives. still some criticism of Britain and France pursuing national as opposed to EU interests in the UNSC. The Constitutional Treaty contained several In January 2003, Spain and Germany joined innovative proposals, including a new post the UNSC but even with four major European of EU foreign minister (merging the positions states on this supreme international body it was of Solana and Benita Ferrero-Waldner, difficult to produce a coherent European voice Commissioner for External Relations); the as these four states took divergent positions28 European View
  • 27. Fraser Cameronon the Iraq crisis. Although both London and trade negotiations, from the Kennedy Round toParis favour reform of the UNSC, the proposed the Doha Development Agenda. The approachchanges would more likely add extra members is simple: the EU Council of Ministers agrees ato the UNSC rather than lead towards a single mandate which the Commission then uses asEU seat. Germany’s demand for a permanent the basis for its negotiations with third on the UNSC has sparked opposition from After agreement is reached, the CommissionItaly, Spain and others. presents the results to the Council for approval. Such an approach could be useful in the foreignApart from the problem of the UNSC the EU and international economic policy generally united on most other areas ofUN reform. The EU and the Member States In the environment arena, an area of mixedare the largest contributors to the UN regular competence between the Community andand peacekeeping budgets. There are also the Member States, there has been an ad hocgrowing contacts between the EU and UN approach in recent years. The limitations ofbureaucracies with regard to conflict prevention the six monthly rotating Presidency have alsoand peacekeeping operations. This practical been exposed in international environmentcooperation has been welcomed by Kofi Annan negotiations which usually last several his increasingly frequent visits to the EU. The As in the CFSP domain, there are substantialdevelopment of the ESDP and in particular the differences in capacities between the Memberestablishment of ‘battle groups’ is primarily seen States. Some favour giving the Commissionas another practical way for the EU to support a negotiating mandate, as in trade policy,the UN. but others are opposed to what they would regard as ‘increased power’ to the Commission.With regard to the OSCE, it is the Presidency In the negotiations on climate change andwho speaks for the EU when there is an agreed implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, it is thepolitical position. On economic issues, it is the Presidency which negotiates on behalf of theCommission that takes the floor. But as Member EU although the Commission plays an importantStates nearly always exercise their right to role, in particular on issues which need to bespeak at OSCE meetings, this tends to dilute coordinated and harmonized.any EU message. There is also an element ofduplication in some EU and OSCE activities, e.g. In recent years, some informal arrangements haveelection monitoring, which leads to a feeling of been put in place to maximize the EU’s impactcompetition rather than cooperation between in international environmental negotiations, tothe two bodies. The position of the EU in the facilitate preparations and to ensure continuity.Council of Europe is equally weak. Two specific ad hoc experiences deserve mention. First, the “lead-country” approach inThe EU’s Representation in International the Commission on Sustainable DevelopmentEconomic Fora (CSD). Second, the “EU-team” approach in the bio-safety negotiations.The confused external representation of theEU in CFSP is mirrored in many other policy Despite the introduction of the euro, theareas. The one notable exception is trade EU continues to punch below its weight inpolicy which has been an area of community international financial and economic fora. Withcompetence for some time. In international trade the shift in euro zone countries of monetarynegotiations it is the Commissioner for Trade policy sovereignty from national level to the(Peter Mandelson) who represents and speaks European Central Bank (ECB), the EU’s role infor the EU. The advantages of this approach for international economic and financial governanceall Member states have been proved in many has increased significantly. However, there are still 29 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 28. The EU and Global Governance problems stemming from the non membership groupings where issues relevant to EMU are of some Member States in the eurozone and discussed. Member States have begun to realize, jealousies surrounding participation in G8 however, that these ad hoc solutions are not the meetings. best way for the Community’s voice to be heard internationally. There is also increasing pressure The EU’s role in the G8 has developed gradually from emerging markets and non-European G7 over the years. In 1998, the European Council countries for streamlining EU representation in agreed rather complicated guidelines on the bodies such as the IMF. In the IMF, procedurally, Union’s external representation in financial the euro area dimension has been taken into fora. For meetings of G8 finance ministers, account by the twice yearly consultation of the ‘the president of the ECOFIN Council, or if the euro area economic policies in addition to the president is from a non-euro area member state, traditional EU national consultation process. the president of the Eurozone, assisted by the Institutionally, however, less progress has been Commission’ participates. Union views on other made. The 1945 IMF Articles of Agreement issues of particular relevance to the EMU would confer on countries the right to become be presented at the IMF board by ‘the member members. This is difficult to reconcile with the of the executive director’s office of the member specific nature of the EU and EMU. Furthermore, state holding the euro presidency, assisted by a the IMF decision taking process with countries representative of the Commission.’ On issues of grouped in mixed EU/non-EU constituencies particular relevance to economic and monetary can sometimes be at odds with the EU’s need union, the European Council conclusions to respect EU treaty requirements on position encouraged the Commission, Council and taking and representation. Member States to prepare common positions for presentation in international fora but it was Under the Articles of Agreement of the recognized that this might be hindered by not International Bank for Reconstruction and being fully associated with the preparatory Development (IBRD), a country must first join processes of international meetings. the IMF before it may become a member of the World Bank. Given this, and the fact that In recent years, there has been mounting World Bank voting constituencies are organised criticism of the G8 for its lengthy communiqués, along similar (sometimes mixed EU/non-EU) lack of follow through, lack of transparency lines as in the IMF, the situation regarding EU and restricted membership. Given the lack of representation within the World Bank is similar substance of G8 meetings, it is not surprising to that within the IMF. that there have been calls, not just from anti- globalization protesters, to abolish the G8. The above situation is clearly highly confusing Abolition is unlikely but the G8 could be and clearly weakens the EU position in transformed into a G20 to allow for greater international fora. During a debate in the representation from the south (India, Brazil, European Parliament on 11 June 2005 the China, etc). Despite this pressure, it is unlikely Commissioner for economic and monetary that the current members will agree to change affairs, Joaquin Almunia, deplored the disparity the status quo as it suits their vested interests. between the EU’s political and economic As in any international grouping there is weight and its participation in the governance often a trade off between increased size, and of international financial institutions (IFIs). The thus greater legitimacy, and reduced size, and aim, he said, should be single EU representation allegedly greater efficiency. in the Bretton Woods institutions. Speaking in the same debate, the European Affairs Minister So far, ad hoc solutions to external representation for Luxembourg, Nicolas Schmit, pointed out have prevailed for the IMF, G7 finance ministers, that the 25 member states held 28% of the the Financial Stability Forum, the G20 and other votes at the World Bank compared to 18% for30 European View
  • 29. Fraser Cameronthe US. But the influence of the US was far The EU has also been to the fore in promotinggreater as it spoke with one voice. MEPs in the a wider concept of security. The ESS adopted adebate were unanimous in calling for greater EU holistic approach in stressing the importance ofcoordination in the IFIs as a prelude to single human security and soft power but at the samerepresentation. time recognizing that the EU had to improve its military and non-military capabilities in orderWhile ultimately it is to be hoped that there will to deal with new threats and in particular thebe a single EU seat in the IFIs, the question is problem of failed states. The EU has also beenhow to get there? There are those who argue for a strong supporter of the concept of ‘globala gradual approach, placing the emphasis on public goods’ and its input and influence onimproved co-ordination on base in Washington. the UN reform debate was also significant. TheOthers suggest that as the IMF agenda is EU has strongly supported the ‘responsibility toincreasingly dominated by issues concerning protect’ concept, the idea of a Peace buildingEU competence. The EU should play a more Commission and a reformed Human Rightsprominent role through the EU Council dealing Commission.with economic and financial issues (Ecofin).This would mean Ecofin discussing IMF issues Conclusionat their regular meetings and adopting commonpositions. A further complicating issue is Britain’s The external representation of the EU is aself-exclusion from the euro zone. This may be complicated process and likely to undergoovercome if and when Britain joins the euro, further changes as and when there is politicalbut until then only piecemeal reform is likely. will to implement some or all of the proposalsThe Constitutional Treaty did, however, provide in the Constitutional Treaty. The EU is graduallyfor the possibility of the euro-zone members increasing its profile in the world and more andagreeing on their own external representation. more countries are looking to Brussels for a leadA step towards this goal might be a joint on global issues. Yet, there are clear challenges toFranco-German seat, as these two countries more effective EU participation in internationalhave traditionally been pioneers in European bodies. Firstly, how to develop effective andintegration. coherent EU representation within bodies that were set up for a membership comprisingThe EU as a Model only states. Some argue that an EU seat at the UN would not be possible under presentThe EU model is highly regarded elsewhere in international law. Secondly, there are challengesthe world and attempts to imitate parts of the EU for reaching common EU positions. This appliessystem are perhaps the sincerest form of flattery. on the economic and financial front as well asThe EU supports these efforts through a mix the political front. For example, the EU has beenof political, financial, economic and technical largely invisible in international efforts to dealmeasures. In Africa there is the increasingly with the recurrent financial and banking crisesimportant Africa Union, as well as a number caused by the sharp swings in capital flows toof regional and sub-regional organizations. In emerging markets. No coherent EU positionLatin America there is the Andean Pact and has ever been developed and defended, evenMercosur as well as the Central American Free in cases where Europe’s strategic interests areTrade Association (CAFTA). In the Middle East clear, e.g. Turkey. In contrast, the US usually hasthere is the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). In well defined positions and is highly effective atAsia there is the association of south-east Asian influencing multilateral bodies such as the IMF.nations (ASEAN) and the Asian regional forum(ARF). There is also much talk of an East Asian Another challenge is enlargement. If the enlargedcommunity involving China, Japan and South EU of 27 Member States can speak with oneKorea. voice, then clearly it will increase its influence 31 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 30. The EU and Global Governance on the world stage. But the Iraq crisis revealed differences between old and new Member States, especially in attitudes towards the US. It is likely, however, that the new Member States will align themselves, as they have done in the past, with the mainstream of EU policies. They will recognize the value of the EU speaking with one voice. Already, apart from Romania, they have withstood US pressure to sign bilateral agreements on the ICC. The EU has also begun to make its voice heard in promoting support for reform of the international institutions. It is also increasingly respected as a model for regional governance elsewhere in the world. In the end, a Union with 450 million citizens, the largest trading bloc in the world with a single currency and the largest provider of development aid and humanitarian assistance, cannot escape from playing a greater role in world affairs. But it will be some time before it speaks with a single voice in all international fora. Fraser Cameron is Director of Studies at the European Policy Centre.32 European View
  • 31. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Turkey - The Missing Link in the European Puzzle By Recep Tayyip Erdoğan To paraphrase Kirke- question of changing paradigms, it is a process gaard, history runs for- all the more significant for the whole of Europe. ward but is viewed with It is time for the EU to grasp the opportunity hindsight. We are still that accession negotiations with Turkey present facing a challenge to de- it with. fine the period after theend of the Cold War. Whereas the period before In a paper published last June, it asked whetherwas primarily of an ideological nature, today the Turkey’s accession to the EU would be “Justchallenges are mostly economic and cultural. Another Enlargement?”1 The answer to thisJust as states were divided into two camps, the question is revealing, for such an answer is fullcommunist East and the democratic West, there of possibilities and opportunities for the EU’sis now a growing but misleading tendency to future course of development on the globaldefine societies in a new divide between the stage. It also reflects on whether or not the EUEast and the West, along religious and cultural is ready to become a political, economic andlines. Unfortunately, it seems that we cannot cultural global actor at the same time.avoid creating such divisions. Against this back-ground, if any socio-political project can ever Some analysts further contend that Turkey’sbe defined as an antithesis and a synthesis both membership may change the nature of the oldat the same time, it is certainly the process of EU and continue to ask “why not?”Turkey’s integration into the EU. Defining the missing linkTurkey’s membership to the EU is an antithesisto concepts such as “social escapism”, “lack of First and foremost, the formulation of, andpolitical realism” and an ignorance of “the logic response to, these questions requires an objectiveof the facts”. set of criteria, since the fundamentals of Turkey’s EU vocation are without comparison and areEU membership of Turkey is an all-encompassing of a sui-generis nature. Turkey’s accession issynthesis of the present challenges and not just about the politics or the economics ofopportunities which face us today at a global accession. Turkey’s EU membership is not solevel. This synthesis, defined simply, is the total much about history as it is about her commonsum of the best in East and West. future along European values.Turkey’s integration into the EU is a remarkable The opening premise for analysing Turkey’sproject that transcends the borders of our integration into the EU should be that Turkey’scontinent with its full political, economic, European vocation is not up for discussion.cultural and overall strategic implications. It is, Membership to the EU is a rational choice of theif you like, an expansion of perspectives as well Turkish people. Nothing less can be an optionas a shift of mindsets on many levels. This is for Turkey. Today, Turkey’s EU membership isindeed a high calling. Precisely, since this is a driven as much by her own vision and definition1 Kirsty Hughes, “Turkey and the European Union: Just Another Enlargement: Exploring the Implications of Turkish Accession” Friends of Europe working paper, June 2004. 33 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 32. Turkey - The Missing Link in the European Puzzle of modernization as by shared values and her enlargement, European values and policies will common vision with Europe. It is for these certainly have a greater global reach and impact. reasons that the reform process in Turkey is a At this point in time, the thinking behind the commitment to the aspirations of the Turkish process of integration has to evolve beyond the people for the highest standard of democracy mere mechanics of enlargement. The European going, in other words, beyond the fulfillment of integration process should move into a holistic the Copenhagen political criteria. These reforms realm, with a view to its possible projection will continue vigorously. capacity on an international level. In a new millennium, where contemporary Rethinking the parameters of EU’s global threats and risks take on many forms - from reach terrorism to environmental destruction, from regional conflicts and low-intensity warfare to Our world today is being threatened by forces extreme poverty and from hunger to diseases at that defy our framework of civilized life, risking epidemic levels - societies around the world are a plunge into some unpredictable pattern. It increasingly faced with questions of existence. is, precisely, at this point that we need to stand The response to these universal malaises back and take a look at the picture ahead of us: requires a global vision, not just rhetoric - a can any of us afford to be guided by an ossified proven axiom calling for concrete action. system of symbols, be it political, cultural, social and even perhaps religious? If the answer is no, Europe, most notably the EU, is uniquely placed then time is ripe for action. and well-endowed to rise to the current global challenges. Europe, espousing peace, stability, Europe can truly embark on this enterprise by principles of democracy, human rights and contributing to lasting stability in its periphery. the rule of law, cannot afford to turn inwards, Turkey has much to offer to further this unique choosing to remain an economic powerhouse process. The advantages of Turkey’s membership but allowing itself to lack global political clout. to the Union are closely related to the future vision of the EU itself. Turkey’s membership Europe has repeatedly succeeded in verifying to the EU will not only contribute to the new hypotheses in international politics. The maintenance of stability and peace in Europe very beginnings of the EC as a grand project but also to the spread of the European success of consolidating European peace, is a case in story in implementing universal values in the point. The EU is, without a doubt, the single region and beyond. In fact, with Turkey’s entry most important political undertaking of its into the Union, new horizons will be opened in kind. It is a grandiose political work of art, EU’s external relations. Turkey’s membership will with much commitment and devotion since its also act as a catalyst for Europe in establishing inception. However, the EU continues to require closer ties with the countries of the wider region unparalleled dynamism to sustain itself both in of the Middle East, the Caucasus and Central its true shape and image and also to reconcile Asia as well as parts of Africa. This may take this image according to the contemporary global the form of political, social or commercial state of affairs. cooperation. Turkey, for instance, is among the leading actors of the international construction In all this, the EU has, so far, proven beyond sector with over 2.500 projects worth around 60 doubt its value. Most significantly, it has billion US dollars in over 60 countries. turned strife and mutual destruction into peace, stability and prosperity in Europe in The embracing of cultural diversity in a spirit the late twentieth century. Over the years, the of tolerance and mutual understanding, as enlargement process has played a key role in this a code of conduct for addressing issues of systemic change. With the continuing process of common concern, should form the cornerstone34 European View
  • 33. Recep Tayyip Erdoğanof interregional cooperation within Europe and in their host societies. Turkey joining the EU asbeyond. The EU should demonstrate this with a Member will prove to the Muslim world that aall the means available to it. One such tool is predominantly Muslim country can interact withthe successful finalization of Turkey’s accession the West as an equal partner and move towardsto the EU. deeper integration for the benefit of both sides. By the same token, Turkey would demonstrateThere are various estimates as to the exact number that, with a functioning democracy, Islam needof Muslims living in Europe today. These range not be viewed merely as a channel of radicalroughly from 10 to 16 million. These figures opposition or exploited by some as a rhetoricalmake Muslims the largest religious minority in conduit for extremism and violence.Europe, constituting almost three percent ofEurope’s total population. If one considers that Indeed, I have been tasked to co-sponsoronly seven out of 25 EU member countries have the recent UN initiative on the project of ana population over 13 million people, this would “Alliance of Civilizations”. This is a significantmean that the Muslim population currently living undertaking; in fact, Turkey’s accession to thein Europe may even exceed the population of EU will constitute an alliance of civilizationsthe other 18 EU Member States. under the roof of the EU.Turkey’s membership will constitute yet In brief, in the context of East-West and North-another step in mutually influencing Muslim South interaction, Turkey occupies a uniqueand Christian societies positively, in their place. From an Eastern perspective, Turkey isefforts of identifying with each other, as well part of the West; from the West, however, Turkeyas strengthening the ground for much-needed appears as the extension of the East; from adialogue and cooperation between the two. This Northern perspective, given her GNP per capita,will also help the process of defining the EU’s Turkey is considered an extension of the South;own identity as a multicultural global power at and from a Southern perspective, as a member ofpeace “within” and “without”. the OECD, NATO and an EU candidate, Turkey is the extension of the North.2 This uniqueKeeping both the Muslim and the non-Muslim position is the basis for Turkey’s potential forpopulations in Europe away from radical becoming a synthesis and an antithesis, both attendencies is possible only if there is viable the same time.evidence which shows that modernity, asecular way of life, democratic principles and The historical and cultural aspects ofIslam can coexist. Turkey’s EU membership Turkey’s EU voyagewill help the Union to counter arguments thatit is an exclusive, and allegedly Christian, club. One could, perhaps, argue that there areWith religion having been accorded, albeit attempts to understand the nature of Turkey’sunjustifiably, much significance in international voyage towards Europe. Many of these attemptsrelations, by welcoming Turkey into its fold the have sadly proven less than imaginative. In fact,EU will demonstrate that European advocacy such attempts may have their roots from manyof universal values is more than just rhetoric. centuries ago. Today, there are still echoesWith Turkey’s membership and even the of past centuries that linger around Europe.process leading to it, namely the accession These echoes take many forms: from elementsnegotiations, Muslims in Europe are more likely of racism and xenophobia to suggestions thatto feel confident and more willing to integrate Turkey’s faith is in permanent contrast with that2 Ahmet Davutoğlu, “Küresel Bunalım”, Küre Yayınları, İstanbul, 2002, pp. 206 35 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 34. Turkey - The Missing Link in the European Puzzle of Europe’s. Some of them resonate with pure was that progress equalled modernity which, in political rhetoric and even with unfortunate turn, was a function of westernization. It was cultural insensitivities. certainly no coincidence that one of the first books printed in the Turkish printing press in The European Union Turkey seeks accession the early 18th century was a treatise describing to, is the direct opposite of such constraints and the states and forms of government that existed misgivings. Turkey’s EU is pragmatic and is not in Europe.4 Already in the last few decades of limited by the demons of the past centuries. the Ottoman Empire, reforms were introduced Turkish society has traditionally and historically which brought Turkey closer to Europe. The been open to change, accepting multi-culturalism Ottoman Empire was the first Muslim country and embracing the “other” in a universal way. to adopt a constitution and representative institutions in 1876. Yet, even at this volatile and fragile point in contemporary world politics, there are still those Turkey has historically been a direct subject in Europe who find it hard to define the EU of European history. Naturally, the process around common values. They prefer to consider accelerated after the Republic was established a narrowly defined historical and cultural in 1923 and the country underwent a major context more important. However, if history and transformation. The European model as a means historical culture are to be added in the criteria of modernization was developed through this for EU membership, then these point even more process. The Civil Code of Switzerland, the strongly to Turkey’s place in Europe. After all, Criminal Code of Italy, and the Administrative history and culture taken together are the sum Code of France were taken as models for the of reciprocal influences, negative or positive young Republic. These choices were not taken prejudices and repeated action between states. by mere coincidence or by chance. In each States often define themselves by their geography. case, the most advanced piece of legislation of The process of the creation of a country’s identity the times was adopted. Turkey was no stranger is, furthermore, linked to its historical collective to adopting European legislation long before consciousness as well as to its national interest. it became an EU candidate. Turkey also took Historically, even though the vast borders of the an early interest in the efforts to build a united Ottoman Empire reached as far as Africa in the Europe. It asked to join the European Economic south and the Caucasus in the north-east, the Community barely 1,5 years after it came into main political orientation and social thrust of being, namely in July 1959. Turkish society has been towards the West. There have been ups and downs but the final This has been more evident since the end of the destination of full integration was never lost. 17th century, with the appointment of the first In 1987, Turkey applied for full membership. Ottoman envoy as Ambassador to Vienna. At no The decision to give Turkey candidate status point in history or nowhere else geographically in Helsinki in December 1999 shifted the focus other than Europe, did the Ottomans feel a need of the relationship between the EU and Turkey, to forge formal diplomatic relations with another from one mainly based on economics to one state. As Bernard Lewis points out, the Ottoman where politics also came to the fore. December Sultan was formally admitted to the Concert of 2004 was another milestone in these relations, Europe by the European powers with the Treaty with a specific novel characteristic: that Turkey’s of Paris of 1856.3 European odyssey of four decades was put on the track with the opening of accession The Turkish view, as early as the 17th century, negotiations on October 3rd, 2005. 3 Ibid, 125 4 Ibid, 12636 European View
  • 35. Recep Tayyip ErdoğanTurkey as a regional asset for the EU Turkey. Turkey was the first to take over the command of the ISAF in Afghanistan and isIn a period when a set of new and old continuing this task successfully.phenomena continue to threaten our world andour very way of life, the EU has a rare chance Turkey’s membership in NATO, the OSCE, theto rise to this challenge by spreading its values Council of Europe, the Economic Cooperationof democracy, rule of law and human rights. Organization, the Organization of the IslamicMilitary conflicts, poverty, terrorism, fanaticism, Conference, and the Black Sea Economicreligious and ethnic discrimination, xenophobia, Organization is only a brief summary of some ofanti-Semitism, prejudice against Muslims, the international platforms which we participateenvironmental degradation, epidemic diseases, and which demonstrates Turkey’s regionaland drug trafficking, all require a collective reach.response. There are enormous strategic, political, economicFormulating global solutions to these inter- and cultural gains which Turkey’s membershipnational problems pose a challenge for all will bring to the EU. Given that Turkey hasnations. As long as the resolutions of at least spearheaded regional groupings such as thesome of these problems remain outstanding, Black Sea Economic Cooperation or that athey are a potential source of instability in the Turkish national is currently holding the postlonger term which may yet haunt Europe. In of Secretary General in the Organization of thethe persistent absence of viable steps towards Islamic Conference, Turkey’s EU membershipthe eradication of the ills of our world, Europe’s will naturally raise the profile of the EU in thevery economic and political credibility and its projection of common values and standardsoverall security may be at risk. Turkey, as part of in neighbouring regions. With Turkey as aEurope, can be a moderating and stabilising actor member, the EU will have a stronger voice inin areas as diverse as the eastern Mediterranean, the prevention and settlement of conflicts,the Black Sea area, the Middle East, the Balkans, especially along its external regional borders.the Caucasus and elsewhere. The discovery ofone of the world’s largest petroleum and natural One of the current requirements for viablegas reserves in the Caspian rim has further regional peace in the eastern Mediterranean isincreased Turkey’s strategic importance. The the need to find a just settlement to the CyprusBaku-Ceyhan pipeline will help Turkey take issue within the UN framework. This will bringa central place on the route through which about a new partnership on the Island and alsothese resources will be transferred to Western constitute a new ‘state of affairs’ for the easternmarkets. It is calculated that 1 out of every 16 Mediterranean region as a whole. Turkey’sbarrels of oil supplied to world markets will be membership to the EU will help consolidate,transported via this route. even secure this peace process, contributing to lasting stability in the region.Thanks to Turkey’s existing linguistic andcultural ties with the Central Asian Republics, Given her cultural, linguistic and historicalshe has privilaged access to the region. In the relations with a great number of countries,Middle East, Turkey is the only country which Turkey is uniquely poised to access, to interpretboth the Israelis and the Palestinians trust. For and help shape positively political and socialthe prevention of regional conflicts, Turkey also tendencies in a vast geographical area. In anhas experience in the reconstruction of crisis era where communication is more pertinent,regions. International peace-keeping operations reaching the hearts and minds of all thesein Bosnia, Kosovo, Albania, the Middle East societies, it is significant and indeed, it is a taskand Georgia have included contributions from in itself. 37 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 36. Turkey - The Missing Link in the European Puzzle Economics of politics currency by dropping six zeros from the old one. By doing so, we have rebuilt confidence This type of effective communication, which in our national currency. The new lira has Turkey can readily project, can be further also become a strong currency. Turkey’s main empowered by economic prowess in this age structural targets will continue to be reformed in of globalisation. In addition to the vigorous the areas of taxation, social security, agriculture, political reform process which aims to reach and and the fight against the “informal economy”. even surpass the Copenhagen political criteria, The banking sector remains an area for further our government is committed to the process of reform. structural reform of the economy. Despite ongoing reforms, Turkish membership Turkey is the only country to forge a Customs presents a challenge to the EU. Her size, the Union with the Union before membership. She relative weaknesses of her economy, and her large has a comprehensive macro economic and population are cited by some as leading causes political dialogue, a Pre-accession Strategy, and for concern in terms of her EU membership. a related financial cooperation mechanism with It is true that Turkey’s EU membership may the EU. have a set of different political, economic and social implications with broad geopolitical More than 80 thousand Turkish entrepreneurs are dynamics. But it is not possible to know how already operating in Europe. Turkey’s economy Turkey and EU will be in 10-15 years from now. currently ranks as the 17th largest in the world. The potential of Turkey’s vibrant economy, its This is up from 22nd place only last year. As entrepreneurial strength and the expected levels regards to economic growth, Turkey ranked first of growth are more promising than fears fueled among the OECD countries in 2004. Our trade by domestic politics. The present positive trend volume will stand at around 200 billion dollars in the economy in Turkey coupled with the this year, more than half of this with the EU. The economic reforms that complement the political EU is, clearly, Turkey’s biggest trading partner. reforms are significant positive signs. Gross national product has increased by almost 10% in 2004, well above the estimated 5%, while As for demographic trends, Turkey’s population income per capita rose by more than 20%. will not reach 90 million for another two decades. This figure will then only be a small fraction of the Some analysts have calculated that if Turkey EU population. More significantly, and contrary maintains a 6% annual growth, its GNP can to what some would like the European public double in the next 12-13 years. This would to believe, rather than exceeding 100 million in mean that Turkey’s GDP would approach the the near future, recent statistics indicate that the European average. The public sector deficit in Turkish population may reach 99 million only terms of its ratio to GNP has been decreasing in 2040. In fact, the population is expected to and is expected to come down to 3% in 2006, stabilize around this figure. With the expected thus reaching the figure set out in the Maastricht increase in foreign investment in Turkey during criteria. Inflation and real interest rates have the accession process, the rise in domestic gone down to single digits, for the first time in the demand for labour is likely to drastically reduce last 30 years. Structural reforms in the economic the willingness of Turks to migrate to Europe field, successful and on-going privatisation in search of jobs. More importantly, given the efforts, as well as fiscal and monetary stability worrying demographic trends in Europe over the achieved with strict discipline, are on-going next few decades - falling birth rates and even positive indicators. decreases in population in some cases - Turkey’s young population can be viewed as an asset On 1 January 2005, Turkey launched a new rather than a hypothetical liability for the EU.38 European View
  • 37. Recep Tayyip ErdoğanThe EU is part of which Europe? There is a deceptive dichotomy, some tend to believe, between belonging to the IslamicThe Roman Empire did not include Scandinavia faith and being fully democratic and modern.and Eastern Europe, and Scandinavia never This is exactly the point where short-sightedexperienced feudalism, the Renaissance did not perceptions, guided by short-term politicalreach Northern and Eastern Europe and the gains, sadly miss the mark. It is true that this isReformation movement remained limited to Latin a domain, unlike economics or demographics,Christendom. Most things relevant to Europe - where an empirical approach is much harderfrom daily life to international politics, the arts, to employ. Thus, it is easier to overlook theliterature or the sciences, find their origins in opportunities presented by Turkey to Europe asthe regions and cultures around Turkey, dating a whole. Turkey’s experience harbours enoughback 5 centuries ago. Despite all this, although substance to demonstrate that the East and thethe concept of Europe points to a certain degree West are not universally incompatible. Suchof cultural, political and demographic unity, incompatibility is an anachronistic view whichit is not possible to claim a uniform sense of should be left behind. Turkey’s contribution toEuropeanness embraced in its entirety by the this is much more than just rhetoric; it is thepeoples of all EU Member States. main element of the very synthesis Europe must forge itself in order to provide for the antithesisThe recent rejections of the Constitutional Treaty of a closed Christian club removed from thein the referenda in France and the Netherlands responsibilities of a global order.have once again given rise to a renewed debateon the identity of Europe as a whole and on The flip side of the coin is that a predominantlythe state of domestic politics in the Member Muslim Turkey, once a member, will haveStates. While both topics are relevant to an joined a predominantly Christian union. Turkishopen discussion on the EU by its members, it is society, however, is committed to a secularimportant that these do not reflect negatively on way of life and does not harbour misgivingsTurkey’s accession process in the long run. or hesitations about EU membership based on this premise. The impact of Turkish accessionParadoxically, though, and perhaps under- to the EU will further demonstrate that the EUstandably for some, as Turkey’s prospects for is a multicultural body, not a ‘Christian club’membership become more real, the arguments and this would have important geopoliticalexpressed against Turkish membership have ramifications.5 Such spillover effects are alreadybeen voiced more openly in the last few years. evident. Scores of people from the countriesSome of this self-defeating suspicion has recently of the Middle East, North Africa, the Balkansled to references of special relations between and the Caucasus with predominantly Muslimthe Union and Turkey instead of eventual EU populations are watching closely the process ofmembership. These views, lately expressed more Turkey’s integration with Europe. A number ofopenly in the wake of the EU Constitutional these countries rushed to express their pleasureTreaty referenda in France and the Netherlands, at the decision of the European Council of 17suggest a privileged partnership for Turkey with December 2004 to open accession negotiationsthe EU. It would be a gross mistake to assess with Turkey.Turkey’s integration process to the EU on thebasis of short term perspectives alone or at the Conclusionlevel of domestic political gains. This would,indeed, run counter to the idea of a dynamic A self-reliant, self-confident and integratedEU. Europe will be all the more sensitive to the needs of other regions of the globe and, at5 Hughes, Executive Summary iii 39 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 38. Turkey - The Missing Link in the European Puzzle the same time, better equipped to respond the European integration process should have to those needs. Such a Europe, whatever its been raised in 1959 or at the time of Turkey’s eventual geographical size, will be effective application for membership in 1987 or in 1999, and in essence can be “present” only in so far before Turkey was given candidate status. No as the values it espouses can reach out. The government can claim that these decisions, merits of enlargement, however challenging including the conclusions of the Copenhagen institutionally, may far surpass any grand European Council of 2002 on accession economic scheme. Enlargement of the Union is negotiations, were not taken in full knowledge a global leap forward for Europe. The prospect of all circumstances.7 of the complete unification of the continent offers Europe a real chance to become a force Thinking of oneself in the context of the world for stability throughout the world. is to be able to envision oneself as a power. However, one can only be a power if he has the With the accession of ten new members to the ability to cross mental borders. As the French Union last year, the population of the EU has historian Lucien Febvre suggested in 1945 reached 450 million with a total economy larger “Europe, if one has to make it, must be created than that of the United States. The view that in the context of the planet.” Turkey’s entry into the Union will yield large strategic benefits for the EU is neither new, nor exaggerated. The argument that the EU public is not convinced of Turkey’s potential contribution Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the Prime Minister of to the Union partly because their leaders have Turkey. not begun to explain the case for enlargement,6 merits reflection. Indeed, in Europe there seems to be a tendency to project to the European public many mixed messages about the philosophy of enlargement or even where the EU would like to or should go. Prominent EU public figures have given conflicting signals about the future identity of the EU. Consider Valery Giscard d’Estaing announcing, as head of the European Convention, which drew up the EU Constitution, that Turkey’s entry into the EU would mean the end of the Union. Then, consider the preamble of the Constitution which points to “unity in diversity.” The Report of “the Independent Commission on Turkey”, composed of former European political leaders, concluded that delay in the opening of accession negotiations with Turkey would damage the Union’s credibility and be seen as a breach of the principle of “pacta sunt servanda”. The Report further affirms that any objections, in principle, against Turkey joining 6 The Economist, June 4-10 2005 pp. 11 7 “Turkey in Europe: More Than a Promise?” Report of the Independent Commission on Turkey, September 2004, pp. 4340 European View
  • 39. Benita Ferrero-Waldner Future Prospects for the European Neighbourhood Policy By Benita Ferrero-Waldner There has been much It is also a way for us to deal more effectively talk lately about the with threats to our security and to project stability nature of power in the and prosperity beyond our borders. Within our 21st Century, and in neighbourhood we face complex challenges particular the European – conflicts, both frozen and live; trafficking of Union’s ability to play drugs, weapons and people; poverty; politicala strong role in the world. It is true that our instability; migratory pressures and organisedprincipal source of power – our power of crime. The nature of these challenges and theirattraction - is “soft” rather than “hard”. But it is proximity explains why ENP is the number oneno less potent. external relations priority for this Commission.For proof, we have only to look at the way The offercountries on the EU’s borders have beendemanding closer relations with the EU. We I am often asked whether ENP is more thanconstitute a pole of attraction for countries in just a repackaging of old EU policies in newour region, one of the defining features of global clothes. To me the answer is clear - it is a farpowers throughout history. more strategic and wide-ranging approach than anything we have attempted in the past, saveOur traditional response to such demands has for enlargement itself. But I am aware that webeen membership. But this has its limits - many still need to prove ourselves to our partners, andof those now asking for closer relations are not for that reason the implementation of our policyon track for membership, nor for the moment will be key to its success.are in a position to meet its requirements. 2005 is the first year of delivery for the ENP. WeYet we do want closer relations with all our are proposing a serious upgrade in relations toneighbours, whether or not they will one our neighbours. They are not being offered aday become members. We want to reach out second-best option to enlargement but rather ato our closest partners, building a circle of highly-desirable step-change in our relations.friends around us. So we have developed anew response to this impetus - the European This year saw the formal adoption and ratificationNeighbourhood Policy. of ENP Action Plans with seven partners – Israel, Jordan, Moldova, Morocco, the PalestinianThe European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) Authority, Tunisia and Ukraine. We also beganis becoming increasingly important as citizens work on five new Action Plans with Armenia,raise questions about the future limits of the EU. Azerbaijan, Egypt, Georgia and Lebanon.It provides us with a new framework and toolsfor engaging with our neighbours and utilises So what exactly are we offering? The Europeanthe valuable transition experience we have Neighbourhood Policy is an opportunity foralready gained from enlargement. It’s a way of us, and our partners, to share the benefitsresponding to our neighbours’ desire for closer which we have derived from half a centuryrelations with the EU, without entering into of peaceful integration. It’s a win-win policy,discussions of membership. based on mutual interest and shared values. We 41 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 40. Future Prospects for the European Neighbourhood Policy share our neighbours’ desire to become more well-functioning market economy. In response, prosperous and stable. We encourage them to the EU will offer considerable assistance and take meaningful steps to modernize, open up opportunities for more cooperation. markets, and strengthen the rule of law, good governance and human rights. In return we Implementing far-reaching reforms will not be offer deeper political and economic integration easy. But the benefits will be considerable – with the EU. structural reforms will lead to increased growth rates; a better macroeconomic environment and By deeper political integration we mean more trade liberalisation to increased foreign direct frequent and higher level political dialogue - investment; and public administration reform to better reflecting the importance of our relations increased institutional capacity. - and assisting our partners to further strengthen the institutions protecting democracy and the How will we achieve all this? First of all, by rule of law. But we also want to cooperate more agreeing with our partners on realistic, achievable closely in promoting our common foreign policy and measurable reforms, and secondly, by priorities, like making multilateral institutions supporting their implementation. more effective, and in addressing our common security threats like the fight against terrorism The first part, agreeing reforms, is guided by and the proliferation of weapons of mass the ENP Action Plans. These are jointly-drawn destruction. up political documents committing both sides to respect common values and norms of In the economic field, the objectives of ENP are international conduct and undertake political ambitious: enhanced preferential trade relations, and economic reforms. Each ENP Action Plan is increased financial and technical assistance, tailor-made for the partner country, focusing on gradual participation in a number of EU policies a limited number of key priorities. and programmes and, the most novel and far- reaching feature of the ENP, a “stake” in the EU’s Broadly speaking, all the plans cover political internal market. This means gradual participation and economic reform; cooperation in the field in our internal market through approximating of justice, liberty and security; infrastructure legislation and gradual integration of transport, networks; and people-to-people contacts. energy and telecommunication networks. In the economic sphere, we want progress on ENP is a virtuous circle – by helping our issues like poverty reduction and sustainable neighbours we help ourselves. By helping to development; promoting trade relations and create prosperous, stable and secure conditions developing regional trade links; streamlining in our neighbouring countries we safeguard our customs procedures; converging technical own prosperity, stability and security. We want regulations, standards, and conformity to reach out to our friends and establish closer assessment procedures; and dealing with ties. issues like state aid, intellectual property rights and public procurement. These and other But of course, we can only do that if our measures will improve the trade and investment neighbours respond. The impetus for political environment and stimulate small businesses and and economic reforms must come from within entrepreneurs. if it is to be truly successful. So in the political field we have to see concrete progress in respect ENP is also a response to expectations, hopes to human rights, democracy and the rule of law. and fears within the EU. We will put in place In the economic field there must be genuine structures to manage legal migration, thus movement towards sustainable reform and a helping to fill gaps in our labour markets42 European View
  • 41. Benita Ferrero-Waldnerand making a substantial contribution to our We will use tried and tested methodology suchown economic growth, while simultaneously as twinning and support for institution andbenefiting migrants’ ‘home’ economies. We capacity-building. We will also pay particularwill work together to fight on security issues attention to cross-border cooperation - for thethat affect us all: terrorism, international crime, first time, cross-border cooperation at the EU’sweapons of mass destruction, and human external borders will be possible through atrafficking. single instrument and a single set of rules; this is a substantial step forward.We will jointly tackle environmental issues,which know no geographical boundaries. And This ambitious policy needs adequate financialwe will cooperate on long term strategic issues means. So we propose a substantial increase inlike energy supplies and integrated transport funding for the ENP region to nearly €15 billionnetworks. for the period 2007-2013, nearly doubling the amount available for 2000-2006. Even beforeENP is not only about activities for governments the ENPI comes into effect in 2007, we haveand institutions, it is also about people. Bringing enhanced the assistance provided under TACISour communities, our youth, our students, and and MEDA e.g. by strengthening cross-bordercivil society together is essential. ENP provides aspects.the base for grass-root contacts throughexchange programmes for young professionals The idea is not to replace our existingand others, and scholarship schemes. We also relationships, but to give them an addedwant to explore high-level scientific exchanges, dimension. The European Neighbourhoodand work on the convergence of our higher Policy will bring the established Partnership andeducation systems so that our neighbours can Cooperation Agreements (PCAs) with countriesparticipate in the European higher education to our East and Association Agreements (AAs)area. with those to our South, into sharper focus. The Barcelona Process will continue to provide anHow far we get will depend on our partners’ essential regional forum.political will and capacity, as well as our owncapacity to deliver. The achievementsThe second part, supporting reform, will draw The tailor-made aspect of ENP is the key –on both our own experience of reform and different countries have different requirements.integration, and on the Commission’s financial This approach is already proving its worth.and technical assistance programmes. At present,the ENP countries benefit from TACIS and To our East we used ENP successfully toMEDA programmes, together with various other support the negotiations during Ukraine’sforms of EC assistance. From 2007, as part of a “Orange Revolution” last year. As part of thegeneral reform of our external assistance, these ENP Action Plan agreed with Ukraine, we areprogrammes will be replaced by a single new discussing visa facilitation and readmission. Weinstrument - the European Neighbourhood and want Ukrainian businessmen, officials, studentsPartnership Instrument (ENPI). We will tailor our and tourists to travel to the EU more easily.assistance to meet priority needs and support We have also been pushing hard for progressthe implementation of the ENP Action Plans towards Market Economy Status, an issue wewith improved and streamlined procedures. know is very important for Ukraine. And we have significantly enhanced our cooperation in the fields of energy and transport. 43 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 42. Future Prospects for the European Neighbourhood Policy Moldova is treating ENP as a ready-made The Future blueprint of reforms required for this early stage of transition, and has already adopted We must use the attraction of the EU to promote the Action Plan as its reform programme. We sustainable political and economic reform, while are also funding a border assistance mission on responding to our neighbours’ urgent desire for the Moldova-Ukraine border, an important step closer relations. ENP reflects our commitment in facilitating the end of the frozen conflict in to avoid new divisions emerging between the Transnistria. newly enlarged EU and its neighbours. The people who live just across our borders are not We will be discussing Action Plans with simply citizens of “third countries” but close Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Again we will partners with whom we share practical interests, be looking for cross-border cooperation to help aspirations and ideals. facilitate an end to the frozen conflicts in the South Caucasus. Today the EU is the world’s largest integrated market and biggest economy. But to maintain We are also very committed to Belarus. We hope our position as an economic giant we must the Belarusian authorities change their attitude increase our competitiveness, through better, to democracy and enable Belarus to become more efficient regulation, including deregulation, a participant in ENP. But in the meantime, and more focus on education, research and we will continue to support civil society and innovation. European universities must be able democratisation, including through independent to compete with their counterparts around the news broadcasts. world. At the same time we must maintain our European way of life. This is the right answer to To our South, we are using the ENP Action Plans globalisation; we cannot isolate ourselves from signed with Israel and the Palestinian Authority the world. to encourage practical trilateral initiatives between us. We have already made progress This is also essential to ensure the security of in the fields of energy and transport. Our European citizens. We have a responsibility to Communication on EU-Palestine cooperation, tackle terrorism and international organised beyond disengagement and towards a two state crime, to prevent new conflicts flaring up and to solution, outlines further measures for utilising spread the stability and security that flows from the ENP Action Plans to support the Middle East prosperity and democracy. Peace Process. The response to all this is for the EU to remain Beyond those two, we are using the Action outward-looking, to open up further to the Plans signed with Jordan, Morocco and world. ENP is an essential part of this approach, Tunisia to support political reform around the which is why it will remain the principal foreign Mediterranean - for example, by setting up policy priority for the Barroso Commission. the first-ever fora to discuss democracy and governance issues with our partners. To conclude, we have already achieved much in this year of delivery, but much more hard We are currently negotiating new Action Plans work still lies ahead. The EU is committed to with Egypt and Lebanon, which will give us supporting its neighbours through their economic more scope for political leverage and joint reform processes, and to anchoring them in action. the current spirit of democracy. I am confident44 European View
  • 43. Benita Ferrero-Waldnerthat our neighbours are equally committed tous. Whatever lies beyond the horizon, I amconvinced the European Neighbourhood Policywill be part of making the European Union andits neighbours an area of peace, security andstability. We must work with our neighbours topromote reforms that will improve life for thecitizens of those countries, as well as our own.Benita Ferrero-Waldner is EuropeanCommissioner for External Relations andEuropean Neighbourhood Policy. 45 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 44. Franco Frattini Europe, Global Security and the Fight Against Terrorism By Franco Frattini The barbaric terrorist the European Union will further intensify its attacks of Madrid and efforts and accelerate the implementation of London were squarely the EU Action Plan on Combating Terrorism directed against our and other related commitments. Upholding the free world. Whereas fundamental principles of freedom, security and our solidarity and our justice requires decisive but balanced actionthoughts are with the victims and their mourning responding comprehensively by isolating andfamilies, our commitment to stand firm in apprehending terrorists and their supporters,defence of our common values strengthens us while at the same time strengthening democraticfurther. The international community stands values, public debate and enhancing educationunited and has to act decisively so that terrorism towards tolerance, diversity and respect fordoes not achieve its objective of sowing hatred others.and dividing the world. We shall not allowterrorism to triumph. The European Commission is fully committed to promoting its policies in this spirit. The EU PlanThe Charter of Fundamental Rights of the of Action on Combating Terrorism as adoptedEuropean Union commits us unambiguously to by the European Council in June 2004 is a livingdefend human dignity, the right to life, physical document with regular updates in line withintegrity and security of persons. The European current developments and evolving priorities.Commission supports wholeheartedly a Complemented by the Hague Programme onreinforced commitment to combating terrorism, strengthening freedom, security and justice ofas most recently expressed by the Council of November 2004 and the Action Plan of 10 Junethe European Union at its extraordinary meeting 2005 translating it into specific measures, theseof 13 July 2005 in response to the London documents provide the basis for the Europeanbombings. internal security policy agenda for the years to come. In addition, the Framework ProgrammeBut terrorism does not only aim at indiscriminate “Security and Safeguarding Liberties” underkilling of people, it also aims at provoking the new Financial Perspectives 2007 – 2013 iscounter-reactions which, in turn, may lead geared at supporting core policy initiatives into an accentuated polarisation of our society, financial terms, thereby assuring inter alia thatthoughts and ideologies. We will not fall into the the European dimension of the fight againsttrap of sacrificing our democratic values in the terrorism effectively complements respectivevery defence against terrorism and international efforts undertaken by Member States.crime. Freedom is not possible without security;nor is security possible without justice and the Global, external and internal securityrule of law. Global trade liberalisation, as well asThe Charter of Fundamental Rights also developments in transport, information andcommits us to respect private and family communication technology, increase economiclife, the protection of personal data and the and social opportunities world-wide. Theright to freedom of thought, conscience and European Union stands at the forefront ofreligion. It is against this very background that liberalisation in particular, by successfully 47 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 45. Europe, Global Security and the Fight Against Terrorism promoting the free movement of persons, Today, the European Union has a lot to offer goods, services and capital in the 25 Member the international community, from judicial States. cooperation to police cooperation and border management, from enhanced information Terrorist and organised criminals exploit our exchange to data protection, from effective free society. They may prepare an attack in one prevention and protection against crime towards country, ensure funding from a second country, the management of its consequences, from conduct the crime in a third one and seek safe legislation to policy funding, from national to haven in a fourth. A comprehensive strategy regional cooperation. In this process, the Hague matching up to the challenges of international Programme and the Counter-Terrorism Action crime must therefore cover internal and external Plan form the backbone of our mandate which aspects of the problem, both being intrinsically we implement with fierce commitment. interwoven. The link between terrorism and organised No single government is, nowadays, in the crime position to offer security to its citizens in isolation from the policies of other countries. The EU does not distinguish between different In this context, the European Security Strategy kinds of terrorism when it comes to condemning established a programmatic platform in order or fighting it. Although the most visible type of to synchronise efforts and pool resources at terrorism these days is the one which purports international levels. At European level, the to have an ‘Islamic cause’, we are committed challenge is to benefit from the advantages of to confront with equal vigour all types and free movement, but at the same time minimise forms of terrorism. “Knowing your enemy” is the security threats, by creating an area of one of our essential tasks. As a consequence, freedom, security and justice. Indeed, the major efforts are being undertaken at EU level challenge is local and global and so must be in the sharing of information and intelligence, the response. enhanced cooperation between police and intelligence services, and the development of Policy developments in the area of freedom, definitions and criteria which will in the future security and justice have been breathtaking form the basis of European threat assessments, since the Amsterdam Treaty entered into force coordinated policies and joint operations. in May 1999. We set up new institutions such as Europol, Eurojust and CEPOL to complement The analysis of terrorism and related crime national policies where European efforts can teaches us that the tools we are deploying need produce added value. We established framework to be further sharpened and fine-tuned. In fact, legislation in many policy fields targeting we have embarked on a race in which terrorists at cross-border crime, organised crime and use ever more sophisticated instruments to fund terrorism, and at the linkages that exist in this their activities, communicate with each other or field. Under the Hague Programme, accelerated move across borders. Enhanced action against by the wave of terrorist attacks inside and outside state sponsored terrorism in recent years and Europe, we are moving increasingly towards the more systematic financial investigations into formulation of common policies and - under the terrorist support structures have forced terrorists new financial perspectives 2007 – 2013 - towards to resort to sophisticated funding and financing the funding of respective policies at national, strategies. These include a broad range of European and international levels. Indeed, the criminal activities including the acquisition and European Union is developing the policies and running of legitimate business or illegitimate policy instruments that will allow it to become a fund raising through charities. global actor in defence of freedom and security world-wide.48 European View
  • 46. Franco FrattiniIn this process, terrorist groups have often complex root causes in a comprehensive manner,lost their potentially more comprehensible based on national experience inside the EU andpolitical objectives, thereby blurring terrorist the evolving European internal security policy.motivation and criminal enterprise, as was thecase for instance in Afghanistan, Columbia or Addressing the root causes - strengtheningNorthern Ireland. Today, terrorists may engage crime preventive culturesin organised criminal activity. Criminals mayfund terrorist activities. Terrorists may become The recent terrorist attacks in London of Julystate leaders, and state leaders may engage in 2005 have reinforced the priority the Europeansupporting or carrying out terrorist or criminal Commission attaches to addressing violentactivities to further their objectives. radicalisation as part of a comprehensive approach to fight terrorism. The latter wasThe lessons we have to draw from this are stipulated under the Action Plan on Combatingmanifold. I would like to highlight three core Terrorism which the European Council adoptedissues which require our priority attention. in June 2004, following the terrorist attacks of 11 March 2004 in Madrid.First, given the potentially strong links betweenterrorism and organised crime it is imperative The evolving policy to counter violentto coordinate respective investigations. The radicalisation and terrorist recruitment atsetting up of effective coordination mechanisms European level comprises a full range ofbetween police forces and intelligence services, measures, including enhanced control of massat national and European levels, is thus one media to prevent incitement to hatred, the use ofof the big challenges to be addressed by the media for radicalisation or even the preparationEuropean Union in the years to come. of terrorist attacks, but also enhanced focus on education, youth engagement, social integration,Second, we must be determined to work tolerance and inter-cultural dialogue. Overall,towards a single European law enforcement the dialogue between states and religions shouldspace that establishes effective information and be reinforced and supported by an extensionintelligence sharing across borders and allows of well-established anti-discrimination policiesfor well coordinated operations based on towards social integration measures.shared European threat and risk assessments.Any technical, human or policy obstacles The transformation of the European Monitoringsuch as incompatible IT systems or the lack Centre on Racism and Xenophobia into theof trust between institutions will have to be European Fundamental Rights Agency will alsosystematically addressed. In parallel, enhanced enhance its scope to reach out in addressing rootmulti-disciplinary cooperation between law causes. To underline the specific importance weenforcement bodies, government agencies, attach to dialogue, integration and respect forregulators, the private sector and policy makers the other, the Commission will shortly launchis essential at national and European level in the proposal to make 2008 the Year of Inter-order to mobilise all available forces and tools cultural Dialogue. Education towards toleranceagainst terrorism. in society is one policy element, but it must notThird, terrorism and organised crime often go be misused to justify certain violent practicestogether, in particular in countries with weak as an expression of diversity or religious right.political cultures. Given its trans-national The clear and unconditional commitment toorganisation, the European Union cannot act the letter and spirit of the European Charter ofin isolation. Our external relations programmes Fundamental Rights provides the foundation forwill thus address the external threats and their our Europe of freedom, justice and security. 49 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 47. Europe, Global Security and the Fight Against Terrorism We also have to be aware of the economic enhancing the security of explosives and dimension of security - interference in our open improving cooperation in the area of societies and free markets. The overall process criminal justice through, for example, better towards privatisation and digitalisation of the information exchanges, form an integral part economy on one hand, and the increasing of the European Union’s policy agenda. inter-connectivity of private enterprises and their vulnerability from market environments At the same time, the EU is also addressing will requires private actors to become active ways of preventing terrorists from access to proponents of a market regulation that minimises financial resources, thereby hindering them the risk of crime and its covert funding. This is a to travel, hide and purchase or produce security argument but it also aims at preventing means that cause destruction and carnage. the criminal distortion of competition and market destabilisation. 2. Protection: The elaboration of a European Programme for Critical Infrastructure As a matter of principle, self regulation and Protection (EPCIP) is at the centre of current voluntary standards based on thorough risk efforts in the European Union to strengthen assessments should be the privileged tools to the protection of key European and national achieve transparency of market transactions and, in consequence, traceability of infringements or infrastructures. Complimentary to this criminal acts. Appropriate reporting procedures, will be the Critical Infrastructure Warning oversight and public private partnerships in the Information Network (CIWIN), which will fight against terrorism and crime complement equip Member States with a rapid alert the effectiveness of crime prevention and capacity concerning threats to their critical facilitate criminal investigation and prosecution. infrastructure. CIWIN will also allow partners The general thrust of our security policy should to share knowledge and best practice in the always be to strengthen good governance and interest of greater security for all of Europe. accountability as the most effective long term The effective coordination of existing crisis remedy against crime. The same goes for the public sector. Transparency and accountability management capabilities at European level address corruption and mismanagement which is a major challenge to be addressed in often cause or facilitate weak criminal justice close coordination with relevant players at systems and criminal activities to flourish. national and European levels. 3. Prosecution: The prosecution of terrorists Fight against terrorism: the European and organised criminals is primarily the agenda responsibility of national law enforcement and intelligence services, whereas the The European Commission’s long term approach European Union has a critical role to play to the fight against terrorism is being built in reinforcing the tools and conditions for around four policy strands: (1) prevention, (2) improved cooperation. protection, (3) prosecution and (4) consequence management: The setting up of European institutions such as Eurojust and Europol are milestones 1. Prevention: Successful preventive measures of our recent history of law enforcement are crucial for the European Union’s cooperation. The persecution of terrorists success in the long-run. Reduction of crime will not be successful if it does not lead opportunities must go hand in hand with to their sentencing. Judicial cooperation reduction in incentives to isolate oneself therefore plays a fundamental role in the from civil society. Issues such as violent pursuit process, which should end with radicalisation and recruitment into terrorism, prosecution, trial before a court of law and the50 European View
  • 48. Franco Frattini implementation of the verdict. Since terrorist A series of horizontal measures underpin activities are frequently multinational in progress in all core policy fields. Effective nature, the Union is setting up a framework exchange of information and intelligence for judicial authorities to co-operate has become a major theme between police efficiently and effectively. The principle of forces, intelligence services and policy makers. mutual recognition of judicial decisions is Structures are being set up at European level to attracting great interest from the international community and could, if underpinned by inform European policy makers and, at the same adequate criminal justice standards, form time, provide the basis for enhanced operational an important source of inspiration for the cooperation. further development of judicial and police cooperation at international levels. The Council’s Joint Situation Centre processes intelligence from the specialised services4. Consequence management: Response whereas Europol will perform similar functions measures aimed at minimizing the terrorist with material derived from police work. The threat and the consequences of a potential European Commission will support this process terrorist attack. Only a well-organised and by working towards IT-based solutions related to effective response system can guarantee an the inter-operability or accessibility of databases, expeditious return to normality. the promotion of enhanced information exchange between police services - based on The main responsibility for the direct response the principle that access to information should to terrorist attacks lies with the national be granted to competent services of other EU authorities of the affected Member State. Member States on the same level as national However, assets and capabilities required to actors (principle of availability) - or through the handle the consequences of terrorist attacks strengthening of its own dedicated assessment may exceed the civil protection capabilities capabilities. of the country affected. Joint action can ensure a timely and adequate response. The European Commission also pro- Solidarity between all Member States is actively supports developments towards the what underpins the EU’s counter-terrorism establishment of European threat and risk efforts. assessment capabilities. The promotion of a public-private dialogue as spelled out in the The Community Civil Protection Mechanism Hague Programme will also be crucial for has already been successful in various enhancing the EU’s protective capacity. As new internal and external threat situations. The security policies are being explored, European European Union is, however, determined Commission-supported research will further to develop a broad crisis management gain importance under the financial perspective capacity. Work is being carried out on the 2007 – 2013. creation of the ARGUS system, which will link all specialised Rapid Alert Systems External action (RAS) hosted by the Commission and will facilitate coordinated and comprehensive Last but not least, external support measures responses to emergencies that require action become increasingly important in the area of at European level. Improved coordination international security cooperation. Counter- and information exchange between national terrorism remains high on the international authorities will, furthermore, be aided by agenda and is being fully integrated into our the establishment of the Law Enforcement political dialogue with third countries. In general, Network (LEN). the EU supports the fight against terrorism in the external domain through targeted technical 51 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 49. Europe, Global Security and the Fight Against Terrorism assistance, political dialogue and cooperation interpretation of Islam. Indeed, this kind of in international and regional organizations. terrorism aims at the very heart of our civilisation Around eighty countries benefit from our and requires us to mobilise our combined forces, assistance programmes. without losing sight of the values we defend. Unfortunately, we also have to be prepared to The EU stands ready to further strengthen witness more atrocities in the future, despite its cooperation with the UN and supports the enhanced and sustained efforts of all actors in particular the rapid adoption of a new involved. Comprehensive Convention against terrorism and the universal ratification of the existing 13 Europe has experienced different types of UN Conventions in this field, with particular terrorism in its recent history. One of its most attention being paid to the risk of weapons effective weapons to fight the scourge in the of mass destruction being used for acts of long run was to uphold the values of an open, terrorism. The EU also cooperated closely democratic and tolerant society, whilst rejecting with the UN’s Counter-Terrorism Committee violence, hatred, racism and xenophobia in Executive Directorate (CTED). whatever form, with resolute determination. The European Commission is fully committed to History also tells us that there are no guarantees play its full role in international cooperation and for a secure future. We have to be vigilant at all will continue to work closely with competent times. There will be qualitatively new threats to UN institutions and other international bodies which we will have to respond. It is, therefore, in such as the G8, OSCE, Council of Europe, the our genuine self-interest to address intolerance, Financial Action Task Force and OECD. weak governance and social exclusion alongside the effective tracking down of terrorists, inside Particular focus will continue to be on the the EU and beyond, that threaten our physical cooperation between the European Union and existence as well as our common values and the United States. Having both been targets of prosperity. deadly terrorist attacks, the European Union and the USA share a common interest in fighting The commitment to tackle terrorism and its the terrorist threat in a sustainable manner. causes must not diminish. The challenge for the Unprecedented levels of cooperation have been EU is to develop its internal security capacities developed since these events in areas such as effectively, whilst maintaining freedom and a intelligence sharing and information exchange, harmonious existence of different religions and law enforcement cooperation, border and cultures within a climate of tolerance and respect transport security and judicial cooperation. for the fundamental rights of people regardless of colour, race or creed, and at the same time Although the European Commission does exporting stability and security along these not have a direct role in defence and military parameters. Europe must move beyond being matters, it is clear that whatever the EU does a passive observer and consumer of security militarily, be it in conflict prevention, crisis towards becoming a producer of security; a management or post-conflict reconstruction, it protagonist in world affairs. This is our truly is inevitably part of a wider European Security global agenda. Strategy including many elements for which the European Commission has a lead role. Conclusion Franco Frattini is the Vice-President of the European Commission and Commissioner for There are no simple answers or magic solutions Justice, Freedom and Security. to the threat of terrorism, based on an abusive52 European View
  • 50. Ingo Friedrich Quo Vadis? Europe’s Role in a Globalised World By Ingo Friedrich Without any doubt, organisational terms nor has it been fully following the two “No” understood and accepted in the hearts and votes of France and minds of European citizens. What Europe needs the Netherlands in the now is a change in overall approach, particularly referenda on the EU- in the policy of continuing enlargement. For Constitution and the example, if 74 % of the German population arefailed summit on the financial perspectives, against full membership of Turkey in the EU,Europe is in crisis. During the current period it is irresponsible not to consider alternativeof reflection, the question is now whether or options for the future integration of Turkey. Allnot to go on with the ratification process and across Europe people have doubts on this to proceed with the European Constitution If we do not listen to the people, we will loseproject, at the heart of which lies the reform their trust. Without trust the European Unionof the European institutions themselves. project will fail.The European Council, under the AustrianPresidency in the first half of 2006, will examine The overall legislation of the Union has tothe status of the discussion in the Member States be reformed: some directives go too far andas well as options for future development. The harm the economy rather than contributing toreform of the European Union, its institutions the goals of the Lisbon agenda. The opticaland decision-making processes is of crucial radiation directive for example does not, in myimportance for the future of the EU. The success view, give any incentives for economic growth,of the European project depends on whether we nor conforms to my idea of the principle ofare able to reform the Union and prepare it for subsidiarity. The European institutions haveits future tasks. The main question underlying to act more pro-actively in order to regain thethis debate: what is the role of the EU in a confidence and the support of Europe’s citizens.globalised world? The political change to a conservative-led government in Germany, the biggest EU MemberOn close analysis, the reasons for the rejection of State, will definitely have a strong impact onthe Constitution show that the French and Dutch Europe and its policy.have not only voted on the Constitution, theyhave also used the referendum to express their What we need to communicate to the peopleresentment concerning the general development is the good Europe can bring them. In theof the European Union and, most of all, their first forty years, the main political aim of thedissatisfaction with their national governments. European Union was peace, first of all throughThe citizens’ vote must be understood as a the reconciliation of France and Germany. Butclear signal of discontentment, which has to be from the very beginning, there has also beentaken seriously. Europeans apparently do not an external dimension to this project. Europeancomprehend an ever-enlarging Europe with no integration has always been about giving Europe’sclearly defined frontiers. nations more influence in the world. One of the driving forces behind European integration wasThe enlargement to the east with ten new the desire of Member States to build a new futureMember States joining the EU only a year together where European values such as peace,and a half ago is neither fully completed in freedom, social security and prosperity reign. 53 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 51. Quo Vadis? Europe’s Role in a Globalised World These values are threatened by the dark side worldwide peace, democracy and social security of globalisation: growing inequalities between if we join forces. Consequently, the European rich and poor, climate change, international Union is not a cause of globalisation, but it terrorism, the increase of disease and famine. does provide an answer to it. It is the only way to give the inevitable process of globalisation In Western and Northern Europe, the welfare a more human face. The EU’s size and weight state has come under pressure because of after enlargement obliges us to behave as a transformations in the world economy and global power. In the long term, we need a truly cultural changes which are characterised by common foreign and security policy, including terms such as individualisation and globalisation. a common defence policy. Of course, this has to There is indeed a fundamental change in the be done gradually. social climate in European societies and we have to face up to the challenge. This is probably I believe that it is crucially important, in this one of the main topics on the national as well crisis of the European Union, to have a concrete as on the European level. The gap between definition of (1) the frontiers of the Union, (2) the different social groups is widening and our the aims of the European Union and (3) most social welfare systems are no longer able to of all, its vision. This is my vision of Europe: cope with the demographic and social changes. in times of globalisation and individualisation, We need a commitment to social justice, to the Europe has to be a social anchor, an island fight against poverty and all forms of exclusion of stability, a “light-house” for human rights, as a priority on the European level. The poor peace, freedom and social security. In the age and the sick should not be excluded but should of globalisation, it is of utmost importance be cared for and made an active part of society. to preserve our European social model, our This is of crucial importance for the success of specific combination of market economy, the European integration process itself. welfare state and democracy, our specific social market economy. The challenges of combining Dissatisfaction with current globalisation has led competition and co-operation, autonomy and people to retreat to more nationalist positions, solidarity are no longer restricted to the national as the European Union is perceived to be part or even regional level, but present themselves of the globalisation issue. on a global level. Democratic politicians across the political Europe has indeed the power to make the spectrum need to take these fears of Europe’s global order more equitable. In facing these people seriously and explain why a retreat challenges, Europe should be modest and behind national borders and political and aware; it must confess its Christian heritage, and economic protectionism are not an option. The it should have the courage to define its frontiers. EU is not an island. We can not ensure peace and What we need is leadership. We need clear prosperity in Europe without taking into account and strong leadership in order to realise the the problems and the dangers of the rest of the necessary reforms and to follow a clear course world. The challenges of globalisation surpass for the future European Union. Then I think Member State borders and individual States are this Europe can indeed become a beacon in this unable to manage them on their own. globalised world. To achieve this, it is of utmost importance that politics do not overwhelm or What is required is multilateral co-operation: the dominate the people but involve them, and European Union is the only way to assure that integrate them into this process in order to avoid Europe’s nations can fully realise their values endangering this European island of stability. and their interests on an international level. We can only win the fight for human rights, In doing so, it is necessary to be aware of the54 European View
  • 52. Ingo Friedrichspiritual roots of Europe. The incorporation of areference to God into the Constitutional Treatywould have been a good cornerstone. One canneglect one’s history, but one can not get rid ofit. Europe is founded on an essentially westernsystem of values. If Europe is to find its wayagain, I believe it is essential that we are willingand able to return to the source of our values.The EU will have to be very courageous in orderto clearly define its frontiers. Full membershipof Turkey would overextend the EU both interms of the functioning of its institutions, aswell as in terms of culture, organisation andfinances. The discussion about the referendahas shown that the citizens do not agree withthis policy. We need a change in directionwhich allows the Union of Values, Europe, todeepen and to consolidate itself. This is the onlyway to regain lost confidence so that peoplewill identify themselves more readily with theEuropean idea. It is important that all of us takepart in this process. The plan D1 announced bythe President of the European Commission canonly work if we, as politicians, together withcivil society, participate actively in this process.Even the USA, with its global superpower status,will not be able to rely on its so far undividedsovereignty in the long run. In the long term,global problems and events require globallycoordinated responses. In this respect, Europehas already achieved amazing progress, and isable to play a leading role in the continuingprocess of globalisation.Ingo Friedrich is President of the Forum forEuropean Studies and Vice President of theEuropean Parliament.1 „ D“ stands for „dialogue, debate and democracy“, 55 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 53. Lawrence Gonzi Mediterranean Security and Regional Management By Lawrence Gonzi The burning questions characterised by close and peaceful relations of the European Union based on cooperation.’ The Treaty does not tend to snap and crackle explore this special relationship in further detail. in a distinctive way when Indeed, its generic formulation leaves open the they are considered from possibility that the special relationships that the a perspective located, Union might cultivate could be of more thanlike Malta, on the southernmost extension of one kind – different kinds of partnership thatthe Union’s frontier with North Africa. Take are responsive to the rather different kinds oftwo current questions: What are the limits of immediate environments in which the UnionEurope? How should we think about the idea of operates, depending on the frontier.a ‘privileged partnership’? Thus far, within the Union the idea of aOn the eastern frontier, the task of delimiting privileged partnership has been broachedEurope from its immediate neighbourhood largely with respect to the eastern boundary.tends to focus on, among other issues, history Although it has not been explored in detail, inand culture. Whether history and culture should general terms it has been depicted as a form ofbe decisive factors is, of course, part of the partial membership of the Union; that is, fulldebate. economic union without full participation in governance. It is perhaps worth underlining thatOn the southern frontier, things are different. partial membership is not ‘lesser’ membership,History and culture are at once more clearly since the area-specific participation that doesinconclusive and more clearly beside the point. take place is as complete as it is for MemberThey are more clearly inconclusive because States. However, Turkey has interpretedthe historic record of cross-cultural exchange, ‘privileged partnership’ to be a degraded formin the widest sense, between the northern and of membership, a second-class membership: ansouthern shores of the west Mediterranean is interpretation of considerable significance.remarkable. And yet these considerations aremore clearly beside the point because, strictly For Turkey’s interpretation has consequences thatspeaking, the immediate neighbourhood to the go beyond its own negotiations with the Union.south of Europe is the sea, a marine environment If ‘partnership’ is perceived by other States in thethat includes high seas, beyond any national Union’s immediate environment to be second-jurisdiction. class membership, they will not find it easy to accept, nor will the special relationship succeedThe distinction between the nature of the eastern in fostering a ‘spirit of good neighbourliness’.boundary from that of the south feeds into the This perception need not be confined only toconsiderations of what a ‘privileged partnership’ the other States on the eastern frontier; but canshould be. The draft Constitutional Treaty refers also spread to the southern such a partnership in Title VIII (Article 56):‘The Union shall develop a special relationship For a range of reasons, linked not only, but notwith neighbouring States, aiming to establish an least to security and trust, the Union needs toarea of prosperity and good neighbourliness, address the concerns that might give rise to suchfounded on the values of the Union and a perception. Exploring the practical details of 57 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 54. Mediterranean Security and Regional Management what partnership with neighbouring States Security challenges and trust might involve would be an effective way to do so, although it would probably be helpful to Essentially, there are four issues – or rather, make clear that the Union’s considerations were for those fond of the jargon of Mediterranean not being conducted with particular reference cooperation, 3 + 1... to Turkey. The first three issues have to do directly with Logically, of course, the case for Turkey’s security in its widest sense, including the political, membership of the Union is separable from economic and environmental. To begin with the the case for giving a higher priority to working last aspect, in February 2005 a Mediterranean out the details of privileged partnership: Commission on Sustainable Development for example, Malta has supported (pending produced a report (together with a strategic fulfilment of the Copenhagen criteria) the action plan) that showed in what alarming ways opening of negotiations with Turkey with a environmental degradation in the region has view to possible eventual membership; but accelerated in recent years. Loss of valuable Article 56 entered the draft Constitution largely agricultural land, water resources threatened by on the insistence of the Maltese members of the depletion or degradation, deteriorating urban Convention. In practical terms, the separability environments and rapidly increasing waste of the cases would be established with greater generation: these are among the major trends. force if it could be seen that the Union was exploring more than one kind of partnership, Some trends directly concern the marine different special relationships according to the environment, in particular: the erosion of coast- different immediate environments. lines and pollution of coastal areas, including the sea; depletion of fish resources; and the It is suggested that, in any case, such a pluralism disruption, because of over-exploitation or of kinds of partnership is, in functional terms, abandonment, of biodiversity of the region, what is needed. The nature of the immediate with special mention being made of the densely environment to the south – the fact that it is populated coastal areas. a marine environment with high seas – raises pressing issues of security cooperation that The costs of such environmental degradation cannot be adequately addressed without the include a higher risk of catastrophes like setting up of new institutions: a scenario tsunamis, flooding and ecological imbalances. that prospects the creation of a new network There is also a direct financial cost, in the range of regional governance in which the Union between 3-5 per cent of GDP according to the participates together with other non-member World Bank. And over the next 20 years, with Mediterranean States. the influx of mass tourism, the pressures are likely to increase. The main aim of the remainder of this article is to make a proposal concerning the shape that Needless to say, if the pressures do increase such a special partnership could take. However, in an uncontrolled way, then the very assets it would be useful, first, to resume the challenges that act as magnets for mass tourism will be facing the Mediterranean, and second, to show jeopardised. Hence, as the report makes clear, why institutions of regional governance are ecological security is intertwined with economic needed. security. But the latter is challenged by other regional features, too.58 European View
  • 55. Lawrence GonziCurrently, the Mediterranean is one of the least This year is the 10th anniversary of theintegrated regions of the global economy. Its Barcelona Process and next year, 2006, hasshare of world trade is dropping. It claims less been declared the Year of the Mediterranean.than 10 per cent of private capital flows to The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)developing countries – as compared with over has been announced with fanfare by the Union,40 per cent to the emerging markets of Asia, or among other initiatives that involve somethe almost 30 per cent to the markets of Latin Member States. And yet these milestones areAmerica. The general outlook of the southern surrounded by a mood of regional scepticism,Mediterranean is particularly precarious. Its particularly among the southern States. Inaverage per capita income is 10 per cent of private conversation, politicians and diplomatsthe average per capita income in Europe. On from these States give voice to various anxieties,normal growth rates, the prospects of halving one of them being that European investmentthis income gap are bleak, especially given the and funds which could have come to the regionhigh unemployment rates, particularly among will, as a result of the enlargement to the east,young men – rates of unemployment that in be diverted in that direction.many countries soar between 20 and 25 percent. Perhaps more surprisingly, it is sometimes expressed that the proliferation of strategiesAll this is taking place in the wider southern and policies addressing the MediterraneanMediterranean context of significant demographic might not be a sign of recognition of thegrowth and a rate of urbanisation that is placing region’s importance, but rather an indicationconsiderable pressure on municipal services. of its weakness: a lack of a focused, integratedSuch economic insecurity is indubitably approach; a potential for the shifting of goal-connected to regional issues that have to do posts, for tactical shifting between the specificwith the political dimension of security. We criteria of one process and those of another (say,should not be surprised if the destructive, false between the multilateralism of the Barcelonapromises of terrorism find some response, of Process and bilateralism of the ENP).sympathy or outright support or enlistment,from a fraction of that youth which is disabled Above all, there is scepticism about the idealsby the sense of having ‘no future’. of partnership and solidarity held up by the Barcelona Process, a feeling that ‘partnership’Indeed, the assessment of their future by certain is a euphemism for a teacher-pupil relationshipexperts is not significantly more optimistic: one of between Europe, and the southern Mediter-the key provisional findings of the Sustainability ranean. It goes without saying that such a view isImpact Assessment of the Euro-Mediterranean likely to be reinforced if ‘partnership’ is seen toFree Trade Area (due to be established in 2010), mean second-class membership of the Union.which is being conducted for the EuropeanCommission, is that the proposed free trade area All these perceptions, correct or mistaken,will generate some marginal economic gains erode the political trust that is essential to anyfor the region, but with significant social and endeavour to address the security challengesenvironmental costs for the southern States (and effectively. But even if the degree of trust wasTurkey). encouraging, there is reason to believe that good governance of the region requires certainMilitary security does not fall within the focus of institutions designed specifically for it.this article but an issue related to it constitutesthe fourth point that needs to be considered:political trust between the partner States. 59 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 56. Mediterranean Security and Regional Management The need for institutions of regional be called a ‘zone race’ may well have been governance triggered. Libya has declared a 62-nautical- mile fishing preservation zone measured from The need for specific institutions is created by the outer limit of the territorial sea. Tunisia has two peculiar features of the southern frontier, passed legislation enabling the government to the marine environment and the high seas. establish an exclusive economic zone. In the Admittedly, high seas need not be a feature of wake of these declarations my Government the region. There is, in fact, virtually no point in thought it prudent to promulgate legislation that the Mediterranean that is more than 200 nautical enables the government to extend its fisheries miles from the coast. In principle, therefore, the jurisdiction beyond the current 25-mile fisheries whole of the sea could be delimited between the conservation zone. littoral States in accordance with the Law of the Sea: Within the delimited zone, the coastal State The term ‘zone race’ is used with deliberate irony. would have sovereign rights for the purpose Clearly, the intention behind the declaration of of exploring, and exploiting, conserving and protection zones is conservative in the best managing the natural resources, whether living sense of the term – a far cry from the mutually or non-living, of the waters super-adjacent to assured destruction inherent in the Cold War the sea-bed and of the sea-bed and its subsoil. arms race. However, it is worth making the allusion to draw attention to two aspects of the In practice, however, delimitation agreements zoning process. First, there is the competitive have been relatively few and the declaration element: some governments, possibly the of exclusive economic zones has so far been majority, might feel drawn into it in response rather restrained: and for good reason. The to the behaviour of other States, not because small confines of the sea mean that there are it is their first preference but to safeguard their bound to be overlapping claims – quite possibly national interests. by three or more States, making procedure a formidably problematic process; the region’s The second aspect of the zoning process calls numerous islands would complicate it further. for a consideration of the other feature of the Existing tensions, caused by one or another of southern frontier of Europe: the fact that it is a the numerous political disputes in the region, sea, which means that there are resources whose might be exacerbated by the pressure of claims mobility does not respect national boundaries. for delimitation. These mobile resources include non-living, mineral resources in the water-column; but the In this setting, the restraint on declarations of most obvious example would be fish stocks. exclusive economic zones has been wise, since National resource management will never be as such claims would precipitate insoluble conflicts. effective in protecting fish stocks as regionally One can imagine that such conflicts might integrated resource management. The same can also arise with claims over the archaeological be said, of course, about ecological protection treasures on the sea-bed. So high seas, while not zones (although here the importance of regional being a necessary feature of the Mediterranean management is not something that greatly in legal terms, do constitute a practical feature distinguishes marine from land environments). for political reasons. The marine feature of the southern frontier In recent years, however, claims have begun means that the national zoning process also to multiply with respect to similar territorial increases the gap between policy aim and rights under headings such as environmental or outcome. The irony of a zone race, should it fishing protection zones. Indeed, in the case of really take off, is that it would induce States to fishing protection zones, something that might energetically pursue strategies that they know60 European View
  • 57. Lawrence Gonziare not the most suitable to obtain the intended (Article 56) of the draft European Constitutionaloutcome. Treaty. The special relationship it envisages with neighbouring states includes ‘the possibilityThus, the nature of the southern frontier of of undertaking activities jointly.’ Action inEurope has a significant impact on the available this perspective does not have to await thechoice of strategies to address the challenges ratification of the Treaty. Another way toof security. The marine environment implies characterise the basis of this network would bethat challenges to do with conserving and as a Mediterranean implementation of the kindmanaging mobile resources are best addressed of regional cooperation envisaged by Articlein a regionally integrated way (submarine, 123 of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law ofnon-mobile mineral resources call for special the Sea.consideration in their own right). The proposed network would facilitateHowever, such integrated resource management integrated resource management by involvingrequires its own institutional regime. For under all Mediterranean and Black Sea littoral statesthe current regime, choosing not to delimit the as well as Portugal, with the European Unionentire sea would mean the presence of high seas, co-ordinating the participation of its members.beyond all national jurisdictions; while the other The network would seek to bring together theoption of delimiting the entire sea into exclusive management of:zones is likely to precipitate a competitive, evenadversarial process that would inhibit a truly a) fisheries (consolidating the work of thecollaborative project. Even with good will, the Mediterranean Fisheries Council andcollaborative process is likely, all too often, to other existing institutions responsible forbe entangled in formidable, even forbidding aquaculture, with the aims of the Union’sprocedures to sort out overlapping claims of Common Fisheries Policy serving as athree States or more. model), b) shipping (consolidating the work of theSome institutional creativity is needed to International Maritime Organisation (IMO),facilitate multilateral cooperation and secure the c) marine and coastal environmental protectiongovernance of all the marine area. International (consolidating the work of the MediterraneanLaw does provide a range of legal regimes that Action Plan and UNEP in this regard),indicate alternative models of joint exploration, d) scientific research policies (consolidating theexploitation, conservation and management. work of institutions like the MediterraneanHowever, political accountability will need Science Commission (CIESM), within theto be provided by the setting up of specific perspectives of the IntergovernmentalMediterranean institutions, organised as a Oceanographic Commission (IOC)).network, concerned with the governance ofthe marine area. What follows is a proposal First prioritiesconcerning the identity that this network couldhave, its first priorities, long-term aims and scope In connection with c) above, it may beand the first steps to be taken to set it up. recalled that the Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development produced a strategicA Euro-Mediterranean network for plan with seven prongs (marine and coastalintegrated marine resource management zone management, urbanisation, agriculture, water, energy and climate, transport, tourism).Identity of the network The third part of the strategic plan contains many suggestions about the means of putting itThe basis of the network should be title VIII into effect. The first group of these suggestions 61 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 58. Mediterranean Security and Regional Management is mainly addressed to the Euro Mediterranean through possibly the setting up of a single Partnership set up in Barcelona in 1995. They Mediterranean exclusive economic zone in the all appear to deserve support but may constitute terms of the Law of the Sea. too tall an order to be implemented at once. It is for this reason that while the strategic plan First steps suggests the setting up of networks for each of the seven priority areas, rightly affirming their It is suggested that the setting up of such interdependence, it is here being urged that very a network could begin by a meeting of concrete action be taken with regard to the first Heads of State and/or Government of all priority area (marine and coastal management) the Mediterranean countries as well as of the with the six other areas also being approached European Union authorities. Such a summit in the first place from their respective meeting would obviously have to be preceded connections with the marine environment. by preparatory meetings of senior officials and Thus, for example the formation of the Euro- other exchanges. In view of the large design Mediterranean Development Bank, the setting involved, an intermediate stage of meetings up of which has already been lengthily debated, at the sub-regional level (for example, of the could be initiated through the network with States of the central Mediterranean) is probably initial reference to marine undertakings. advisable. Long-term aims and scope Logistical support for these exchanges could be provided by the States taking the initiative While the overarching purpose of the network in support of the establishment of the network would be to ensure an integrated approach to as a stage in the fulfilment of the strategy for the governance of Mediterranean marine space, sustainable development in the Mediterranean just how far joint management can and ought region. to go would be an ongoing task of the network itself to explore. It would be very helpful to the Mediterranean Member States if they were given logistical One should not exclude the possibility of support by the Union authorities. But it is movement in the direction of establishing important to emphasise that the setting up of Mediterranean marine space as a kind the network should be a multilateral endeavour of ‘commons’, a common heritage of all of the States on both sides of the Mediterranean Mediterranean littoral peoples. Certainly, the idea – and not one with the Union en bloc striking of a Common Heritage is now an established bilateral arrangements with southern States. The legal regime as well as a political concept. To latter course would in the short term perhaps explore how far it is possible to go down this benefit the Union because, as the single-most route, however, the scope of the network would massive partner, negotiations would be weighted need to be widened: first, perhaps, by having in its favour. In the long run, though, such a all the Mediterranean States, whether belonging course of action would almost certainly be to to the European Union or otherwise, establish the detriment of the Union and particularly its a common system of joint management of all Mediterranean Members. the resources pertaining to the neighbouring marine space (paying due attention to the It is unlikely that the aims of the network, special considerations to do with non-mobile and therefore the challenges of sustainable mineral resources). development and security, could be met in an institutional framework that had manifest Such a system could also allow co-operation in inequalities of status for the participating the exploitation of submarine mineral resources partners, in such a way that ‘partnership’ for62 European View
  • 59. Lawrence Gonzithe southern States came to signify (if only attention. But acceptance of that argument needimplicitly and unofficially) a degraded form of not exclude another; namely, that a Europeanmembership of the Union. There simply would approach to the governance of the Mediterraneannot be the basis for trust and cooperation region, one that is institutionally innovativerequired for the project to succeed. and aimed at enabling greater prosperity and dialogue within an area fraught with tension,A new narrative for Europe would both hark back to the initial impulse on which the Union is founded and represent aThis proposal for a network of regional significant 21st-century is being made at a time whenthe Commission is in the process of preparinga Green Paper on a holistic approach to themaritime affairs of Europe. This laudable Lawrence Gonzi is Prime Minister of Malta.development will naturally be of considerablerelevance to maritime cooperation in theMediterranean; its proposals will no doubtimpinge on the suggestions made here. Aboveall, a systemic approach to maritime affairssuggests a new narrative for Europe that is inthe early stages of articulation.What may be called the classic, post-1945 Unionnarrative emerged out of the industrial economybased on coal and steel of the continentalheartland. Developments since then, however,have seen the importance of the coastal areasof the continent greatly enhanced. Not only isthe sea still vital for communication and trade.The previously impoverished, peripheral coastalareas have become the most densely populated,following the remarkable growth of masstourism, particularly in the Mediterranean.Moreover, the underwater resources haveevident extraordinary potential: fishing has beentransformed from an activity akin to hunting toone that constitutes farming, and other economicuses of marine mineral resources cannot beneglected either. In the Mediterranean, thedevelopments on the European coastline have,on the southern coastline, in some respectsbeen mirrored, in other respects contrasted inways that threaten the stability of the region.Some Europeans are urging that acceptingTurkey as a Member would signify the beginningof a new cultural and political narrative for theUnion, and certainly their argument is worthy of 63 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 60. Leonid Gozman Russia and Europe: Between Love and Hate By Leonid Gozman Relationships between Lately, the situation has been aggravated. In the new Russia and Russia, a person declaring that it is natural to set up the West, particularly a union with the West is considered inadequate at Europe, looked like the least. The West speaks of traditional Russian a romance at the hostility and Russian imperialism, referring to beginning. Having some peculiarities inherent in Russia and itscast aside the basic premises of communist people which cannot be explained and have notpropaganda along with communism itself, changed for centuries. Moreover, all the changestens of millions of Russians considered the Russia has been through over last fifteen yearsWest as a friend and a role model, rather than are declared superficial and Russian democracya potential enemy ready to attack. I will never is pronounced a total failure.forget a home-made poster telling about aneternal friendship between the two White Defeat or victory?Houses - Russian and American - held by oneof the defenders of President Yeltsin’s residence Notwithstanding all the present difficulties,(this building known in Moscow as the White there is no reason to speak about a defeat ofHouse) encircled by the Emergency Committee democratic reforms in Russia. Furthermore,(GKChP) forces. leaving emotions aside and looking at the situation not in terms of months – where oneRussian people, at least those who are politically can see an obvious deviation from liberalactive, trusted the West and had no doubts that democratic principles in many spheres ofRussia’s integration into the western world was Russian public life – but in terms of a decade,desirable and inevitable. Besides, a substantial it becomes clear that the peaceful revolution ofpart of the new Russian elite shared this opinion. the early nineties won a decisive victory andThe situation was clear: friends in the West, and achieved nearly all its aims. There is not oneenemies in the South and East. decorative private property in the country – the private sector constitutes more than 70% of theBy participating in various conferences and GDP. The country that is supposedly unawaregiving speeches at the universities in Western of democracy has now established democraticEurope and the USA, I witnessed that these elections, freedom of speech has become afeelings were mutual. Western intellectuals reality – nobody is persecuted for his or herwere watching, with deep sympathy, the drama words – borders are open, and there are activeof rebirth or even birth of democracy in a political parties and organisations includingvast country ridding itself of dictatorship. The those opposed to the present authorities.Russians’ right to join the family of European Communism – the most dangerous, bloody andnations was beyond question in the early aggressive system in human history – will nevernineties. Russia’s integration into Europe was come back.seen as a natural process rather than a mutuallyprofitable business. All-round support given to It is important that all this is accepted by societythe Russian reformers by western governments as a whole and not only by conscious advocatesduring that period showed that such attitudes of democratisation. According to public opinionspread beyond think tanks. polls, Russians overwhelmingly oppose any ideas 65 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 61. Russia and Europe: Between Love and Hate to abolish free elections, introduce censorship, allegedly, of scientific conferences. In rural close borders and return to one-party rule. Even areas as well as capitals, they are shared by both those who are guilty of falsifying election results the most ignorant and well-educated people, are defending free elections. Freedom of speech though the most terrible thing is that more and and guarantees of political rights are supported more young people indulge in them. by those who are trying to suppress them - this situation has not changed in the past seventy Why and what for? years of our history. It is easy and yet senseless to explain these It is clear that the democracy and human rights trends with Russian traditions or the mysterious situation in Russia is far from being perfect “Russian soul”, citing Dostoevsky or de Custine. – private property is not protected from the Rising misconceptions completely ignore the state racket, the media, particularly television, complex and contradictory nature of Russian is under the state’s pressure and the parliament, culture and history, and the Russian political along with the courts, are only independent de idea excludes any possibility of remedying jure. In Great Britain or France, such a level the situation. In fact, the “mysterious Russian of democracy would have meant a collapse soul” does not explain current Russian hostility of the system. But this is how it happens in towards the West, in the same way that the no Russia – a country which fifteen years ago lived less mysterious “French soul” does not explain under a Constitution when one party was in widespread support for Le Pen. Generally power, private property was prohibited, trade speaking, references to immanent national was considered a crime and one risked being peculiarities means missing an opportunity to imprisoned for reading a banned book. We explain and especially to influence. The growth should not assess absolute concepts, but rather of anti-western sentiment in Russia has entirely the way in which we made it through. From this reasonable explanations. perspective, democratic reform in Russia should be recognised as the most successful political It is both interesting and difficult to live in a time of project of the late twentieth century. changes. But more often than not, it is interesting for some, yet difficult and uninteresting for There is only one area in which we can speak, others. For tens of millions of people in Russia, if not of defeat – because the game is not over the last fifteen years have meant the destruction – but of an extremely complicated state of of their usual way of life and the loss of a affairs. Over the last decade, Russian society’s sense of stability and predictability cultivated attitude towards the West has worsened sharply. by Soviet authorities, rather than gaining civil The USA rate first as the object of hostility, but liberties. The expectations of a new way of life Europeans have the only advantage of not being appeared quite different in August 1991, when Americans. Both opinion polls and our daily people were awaiting if not a paradise on earth, experience show that there is no trace of former at least justice and fairness. benevolence towards the West, and fear and offence have replaced friendly feelings. Now The fervent anti-Communist movement in the the talking point is the intention of the West late eighties was a moral movement. A massive to ruin and destroy Russia, eternal hostility to protest was stirred by the apparent immorality Russia and Russians; a world conspiracy against and falsity of the Communist Party of the Soviet our country. Union authority rather than an unwise economic policy or feudal political system. The people These paranoid ideas ceased to be merely the were demanding the abolition of privileges obsession of a group of delinquents. They are not because they wanted to get something for now in the spotlight of the mass media and, themselves but because they were aspiring to a66 European View
  • 62. Leonid Gozmandifferent and more ethical society. Today injustice, buildings of the Government and Presidentialbrutality and corruption, being either the Administration.inevitable consequences of a transitional periodor a result of irresponsibility and egocentrism of A good example is offered by the recenta new elite, rouse disappointment and delusion, decision concerning what will be Russia’s majorhaving dashed every hope of the first post- red-letter holiday, the Day of People’s Unity,Soviet years and, in a way, of the whole post- intended as a replacement for the 7 NovemberSoviet period. anniversary of the October revolution of 1917. The selected date is now 4 October. AccordingNot everybody has enough wisdom and to the official version, on 4 October 1612, armedcoolness of mind to see how the grotesque citizens led by Minin and Pozharsky drove“New Russians” are transforming into a solid and Polish and Lithuanian troops from the Kremlinresponsible bourgeoisie, or how new theatre thereby marking the end of what is known ascompanies and publishing houses are coming the Times of Trouble. It is not important thatto life on the ruins of the Soviet state-controlled the Kremlin was, in fact, retaken on a differentcultural scene, or how university enrolments are day, or that the civil war and, consequently,growing and education is restoring its prestige. the Times of Trouble continued for a few moreNot everybody can see that now the average years, or that the selected date falls on a purelyRussian has many more opportunities for self- religious holiday. What is really important isrealisation and that the new liberal principles that - even if one accepts the official version ofhave become an irreversible part of our daily national history - the day selected to symboliselives. And there are so many Russians who need national unity is a day of victory over Europea scapegoat for their misfortunes. These are the and over Catholics. In other words, the day thatoligarchs who stole from the people and the symbolises confrontation between Russia andWest, which deceived the Russians by promising Europe.wonders and, in reality, want to turn Russia intoa colony or a source of raw materials. Yet, Russian history offers a great number of dates that would demonstrate the unity andJust as in Germany under Hitler, such primitive national pride of the Russian people withoutideas could not have propagated without references to Russia/Europe confrontation. Theythe state’s purposeful activity. We have to include the day Czar Nicolas II announced hisacknowledge that in modern Russia, anti-western manifesto that actually instituted constitutionalsentiments are constantly and efficiently stirred monarchy in Russia, the day of the democraticby the authorities. By controlling television, revolution in February 1917, or 12 April 1961the state gives airtime to those experts and when the Soviet Union sent a man into outercommentators who suspect the West of space thereby opening a new era in the historyconspiring against Russia, from the Orange of human civilization.Revolution to the Olympic Committee decisionon the venue of the next Olympic Games. If the sentiments within a society are the reactionDoping scandals about Russian sportsmen are to a complex set of social conditions, then theunder discussion at the State Duma where it state’s deliberate activities must of course haveis now said that now Russia can rely only on some purpose. Why do authorities and certainits army and fleet. The books proving Europe’s pro-government circles stir up anti-westerneternal animosity towards all things Russian are resentment in the country?printed in abundance. Many of them directlyviolate the Russian Constitution, stirring national In today’s Russia there are many influentialand religious hatred. The courts of law remain circles that have a vested interest in a closedsilent. Moreover, such books are on sale in the society with minimal or heavily controlled 67 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 63. Russia and Europe: Between Love and Hate contacts with the West. They are those in The only weakness of these people’s position is government or business who are incapable of their own desire to live up to western standards. taking on competition and who are striving for Unlike Lenin and Trotsky, who wanted to ruin the impunity. They are those who are exploiting the Russian state of their time and head something country’s natural resources and cheap labour. completely different, the present adherents of They are those who need protected markets to a “special way” ideology among the elite, only make people buy low-quality domestic goods at long to seize high positions within the present artificially high prices. They are those who have system. They go for holidays to Europe instead conducted the operation against YUKOS and of Iran and their children are educated at Oxford who do not want the Strasbourg court to make instead of Pyongyang or Havana. They are what will be a very predictable pronouncement robbers rather than revolutionists and they are on the case. They are those who watch with reluctant to destroy the current infrastructure. horror the plight of Serbian generals. Of course, Still, they are not always well educated and conditions in the Hague prison are far better clever, and could cross any line or boundary than in Russian prisons but they are unwilling without even noticing it. to experience even those better conditions, (notwithstanding the open issues with Russian An Alternative generals over Chechnya). Russia’s isolation will be a defeat of both Russian All these individuals, rich and influential as they democracy and of the West. It is not even an are, would prefer to see Russia not in the G8, issue of nuclear weapons, since it is highly but in an alliance with the peace-loving peoples unlikely that an insane person daring to use such of North Korea, Iran and some other countries means could actually seize power in Russia. This that are in the forefront of the valiant struggle separation from Europe may be a new “Berlin against imperialism and globalisation. wall” but, while there are people enthusiastic about making progress in either Russia or the I am convinced that these very people cover- West, Russia will no longer be considered a still up neo-fascist groups which assassinate non- reservoir of oil and gas supplies, but an active Russians in the streets of our towns. They provoke player on the geopolitical scene. scandalous anti-Semite actions for which Putin had to apologise for in Auschwitz. These groups History repeats itself and the situation which benefit by marring Russia’s reputation so that marked the twentieth century will reoccur – one we turn our back on Europe and Europe to turn part of our planet against the other. National its back on us. liberation movements or terrorist groups – you may call them anyway you wish – will be The ideology of these groups is based on the manoeuvring between the two power centres, concept of Russia’s “special destiny”. They obtaining weapons and money, first to use them believe that Russia must have a specific, special for the sponsor’s purposes and then for their political system that is radically different to own. Therefore, without a union with Russia, that of the hostile West, so their activities may without democracy in Russia and without lead to Russia’s isolation from the democratic Russia’s integration into Europe and the Western world, which is a grave danger for our country world, it is impossible to give a decent response nowadays. Nonetheless, some democratic to a challenge sent by the new barbarians of institutions and market elements can still be democratic civilization. preserved, regardless of the activities of these groups.68 European View
  • 64. Leonid GozmanIt is both possible and natural to improvedemocracy in Russia, just as it is natural forRussia to be a member of the European family.Family life does not exclude conflicts andarguments, yet they occur within the familywithout passing a certain limit. I am sure that inspite of all existing problems, we will be able totackle those who want to drive us into isolationusing slogans of a “special way” as a cover. Thefact is that the West should not help them; thepolitical and intellectual elite of Europe and theUSA should not yield to fears and prejudicesagainst Russia and get involved in a hopelessand immoral attempt to build its own securityand well-being while betraying or ignoringRussian democracy.Leonid Gozman is Vice Chairman of theInternational Democratic Union (IDU). 69 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 65. Annette Heuser Europe’s World - A Global Power in the Making By Annette Heuser It has become a after the negative result of the referenda has had European ritual to a substantial effect on European aspirations to demand a more visible speak with one voice on international affairs. role for the European Citizens all over the continent have ambiguous Union (EU) on the feelings about the European Union, which world stage. However, has ignored their views for many years. Thean EU acting as a world power capable of referenda on the EU Constitution gave them anproviding leadership is nowhere to be seen. opportunity to teach their national governmentsAfter the two No votes in the referenda on the a lesson and to voice their disquiet and anxietiesproposed Constitution for Europe in France and about the present European system. However,the Netherlands, and the disastrous European the truth of the matter is that this does notCouncil of June 2005, the European Union has explain everything. Europeans in fact have highfallen into a kind of torpor that has been officially expectations and hope to see the EU taking onlabelled a period of reflection. However, the more external responsibilities, especially withworld is not prepared to wait for the EU to regard to defining and defending Europeandevelop the capabilities required in order to act interests throughout the world.globally. There is growing pressure to get rid ofmeaningless rhetoric and move on to create a A recent survey has shown that 70% of EuropeansUnion which is a steady and reliable force in the want the EU to become a superpower akin to theworld, which is capable of providing political United States1. It is paradoxical that the publicand strategic leadership, and can face up to the debate which ultimately led to the rejection ofchallenges of the 21st century. the Constitution favoured a “stronger Europe” capable of defending European values andThe items on the international agenda are more interests. Despite all the criticism, citizens allnumerous and ambitious than ever before. Current over the continent expect the EU to continue toevents in Sudan, Iraq and Iran demonstrate that develop European foreign and security policy.the arsenal of peace and security mechanisms Admittedly, this is not an easy task if one has to– they range from preventive diplomacy to proceed on the basis of the Treaty of Nice.humanitarian intervention and peacekeeping– is to some extent inadequate and inefficient. The EU is in the throes of a threefold crisis: thereIn addition to this, the erosion of fundamental are questions concerning its identity, the way inrights and the commitment to international law which the enlargement process was handled,poses a threat to the legal framework that has and the present lack of political leadership.ensured the rule of law on a global scale for These three issues constitute a potentiallydecades. explosive mixture. First, the rift between those advocating a deeper Union and those in favourCaught between ambition and reality of a common market model is widening. Second, the kind of enlargement process pursued in theThere can be no doubt about the fact that the past is no longer a feasible option. Forthcomingparadoxical state of affairs which became apparent enlargement plans will simply not be able to1 Transatlantic Trends 2005: 71 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 66. Europe’s World - A Global Power in the Making ignore the views of EU citizens. Even if geo- world, is that it is inward-looking and lacks strategic arguments suggest that integrating both leadership and a vision of the future. There countries such as Turkey is beneficial, politicians has never been such uncertainty in the whole will now have to take into account the fact that history of the Union. In such a vacuum, merely in Germany, for example, 74% of the population safeguarding the status quo of the European is against full EU membership. integration process, in particular in areas such as the common foreign and security policy, The “traditional way” of enlarging the Union constitutes a distinct challenge. has become a symbol of the alienation of EU citizens. Yet, the most dangerous crisis is the lack The heads of state put their cards on the table of political leadership within the Union. Neither at the European Council in June. It was not the Member States nor the EU institutions are only a dramatic moment, but also a revelation currently in a position to suggest a strategy or and a moment of truth. What some people had a vision for the future of the European project. suspected for a long time now came out into Even if certain leading politicians are of this the open: the members of the “European Club” opinion, the EU does not have the time to did not all have the same objectives. Some, like simply “pause”. the British Prime Minister Tony Blair,2 envision the Union as a high-class free-trade zone, while Instead of a new dynamism which could have others are convinced that the Political Union been sparked by the Constitution, there are must be its final goal. Even after Tony Blair’s now signs of disorientation and inertia. In the speech to the European Parliament, in which he area of foreign and security policy in particular presented the programme of the UK Presidency there is a danger that the small projects which in the second half of 2005 and attempted to have been initiated in this policy field will slow convince MEPs that he was committed to down and grind to a complete halt. One of the Europe, there are serious doubts about the most obvious signs of this is the fact that the attitudes of some Member States towards the European Commission has decided to put on European project. hold the forward planning for the European External Action Service. The provisions of the However, the good news is that EU citizens are European Constitution stipulated that the service now central to the European debate. Thus the was intended to support the first European current crisis opens a window of opportunity: Foreign Minister. The decision did not come there is a good chance of reconciling EU citizens as a surprise to European elites, since it was with aims of the political project by actually primarily construed as a logical consequence of listening to what they have to say. In this way the negative result of the referenda. However, the current crisis can act as a catalyst for the what at first sight seems to be a minor issue, Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) in will have serious consequences for the future particular. With a large majority of EU citizens in development of EU foreign policy. favour of a more forceful EU foreign policy that is able to deliver the goods, it is time to make If the institution that is designed to serve him some progress in regard to the CFSP by seizing is not established in the very near future, it the opportunities presented by the intense hardly seems realistic to suppose that the Union public debate on what the Union should or will have its first Foreign Minister by the end should not be doing in this area. Europe needs of the decade. The message the EU is sending to both discuss and define its common interests to both its own citizens and to the rest of the and commitments at all levels of society. A 2 European View
  • 67. Annette Heuserwide-ranging debate on what the EU is trying to transatlantic affairs are in need of profoundachieve and to what extent it wishes to become remodelling, NATO should not simply be turnedinvolved globally is necessary, not only for its into a talking shop, although some participantsown sake, but for the sake of partnerships with think that this is what should happen. It shouldother nations and regions based on reliability concentrate on its core task, which is to continueand trust. to be a successful military alliance. In the future it will have to act on a global scale, probablyIt is evident that the Union now needs more than at any time in its demonstrate a clear commitment to itsglobal aspirations. The EU, with or without a The current mission in Sudan demonstrates thatConstitution, is not in a position, either in its the EU and NATO can deal with burden-sharingown immediate neighbourhood or with regard in an efficient manner. It is a promising sign of ato various international challenges, to shirk new European approach that the EU is facing upits responsibilities. Being an economic world to its responsibilities in other parts of the worldpower without at the same time functioning as by cooperating with NATO. Thus, the EU anda political player is simply not enough in the NATO acting in concert have airlifted African21st century. In order to cope with the problems Union peacekeeping troops into the Darfurcreated by globalisation, a coherent and region of Sudan. Since July 2005 the EU hasintegrated approach to dealing with political supported the AMISII operation spearheaded byissues at all levels is absolutely essential. the African Union and has appointed a European Union Special Representative (EUSR) for Sudan.Greater self-confidence in foreign affairs However, if there is to be a strategic dialogueIf, and when agreement is reached that Europe between Europeans and Americans, it isshould continue to develop as a global player imperative to find a venue for an informalnot only in economic but also in political terms, exchange of views in order to ensure that issuesit needs to acknowledge that it has global on the agenda are discussed in a frank manner.responsibilities. The Union’s values call for the The tendency for EU-US summits to flounderpromotion of democracy, human rights and the and become absorbed in minutiae has maderule of law worldwide. For this reason, Europe it impossible to engage in broader and moreneeds to define its understanding of strategic strategic discussions. There must be prioritiespartnerships and reshape its military capacities when the US President meets with his Europeanin order to be in a position to combine soft and colleagues.hard power when it becomes necessary. This willentail breaking European taboos and reaffirming In order to achieve this, both will to have toEU’s policies in regard to foreign relations: downsize their approaches. The players onstrengthening and developing multilateralism both sides of the Atlantic should focus onand international law and functioning as the common ground and areas where trust can beprincipal partner for nation-building and regained. The immediate neighbourhood ofdevelopment. the EU is a region where there are common objectives, though different - and sometimesIn the future, Europe will also have to come to complementary - strategies. The EU and the USrealize that there is no alternative to a partnership could perhaps collaborate on a joint conceptwith the US However, a lack of trust continues to to promote democracy from Minsk to Chisinaumar the relationship. For years both sides have and beyond. By implementing such strategies,felt uncomfortable with the institutions in which they will come to realize that a transatlanticthey are able to conduct a strategic dialogue. convergence of views concerning strategicNATO is currently trying to reassert its role as issues is also a distinct possibility.the main forum for transatlantic debate. Since 73 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 68. Europe’s World - A Global Power in the Making Yet, there will continue to be conspicuous the US government are tied by the embargo that and controversial issues: environmental forbids any contacts with Tehran. protection (Kyoto Protocol) and in particular, the strengthening of multilateral regimes and Even if, as seems likely, the European attempts international law will continue to crop up until a at mediation fail, they will at least have way has been found to regain common ground demonstrated that diplomacy can at some stage with regard to fundamental issues. The approach be a “smart weapon” in international affairs. outlined above could well lead to an ongoing However, European involvement in new conflict transatlantic convergence of views. However, zones throughout the world can only be credible these concerns and issues can also demonstrate and effective if the EU continues to integrate its the “European touch” in international affairs. foreign, security and development policies. In order to underpin involvement of this kind, it It would be tantamount to ignoring the wishes will be necessary to conduct a debate about how of EU citizens if these important issues were to much of the EU budget should be assigned to be “sacrificed” merely in order to buy American foreign action. A significant increase is needed goodwill. Europeans are clearly taking a lead if Europe wishes to do more than merely pay lip in fields like environmental protection and service to the idea. However, the current debate development aid. They should remember that about the next financial forecasts is not very they gained a “comparative advantage” by promising in this respect. Only 9% of the budget establishing “soft power networks” (ICC, Kyoto, for the period 2007-2013 has been earmarked etc.) throughout the world, and should try to for foreign and security activities. persuade the Americans to participate in the emerging new global response structures. The failure to adopt the Constitution has left the Union with the inadequate provisions of the The European Union is currently confronted Treaty of Nice. In order to comply with internal with several security challenges not only demands and those of EU partners in the world, within the Union itself, but also “out of area”. it would be desirable to have a properly funded The latest example of a European attempt to budget and a single EU Foreign Minister who engage in out-of-area action is the EU mission will represent Europe on the world stage, to Bandar Aceh in Indonesia, a remarkable coordinate the positions of the Member States start for the new European concept of security and carry out his duties with the support of his and foreign policy engagement. By providing own diplomatic service. €4million, the Union is helping to re-integrate former political prisoners and combatants into Profile of a global power civilian life3. The EU’s engagement in Sudan must also be seen as a sign of self-confidence. The tragedy of the EU is that it currently These missions demonstrate that Europe’s falls a long way short of what it is actually foreign policy is becoming more mature and capable of doing. Europeans underestimate actually able to deliver the goods. This became the fact, embroiled as they are in their internal obvious during the negotiations with the disagreements, that the process of European regime in Tehran concerning Iran’s proposals integration was and continues to be a success for uranium enrichment. The negotiations are story. It has become a role model for regional being conducted by France, Britain, Germany development and cooperation all over the world. and the EU’s High Representative for Foreign From Latin America to Asia, the EU is perceived and Security Policy, Javier Solana. The hands of as an actor capable of guaranteeing prosperity 3 1116&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=fr74 European View
  • 69. Annette Heuserand freedom within its borders and willing to 4) The EU must promote the European modelpromote its values globally. of regional integration in all parts of the world. Therefore it should do more to focusWhat makes the Union so attractive for adjoining on regional developments in Latin Americacountries that would like to become members and Asia, and support such efforts with newas well as for others, is the fact that it is much forms of EU partnership.more than a common market. Its attraction 5) Global players must respect internationalresides in the political nature of the project. law and international institutions and be aFor this reason, the EU has no alternative to role model for others in this respect. Butthe continued development of its capabilities in they also have a special responsibility tothe area of the foreign and security policy. The identify the inefficiencies and weaknesses ofpowers which will dominate the 21st century are international mechanisms and institutions,those which can combine economic strength such as the UN and the Security Council, inwith political and strategic leadership. The EU order to make them capable of dealing withhas all the ingredients to becoming a fully- threats in an effective manner.fledged global power, if, that is, it manages to 6) Finally, the EU must also be able to operatefulfil the following criteria: unilaterally – on both the economic and security fronts – even when the international1) The Union has made foreign and security community and its institutions are not policy a top priority, starting with the involved. necessary institutional arrangements for a Foreign Minister and the External Action It is now time to think about whether the EU Service and following this up with a clear should or should not become a real global commitment to increasing the Union’s power. The process of increasingly engaging budget for foreign and security policy. the Union in international politics has already2) There is a constant need to keep developing prepared the way. If the Union does not seize the strategic background for the way the EU this opportunity soon, it will lose credibility both thinks and acts with regard to international among its citizens and within the international affairs. Even if the European Security community. Other up-and-coming nations will Strategy4 can at present serve as a basis for take over its role. The EU is faced with a choice: orientation, it will soon need to be updated. it can either become a global power or be Furthermore, Europeans should try to marginalized. persuade the US to develop a transatlantic security strategy that reflects common interests and strategies as well as a common threat perception. Annette Heuser is the Director of the Brussels3) The foreign policy of the Union needs to Office of the Bertelsmann Foundation. be based on both sustainable and flexible partnerships. The spirit of coalitions based on the emotional appeal of a common history has evaporated. A new understanding of international coalitions is emerging: these are coalitions “of the able and willing” that are merely pursuing a realistic and pragmatic strategy.4 75 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 70. John Howard Australia - EU Relations: Shared Interests, Common Challenges By John Howard I am pleased to be North East and South East Asia are also of value invited by European to our European partners. Equally importantly, View to reflect on the we share common views on trade, and a desire state of Australia – EU to unlock a deal on a further comprehensive relations, particularly multilateral trade round, despite our different as we approach the perspectives and approaches on agriculture.400th anniversary of first European contact withAustralia next year and in light of the recent At the same time, we have much to benefit fromcommemorations that effectively marked the that engagement. An increasingly integrated EUbirth of a new Europe fifty years ago. That the provides an important market for Australia’srelationship is built on deep historical, cultural products and services and an important sourceand community ties is well known. Some 90 per of investment, expertise and innovation.cent of Australians originate from the nations Further liberalisation of key sectors of the EUof Europe. Our institutions, our way of doing market, especially services and agriculture,business, our way of life, all reflect a distinctly should create even greater opportunities forEuropean heritage. For many young Australians, Australian economic engagement. The EU is anthe opportunity to travel to and work in Europe influential force in international affairs, capableis still regarded as a rite of passage. of providing strong leadership on critical international issues, such as the need for furtherBut the Australia-Europe relationship is not global trade liberalisation and developing anjust about history or legacy. It is driven by effective, collective response to the problems ofshared values, a commitment to liberty and climate change. Through NATO and the EU,democracy and the principles of tolerance and our European partners play a substantial rolediversity. We share interests in the development in contributing to security and stability in theirof open and outward looking economies and immediate region and beyond – stability whichcooperate closely in dealing with a range of is vital to our challenges. More than ever, theseshared values and interests, and the policies that I see this article, then, as a chance to reflect onflow from them, are creating opportunities for key aspects of the Australia - EU relationshipgreater engagement between Australia and her - the strong trade and investment flows andEuropean partners. practical cooperation we enjoy in a wide range of areas - and some of the major challenges weAustralia has much to offer Europe. We are a both face and which bring us closer together.significant trading partner and stable market I see it also as an opportunity to elaborate onin our own right and, increasingly, a gateway some of the policies and actions we have takento the markets of the Asia Pacific. Australian to ensure sustained growth, competitiveness andbusinesses are world leaders in many sectors, security in Australia, and which can hopefullyfrom infrastructure to financial services, and help inform debate in Brussels and other capitalsare interested in investing in Europe. We on ways to manage the challenges Europe faceshave innovation, technology and resources to in building for the future, including through theoffer. Australia’s experiences and perspectives Lisbon Economic Reform engaging more closely with the countries of 77 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 71. Australia - EU Relations: Shared Interests, Common Challenges Current relationship – dynamic and increasingly investing in Europe. For example, practical the Australian hearing implant company Cochlear along with Australian wine and sheep The dynamism of Australia- EU relations is skin producers have invested in production evident in the breadth and depth of our trade facilities in the Czech Republic. and commercial ties. As a whole, the EU remains Australia’s largest trading partner, with Underpinning this commercial engagement is total merchandise trade for 2004 worth A$46.6 a solid framework of dialogue, exchange and billion (€27.6 billion1). Our merchandise practical cooperation between Australia and EU exports to the EU during this period totaled Member States. At a formal level, we hold annual A$13.6 billion (€8.1 billion). And while ministerial and senior officials’ level meetings unprocessed primary products continue to with our EU counterparts to guide and review form a significant part of our exports to the bilateral cooperation. In 2003, Australia and the EU, we are also seeing diversification through European Commission adopted an ambitious growing exports of processed primary products, agenda for cooperation which addresses seven elaborately transformed manufactures and priority areas: security and strategic issues; trade; services. Australia is now the EU’s largest source education, science and technology; transport, of imports for beverages (including wine). environment; development cooperation; and migration. The EU is now Australia’s largest overseas market for services exports, valued at A$7.4 In terms of security, a top priority for Australia billion (€4.4 billion) in 2004, much of this in and the EU, we are working to intensify travel, transportation and education sectors. In information - sharing and practical cooperation turn, the EU is our largest source of merchandise in a number of critical areas, including counter- imports and services. In 2004, we imported over terrorism and infrastructure protection. A team A$33.4 billion (€19.8 billion) worth of goods, of experts from the UK will shortly visit Australia much of that high value-add manufacturing to brief us on the UK’s response to the July such as passenger vehicles, aircraft and parts bombings in London and to assess Australia’s and pharmaceutical products. Australian airline domestic security and emergency response Qantas has purchased 12 new Airbus A380 capabilities. We are increasing joint work to aircrafts, worth billions of Euro. support counter-terrorism and law enforcement capacity in the Asia Pacific region, for example The EU is also our largest source of foreign through assistance to the Jakarta Centre for Law investment, estimated at around A$374.4 billion Enforcement Cooperation in Indonesia, which (€214.1 billion) at the end of 2004. Major provides practical assistance to countries in European companies, such as BP, British the Asia Pacific region for capacity building in Aerospace, Unilever, ABN/AMRO, AXA, ACCOR, counter -terrorism. have established regional headquarters here and are increasingly utilising Australia as a We are also enhancing dialogue on weapons base for their operations in the Asia Pacific non-proliferation and export control issues, region. Australian businesses are also looking particularly with respect to regulating trade increasingly to invest in EU Europe and in dual-use items. Australia and the EU are surrounding economies. Total investment was developing closer police cooperation to better estimated at A$193.6 billion (€110.7 billion) in respond to transnational crime threats and December 2004, and Australian companies are terrorist financing. Negotiations are underway 1 Conversion based on average Australian dollar to Euro exhange rate for that financial or calender year.78 European View
  • 72. John Howardon a bilateral agreement between Australian law Common Challengesenforcement authorities and EUROPOL includinginformation exchange and access to intelligence I have touched on some of the main elementsbetween the two police forces. These kinds of of the Australia-EU relationship – the sharedcooperation enhance both of our abilities to values and outlook, the substantial trade andprovide for the security of our citizens. investment flows and underlying business- to-business contacts and the dialogue andIn the area of development cooperation, Australia practical cooperation we benefit from acrossand the EU are focusing more on ways in which the policy spectrum. It is also worth brieflywe can work together to provide assistance touching on a number of the critical commonin the Asia Pacific region. The EU has been a or global challenges we face that providestrong partner in contributing funds for tsunami important new opportunities to strengthen andreconstruction and rehabilitation efforts, and in expand the Australia-EU engagement. Thesehelping to build institutional capacity, with A$84 include critical security challenges, the spreadmillion ($49.8 billion) in contributions to the of Islamist extremist violence and proliferationSolomon Islands. We are looking to strengthen of weapons of mass destruction, as well as othercooperation with the EU in the region through challenges to world-wide economic growth andjoint initiatives and better coordination of stability, such as the pressing need for furtherdevelopment and humanitarian activities in- liberalisation of the global trading system, morecountry. We work actively with the EU at the effective development assistance to poor andcountry level through field representatives in failing states and measures to address seriouspartner countries and hold bilateral discussions environmental opportunities arise, for example, at Pacificregional meetings and the annual Pacific donor For all of us, no challenge is more urgent thanconsultations. Australia has invited the EU to the continued threat of international terrorismattend the Pacific 2020 Summit, an important and Islamist-extremist violence in particular. Wehigh-level forum to discuss regional development learnt from the Bali bombings in October 2002,needs and priorities. the attack on the Australian Embassy in Jakarta last year and the Madrid and London bombingsAustralia and the EU are also exploring that the threat to both Australia and the EUavenues for closer cooperation in advancing Member States is very real, and that our nationalenvironmental protection. We have held four security depends upon a collective response torounds of high level environment consultations, this threat. Strong links with our partners inthe most recent in November 2003. Australia’s Asia form a key part of our response, but weprincipal interests are in ongoing policy dialogue also need broader international cooperationand facilitating joint work and projects to and engagement to defend our values and wayaddress specific environment-related issues. At of life. We are fully committed to internationalthe Australia-European Commission Ministerial efforts to combat Al Qaeda and related groups,Consultations in Brussels in May 2004, we agreed and look to Europe, through NATO and theto move forward on concrete bilateral climate EU, to continue to partner us and other allieschange cooperation projects concerning ways to in operations in Afghanistan and in the criticalengage all countries in the fight against climate tasks of intelligence-sharing and surveillance tochange; efficiency improvements to mobile air combat the export of terror.conditioners and end-use energy efficiencyprogrammes in an urban environment. 79 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 73. Australia - EU Relations: Shared Interests, Common Challenges On proliferation, we are seeing the benefits barriers to trade and create fairer conditions for of a more integrated, collective approach to developing countries to compete. We also need preventing the spread of nuclear, chemical and to look at new strategies to make the aid we biological weapons, but more needs to be done. provide more effective. We cannot rely solely on multilateral agreements The recent G8 Gleneagles initiative makes and commitments to meet this challenge, an important start in refocusing international particularly as more non-state actors seek to attention on the plight of the least developed procure deadly technologies. Australia is a countries and the need for substantial debt relief strong and active supporter of the Proliferation to enable resources to be used productively. Security Initiative (PSI), along with a number Australia supports the thrust of the G8 approach, of EU Member States, which is providing a and will also continue to focus our development practical response to changing proliferation efforts in our region by promoting investment and procurement trends. We are working in health and education, sound economic with our Asia-Pacific neighbours to ensure that planning and long-term investment, and better regional responses to proliferation and other governance. security challenges develop in the direction of international measures and benchmarks. We also face together the serious challenge of developing effective responses to a range of We have a vital interest in a transparent, rules- global environmental problems, particularly based multilateral trading system that can climate change. We believe a meaningful provide for both the progressive liberalisation response to climate change requires commitment of and more equitable access to world markets. and action by all major emitters, not just the most- Australia holds strong ambitions for a successful industrialised countries, and real engagement by outcome in the Doha round of negotiations. industry that allows for investment in the future. We must continue to co-operate on progressing At this time it is critical that we look beyond the Doha Development Agenda and resolve in Kyoto and concentrate on identifying truly particular to progress issues of mutual benefit. effective options that governments and industry The world needs the EU, United States and other are prepared to pursue. We have recently helped highly protected markets, to make real progress to establish, along with a range of regional on agricultural trade liberalisation. We welcome countries, the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean the EU’s reforms of the Common Agricultural Development and Climate, which focuses on Policy (CAP) to date and encourage further the development and deployment of clean and forward movement to address the disadvantages low emissions technology. We see the EU as for Europeans and non-Europeans alike that the playing a valuable leadership role in building CAP brings. CAP quotas present real barriers international support for a new more flexible to market access, while production and export and inclusive approach to reduce and manage subsidies have real impacts on price and trade global emissions and in providing technology competitiveness. and expertise to enable more environmentally- sustainable development by all countries. Turning to development assistance, a key challenge we face is finding the right balance Australian experience: Growth economy - between financing for development and capacity reform and flexibility building in nations to provide for stable growth, good governance, the rule of law and security. I would like to finish by talking briefly about our There are no easy solutions to the poverty trap experience in meeting one of our most important affecting many countries and regions, but we do and difficult challenges – delivering sustained know that funding alone does not provide the growth and greater security for all Australians basis for economic development and growth. - and suggest that these experiences may be of One of the biggest contributions we can make use to EU policy-makers in devising strategies to poverty alleviation is to further reduce to stimulate growth and productivity. I would80 European View
  • 74. John Howardargue that our efforts over the last 9 years have The government has done its part to reducehelped put Australia in a position to weather pressure on the current account and interestthe serious economic crisis that affected much rates, delivering its eighth budget surplus inof South East Asia in the late 1990’s, to provide 2005-06, with substantial surpluses projected forjob opportunities for more Australians than ever the next four years. Australia’s current debt tobefore, and to invest in the new technologies GDP ratio of 1 per cent is much lower than mostand skills required to compete in an increasingly other industrialised countries, and we remainservices-oriented global economy. It has also firmly committed to ensuring low levels of netenabled us to give more to our region, both in government into the future. In 2004-05, theterms of development assistance and natural Australian Government’s net debt to GDP ratiodisaster and humanitarian relief, and to take was estimated to be just 1.9 per cent, well belowadvantage of the many opportunities of greater that of comparable industrialised countries.economic engagement in our immediate region The government’s pro-active approach to tradeand beyond. liberalisation has also delivered real benefits to the economy. In the past three years, AustraliaThe Australian economy, now valued at around has concluded comprehensive free tradeA$860 billion (€$508.9 billion), has grown by agreements (FTAs) with Singapore, Thailand,an average of 3.7 per cent a year over the last and the United States. We are actively pursuingdecade, well above the average growth of 2.7 agreements with Malaysia, China, the Unitedper cent a year experienced by the OECD over Arab Emirates and (with New Zealand) ASEAN,the same period. In fact, Australia’s economy and hope to explore opportunities for a tradingis now in its 15th consecutive year of growth. arrangement with Japan in the near future.This strong economic performance has seen theunemployment rate fall to 5.0 per cent – the As important as these policies and dividendslowest unemployment rate in around three have been to the Australian economy, wedecades – interest rates fall to around historically recognise that securing continued growth andlow levels and inflation hold comfortably within prosperity depends on further domestic reforms,the 2-3 per cent target band of the Reserve Bank particularly measures to create a more flexibleof Australia. In real terms, wages have increased and responsive labour market. The Australianby over 19% in the last ten years while company Government’s new workplace relations packageprofits now constitute a greater proportion reflects this commitment. It includes newof total income than ever before. Moreover, arrangements for setting minimum wages andstrong growth is expected to continue, with the conditions; a more streamlined process forAustralian economy forecast to expand by a the making of workplace agreements; majorfurther 3 per cent in 2005-06. liberalisation of unfair dismissal laws; and a national industrial relations system that reducesThe Australian Government can justifiably point the plethora of industrial awards and providesto its role in securing and fostering this growth for more consistent terms and conditions ofand prosperity. It has delivered on an ambitious employment across sectors and states.agenda of structural reforms to strengthen theeconomy, including: comprehensive and deep We believe there may be some key lessons intariff cuts, with another round of cuts taking Australia’s economic experience for others: theeffect earlier this year; a national competition longer-term value of fundamental structuralpolicy; tax reform; labour market changes to reforms that provide for greater flexibility,promote direct negotiations between employers productivity and workforce participation; theand employees; and, greater flexibility, which importance of fiscal discipline and solid budgethas helped realise productivity gains in nearly surpluses to contain inflation and interest ratesall sectors of the economy. and boost business and investor confidence; 81 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 75. Australia - EU Relations: Shared Interests, Common Challenges and the importance of investment in new technologies, skills and innovation to drive economic growth and competitiveness. We know that these are some of the challenges that policy-makers in Brussels and other EU capitals are addressing to stimulate growth and improve productivity in the Eurozone economies. We view the EU’s Lisbon Agenda as an important step in this direction, but note that progress on implementation has been modest and uneven. Hopefully, the European Council’s decision in March this year to reinvigorate the strategy will spur further progress. Australia’s experience suggests that political commitment to reform must be matched by resolve and a willingness to take hard decisions, often in the face of strong opposition, to promote our shared long term interests. John Howard is Prime Minister of Australia and Chairman of the International Democrat Union (IDU).82 European View
  • 76. Ioannis Kasoulides Cyprus: Becoming Europe’s Hub in the Middle East By Ioannis Kasoulides Cyprus has been nowadays, it requires certain additional elements positioning itself for beyond low tax rates and a convenient position some time to become on the map, namely: simplified legislation and Europe’s economic less cumbersome bureaucratic procedures; stepping stone to the easily accessible and low budget high-end Middle East. Its ideal infrastructure; financial and monetary stability,position, via the new possibilities offered by EU and political credibility.membership and a series of reforms consideredhere, can ensure the success of this objective. One year on, following accession to the EU, it would be useful for Cyprus to assess its positionSolid foundations and changing realities and the quality of its participation in the Union, and examine whether it has taken full advantageSince 1974, three major factors have attracted of its status as a Member State. That is to say, notforeign companies and investments to Cyprus: just politically speaking and in relation to thetaxation incentives, a highly-qualified workforce Turkish occupation and efforts for reunification,and geographical location. Indeed the island but also in terms of economic strategically situated at the crossroads ofthree continents and is currently Europe’s At a governmental level, we are often consideredMiddle Eastern outpost. The local labour force in Brussels as a one-issue country. Withoutis relatively low-cost yet highly educated and wishing to undermine the magnitude andbilingual, and there is a favourable tax regime importance of the national issue, Cyprus mustthat includes a 10% corporation tax. In manage to look beyond it in order to activelyaddition, the country’s modern and efficient participate in discussions and decisions on aservices, combined with a liberal Foreign Direct wide spectrum of issues concerning the EU asInvestment (FDI) regime allowing up to 100% a whole. These can equally enable the countryforeign participation in most sectors of the to defend both its political and economiceconomy, make it particularly appealing. interests. After all, the vision of becoming an EU member was not only limited to politicalDespite such solid foundations and impressive advantages. It included participating in the widerresults during the last three decades, today these single European market under conditions offeatures on their own are insufficient to ensure unhindered competition, facing the challengescompetitiveness in the globalised market. of the present globalised world within a largerWhile it continues to possess these advantages, grouping and aiming to create sustainableCyprus now ranks only ninth amongst the ten growth levels. However, it would be an illusionnew EU Member States in terms of percentage to think that this will be offered by Brussels asof Gross Domestic Product (GDP) due to FDI, a gift on a platter. It will be achieved throughand in the last World Economic Forum Global vision, a specifically designed national strategyCompetitiveness report, it managed only and very hard work.nineteenth among EU countries1. In order for aneconomic environment to have the cutting edge1 Growth Competitiveness Index rankings for 2004 – World Economic Forum: Competitiveness_Index_2003_Comparisons 83 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 77. Cyprus: Becoming Europe’s Hub in the Middle East Economic theory dictates that if we are to can benefit greatly from some of the measures resolve our deficit problem and succeed in proposed, such as dedicating more funds to achieving economic growth and development, research and innovation. The way forward is for it is not enough to find solutions within existing Cyprus to gradually respect its engagement to GDP. Measures such as a tax amnesty can allocate 1% of GDP to research, and collaborate only be temporary and will not provide a long with and encourage civil society and the private term solution, while relying solely on tourism sector to gradually invest another 2% in order to and services as we have done for many years reach the indicative target. is good, but not good enough if we wish to develop further in the present global economic Given the nature of the Cypriot economy, the context. Foreign investments are therefore the effort to create a true common market for key to success for a country like Cyprus that has services in the EU will also be hugely beneficial no significant natural resources or raw materials for Cyprus. While the services sector generates to export. They entail enormous benefits such 60% of EU wealth, services represent only as the flow of foreign capital; the import of 20% of trade between the Member States. The technology and know-how; the improvement proposed EU directive on services that suggests of productivity and economic growth; better removing all remaining barriers between borders business contacts abroad; direct benefits to local is controversial in several Member States. Yet legal, banking, accounting and other services; the ‘country of origin’ rule whereby a service and a positive impact in other sectors of the provider will be able to operate under the economy such as employment, the retail market provisions of the law of his own country could and real estate. be particularly beneficial for Cyprus which has liberal legislation on services. It would certainly In view of our geographic advantage and attract many more European firms to register in excellent relations with our neighbours, one Cyprus and operate in their own country. of the main approaches for bringing in more foreign investment has been to make Cyprus a The entry of the Cyprus Pound into the regional hub for business: attracting European European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II) companies to Cyprus in order to use the country in May 2005 and the fact that it has traded well as a launching point for operations in the Middle since, is another commendable first step. Efforts East, North Africa and beyond. are continuing so that we can join the Euro zone as soon as possible in order to reap the Using the EU to better serve the EU benefits of monetary stability and low inflation rates, both vital indicators that draw in foreign EU membership and participation in a large investments. number of Community policies provide a golden opportunity to consolidate and expand Cyprus’ In its efforts to achieve a more efficient capacity to perform this role and perform it well. and sustainable transport system, given the The effort to make the most of our advantages increasing congestion of roads and the serious in order to attract foreign investments cannot environmental impact, the EU has been placing succeed without a comprehensive multilevel stronger emphasis on maritime transport. The strategy. The Lisbon Agenda provides us with expanded Marco Polo II programme (2007- the opportunity and framework to devise 2013) and the establishment of “motorways of such a national plan of action. The Agenda the sea” including in the Eastern Mediterranean deals with boosting employment, improving and countries bordering the EU, offer Cyprus competitiveness and creating growth while at another excellent prospect to play a pivotal the same time ensuring social cohesion and role in the transport of goods from Asia and the protection of the environment. Cyprus the Middle East to Europe. This is, however,84 European View
  • 78. Ioannis Kasoulidesconditional on overcoming the serious problem also beneficial to the workforce, in terms of theof the Turkish embargo on all ships under the new jobs created. They must therefore be givenCypriot flag and also on any ship having first the necessary reassurances and be brought ondisembarked at a Cypriot port. Insisting on the board. Flexibility is also required on the issue ofEU’s stated position not to tolerate selective government working hours: the working time ofimplementation of the Ankara Protocol, signed civil service employees’ is disproportionate toby Turkey in the summer, is the key to removing continental European working time and this hasthe embargo. to be addressed.Attempting a series of educational, legal In the field of new technologies, it can be saidand social reforms that Internet use in Cyprus is available at limited speeds and prices are not yet competitive.Furthermore, in order to give Cyprus the Infrastructure that already exists, for examplepotential to become a knowledge-based seven underwater connections for a wholeeconomy and thus escape its reliance on services neighbourhood, is only now being used moreand tourism, the following reforms related to adequately. With Government policies thateducation are being considered: facilitating the encourage the provision of high-end technologypresence of private universities on the island; services and Internet access at attractive prices,supporting existing higher education institutions Cyprus can capture the potential it has in thisin the conversion to high-level universities; domain.encouraging connections between universitiesand private sector businesses and taking Lastly, the psychological factor is essentialmeasures to promote lifelong learning in order to the success of the economy. Prospectiveto adjust the workforce to contemporary needs. investors can be put off when Cyprus receivesIt is vital that education be directed towards bad international press in the domain ofacademic and vocational fields needed for the politics. Issues such as the handling of thefuture, and away from the traditional ones which “no” decision after the April 2004 referendumonly create more unemployment. and the projection of a negative image through statements made locally and abroad have seriousThere is also a need to review existing economic repercussions as well as political ones.legislation so as to remove barriers that hinder Political credibility therefore and a positive andthe competitiveness of small and medium constructive image abroad play as important asized businesses, as well as companies that role as that of the other reforms discussed.will come from abroad. Firstly, there could bea simplification of the demanding bureaucratic Conclusionprocedures related to the Central Bank, theRegistrar of Companies, residence and work EU membership has provided an arraypermits. Secondly, the proposal made to open of opportunities to further assist Cyprus’a Regional Arbitration Council in Cyprus should progression towards becoming an attractive andbe welcomed, to save lengthy and cumbersome advantageous stepping stone between Europelegal procedures in courts. The concept of a and its Southeastern neighbourhood. MakingBanking Ombudsman for amicable settlement the most of this and building upon the rest ofof disputes with clients is another interesting the reforms outlined will lead to tangible socio-proposition. economic results that will improve the popularity of the EU locally but also be beneficial to theAt a social level, the trade unions must be European economy as a whole. The currentconvinced not to view the efforts to attract foreign international tension between the Arab andinvestment with suspicion, as this investment is Islamic world on the one hand and the West 85 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 79. Cyprus: Becoming Europe’s Hub in the Middle East on the other makes it an even bigger priority for the EU to transform and use one of its own Member States as a reliable economic bridge to the Middle East. Ioannis Kasoulides is Member of the European Parliament and former Foreign Minister of the Republic of Cyprus.86 European View
  • 80. Jyrki Katainen Releasing the Northern Potential: Benefiting from Baltic Area Investment By Jyrki Katainen Over recent years Focus on Russia and energy northern Europe has undergone great Officially the Northern Dimension is defined political change. The as a square. Its four corners are Germany, enlargement of the Greenland, the Kola Peninsula and Kaliningrad. European Union and This definition is rather grand since, in practice,NATO to the Baltic States and Poland has almost all Northern Dimension projects haveenhanced the stability of the area, and together been undertaken in North-western Russia, closewith the economic potential in Russia, they to the Finnish border.have brought about an ongoing developmentwhich has made the Baltic Sea area the fastest This focus on Russia has its justifications forgrowing in Europe. As always, change means Europe and for Finland. From a purely securitynew challenges. policy standpoint, it is clear that a constructive and cooperative relationship with RussiaIn Northern Europe the greatest challenges are is the most important guarantee for stablelinked with the history of the area but also with development, especially in the Northern anduncertainties regarding political developments Eastern parts of Europe. The High Representativein Russia and its southern neighbourhood. for the Common Foreign and Security PolicyWhen some neighbours are not on best terms Javier Solana has stated that the developmentwith each other, the whole neighbourhood of a partnership with Russia is the single mostsuffers. The same also holds for the Baltic Sea important, most urgent and most challengingarea. Studies show that the Baltic economic area task for the Union this century. I dare say that Mrhas a large potential for economic growth and Solana knows which side his bread is butteredfor integration benefits if we can overcome the on!obstacles left by the Cold War. The importance of Russia will not diminishThe European Union has committed itself to even from an economic perspective. Thethe management of this change. This should European Union imports 25 per cent of thebe happening within the framework of the natural gas it uses from Russia. The picture isNorthern Dimension, but at the moment the quite similar when it comes to oil. In the future,level of European commitment does not meet our dependency on Russian energy resources isthe demand for management and investment in more likely to increase, especially if more oil isthe area. To some extent, this is due to a certain replaced by natural gas. This development willlack of interest from the European Commission. be encouraged by emissions-trading and theThe Baltic Sea countries also have themselves implementation of the Kyoto blame. At the moment, Europe is the most likelyBy investing in the Northern Dimension initiative destination for Russia’s energy exports. Theand especially in Baltic Sea cooperation and European Union’s market share is over 50the partnership with Russia, the whole of the per cent. We should not take this for granted.European Union will stand to gain in the long The European Union is not Russia’s biggestrun. neighbour; China’s huge population and its 87 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 81. Releasing the Northern Potential: Benefiting from Baltic Area Investment robust economic growth consume an incredible It goes without saying that Russia’s internal amount of energy. A lack of energy is already a development includes elements that are alien significant obstacle to growth. At the moment to the mature democracies of Western Europe the designs for a pipeline in Eastern Siberia look and North America. Yet, the President and the a little like a Russian ruse to see which country, Parliament - however strong the former may be China or Japan, is willing to pay a bigger - are still democratically elected. The economy premium on Russian oil flowing there first. In has developed well and the business climate ten years’ time, oil will flow to both these huge has improved and become more predictable economies and most likely to India as well. The also for foreign investors. On the other hand, European Union should now seriously invest in the centralisation of power has actually energy cooperation with Russia. weakened the state: governing is less efficient and corruption is common. The political elite The new Member States are rather hesitant in has no tolerance for open and free media which the face of this growing dependency on Russian in the case of foreign media has caused counter energy. In light of history, this is completely effective reactions by the government. understandable. But one hopes that mutual interests can override old grudges and that this President Putin is still a mystery to western happens sooner rather than later. If the Northern leaders. Many of his actions have been explained Dimension framework can promote a more by his background in the secret service, but his constructive atmosphere, all the better then. positive actions have caused more confusion than clear explanations in the west. He seems to What about the political development in be caught between western demands for reforms Russia? and potential Russian nationalism. The second term has been full of difficulties from Putin’s Those of us who live next to the Russian point of view and an often heard analysis is that border are often asked for an assessment of the Russian President is no longer as strong as political developments in Russia. The well he used to be. The oligarchs are now in control known Swedish specialist on Russia at the and the people’s frustration has turned towards Washington D.C. based Carnegie Endowment their President; the spontaneous demonstrations for International Peace Centre, Anders Åslund, on social reform are signals of this unrest. wrote recently about his Russian friends’ response to the same question: “the situation There are as many analyses of what shall follow is completely predictable. Everything develops Putin’s regime as there are analysts, but the according to the worst possible scenario.” possibility of a more nationalistic tendency is evident. The long-term development in Russia is Although Åslund is also critical of his own difficult to predict. In my mind, there are only analysis, he suggests that the United States has two kinds of analysts: those who don’t know, a permanent interest in promoting the country’s but don’t know that they don’t know, and those economic integration into the world economy who know that they don’t know. and thus into the international system. The evident WTO membership and the forthcoming It is clear however, that Russia’s big problems G8 Presidency will hopefully have important are not on the western frontier, they are internal consequences in this respect. Åslunds advice and behind the southern border. The border can also be adopted on a smaller scale, like in between Russia and EU is an area of huge Baltic Sea cooperation. Russia can be integrated possibilities. into the economic area and thus to the political system, and the Northern Dimension should be used to provide the framework for this development.88 European View
  • 82. Jyrki KatainenRussia as a European market place We stand to lose this golden opportunity if we are overcautious. The political risks are not outThe economies of Europe are struggling. In of our hands yet. The Northern Dimension, forWestern Europe, economic growth is at best a example, should serve as a tool to diminishmere 2 per cent and growth in the United States these risks.hasn’t been enough to kick-start a phase ofmore forceful growth here. On the other hand A recent report published by Sitra, a Finnishthe Russian economy has grown by well over 5 state-funded think tank shows that there areper cent for seven straight years. success stories. The report “Large Country, Long Quarter” looks at experiences of FinnishCould Russia perhaps be an area of expansion, companies during the last 15 years of doinga market place for the products of an ageing business in Russia. Companies originating fromEurope and, as such, a solution to the demanding Finland now can boast leading market sharesproblems we face? We could still have a logistical in the brewing, bakery or telecommunicationsedge over American competition especially if business. Once again, if the Northern Dimensionwe don’t delay. can help to inspire more of these success stories by supporting concrete business-based projects,Russia is of strategic importance to Europe, and or by fostering more understanding betweenmore particularly to Finland. Trade between different cultures, then all the better.Finland and Russia grew by 25 per cent lastyear. Soon Russia will replace Germany as our Northern Dimension at a crossroadsmost important trading partner. The Second Action Plan for the NorthernSo, the trade relationship is active and some 60 Dimension will end in December 2006. We haveper cent of the foreign direct investments (FDI) arrived at a crossroads for three reasons.that Russia receives come from the EuropeanUnion. FDI inflows to Russia are still relatively Firstly, financing for Northern Dimensionsmall compared to those going to Eastern and initiatives will change fundamentally with theCentral Europe or to China, even per capita. new EU Budget for the period of 2007-2013. TheRussia is feared and even belittled. existing financial instruments will be replaced by the European Neighbourhood and PartnershipThe fact remains that a middle class is rapidly Instrument.forming in Russia. When consumers in St.Petersburg or Moscow start to spend, volumes Secondly, EU enlargement has transformed thewill be large and the markets will be closer to map of Europe. We now have a new opportunityEurope than to any other traditional western to respond to the challenges facing the Balticeconomy. Sea region. The essential question is how the Northern Dimension and the emerging BalticIn many fields, Finnish or other European Sea cooperation can reinforce each other.products have been able to establish a goodbrand name for themselves. But the production Thirdly, and this follows in part from EUof consumer goods in Russia will expand even enlargement, the relationship between theif there is currently a lack of capital and know- European Union and Russia has also in the country. European Union MemberStates have both, but are in desperate need of So, the time is right for an honest assessment ofmarkets for their products. Taken as a whole, the progress achieved so far.there is a huge potential in Russia. 89 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 83. Releasing the Northern Potential: Benefiting from Baltic Area Investment From Polar Bear Regime to modern the Feira European Council adopted the first challenges Northern Dimension Action Plan. Many believe that the era of the Northern Inadequate funding Dimension began when Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen gave a speech in Rovaniemi in The fact that the Northern Dimension became September of 1997. In that speech Mr. Lipponen official policy of the European Union was a big revealed for the first time that Finland was achievement for Finland. Recognition must be to launch an initiative to create a Northern given to all the hard work carried out during the Dimension Policy for the European Union. Lipponen years. But we must also be able to step aside and ask self-critical questions: what have The cooperation on local and regional levels, we achieved with the Northern Dimension? these very practical partnerships that even today form the basis of the Northern Dimension, go I believe it was a mistake not to create a far beyond this one speech. The first concrete budgetary line for the Northern Dimension in action was the so-called “Polar Bear Regime” the EU Budget. Most of the EU funding has come from 1973. All the Arctic countries committed from the TACIS Programme which provides themselves to undertaking measures for the grant-financed technical assistance to countries preservation of Polar Bears. It was one of the of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. first cooperative arrangements which included commitments from the United States and the What is the honest added value of this Northern Soviet Union. Dimension programme? Surely most of the projects which have taken place under it would Others date the beginning of the Northern not have received international funding if such Dimension to a speech by Soviet President an instrument did not exist. The value of these Mikhail Gorbachev, when he gave a very radical projects is therefore unquestionable. speech in Murmansk about how cooperation in the Arctic Region surpasses both the boundaries Theoretically, the Northern Dimension Action of States and the interests of military blocs. Plan has five priority themes. They include among other things infrastructure, business In the early 1990’s, Norway was a very strong and education. In reality, the Northern proponent of the Northern Dimension. Many Dimension consists of just two partnerships: the were sure that Norway would become a member Environmental Partnership and the Partnership of the European Union like Finland and Sweden in Public Health and Social Well-being. The and that the country would definitely take a latter is just beginning and there are no plans to leading role as a mediator between Russia and set up a separate fund for it. the European Union in the Arctic region. When we consider the fact that the Nuclear Since the launch of the Northern Dimension Safety window of the Environmental Partnership Initiative, Sweden has proven to be one of its is at this stage just a plan, we must conclude strongest supporters. that in reality, the Northern Dimension is just an environmental partnership with Russia. The Implementation Guidelines for the Northern Financing from the European Union has been Dimension were adopted in June 1999 during relatively minor – about a quarter of the total the German Presidency of the European Union. sum. The hard reality is that the Northern The next presidency – Finland – prepared the Dimension is just 74 million euros worth of way for cooperation between the European environmental projects with some 20 million Union and the Partner Countries. In June 2000 euros coming from the European Commission.90 European View
  • 84. Jyrki KatainenThis is not insignificant. The South West open at the moment, but as I have mentionedWastewater Treatment Plant in St. Petersburg earlier the existing financial instruments used forhas been of great importance for the Baltic Sea Northern Dimension projects will be replaced by– one of the most polluted seas in the world the European Neighbourhood and Partnership– and I am very happy that this project will Instrument (ENPI).be completed this autumn. Six other smallerprojects have also been started. The sad fact remains that the Northern Dimension has but a few friends. Finland remains a loyalComparing to the Euro-Mediterranean champion to this cause. Sweden comes out oncepartnership in a while in support of the Northern Dimension, whereas the Baltic States and Poland look to theAn interesting comparison for the Northern west and do not seem very interested in projectsDimension is the Euro-Mediterranean up north. The Kola Peninsula is far removedPartnership and its MEDA Programme. For this from them, and the situation isn’t that muchcooperation, the European Union has budgeted different with Germany.for the period of 2000-2006 a total of 5.35 billioneuro. The total for the Northern Dimension is How will concrete Northern Dimension projectsjust under 4 per cent of MEDA financing. fare when financing becomes ever tighter and the current concept continues to fail inOf course the Mediterranean region is more uniting even the most northern of EU Memberpopulous and the problems there are more States? It would be irresponsible not ask thevolatile. But up here in the North, we should not question: what can we do to make the Northernbe too modest when it comes to the problems Dimension concept more acceptable to Europeof our area. We live on the shores of one of the as whole, without losing sight of the importancemost populated seas in the world. One of the of Russia?sharpest divides between standards of living inthe world exists between Finland and Russia. This very important question formed the basisAnd Russia’s second-largest city is a very close of a recent initiative taken by the whole of theneighbour of the European Union. European Parliament delegation of the National Coalition Party (EPP MEP’s from Finland). TheThe challenges and opportunities of this region initiative focused on a strategy for the Baltic Sea.are such that in comparison with the MEDA Unfortunately the public debate in Finland sawprogramme, the Northern Dimension initiative the Northern Dimension initiative and the Balticshould receive more funding than today. If there Sea strategy as rivals somehow cancelling eachis no separate budget for the Northern Dimension other out. This was not the intention at all.because no one other than Finland is interested,shouldn’t we then consider developing the Recently, the discussion has fortunatelyconcept so that the benefits are more visible all returned to more constructive territory. I havearound the Baltic Sea? More ambition is needed been informed that at a meeting of the Balticby the governments of all Baltic Sea states, not Intergroup of the European Parliament, a largeleast the Finnish government. consensus was reached for further developing the Baltic Sea strategy.Uncertain future with only a few friends In sum, it would be foolhardy to try to rebrandIn public policy the most fundamental question the Northern Dimension as a Baltic Sea Strategy.always involves money. The Member States are The political brand should remain, but at thenegotiating the framework for the EU Budget same time we should look for something new tofor the period of 2007-2013. Many questions are give life to this old and valiant effort. We need 91 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 85. Releasing the Northern Potential: Benefiting from Baltic Area Investment something vibrant; something that unites all the Around the Baltic Sea we still have a lot of Northern countries. If this level of commitment bottlenecks when it comes to administration is reached, then we have a new dynamic and infrastructure. These prohibit the formation concept. of a real Baltic economic area and keep this region poorer than it should be. These problems The Baltic Sea in the core of the Northern have been identified in the close cooperation Dimension that the different Baltic Chambers of Commerce engage in. Stronger regional identity should be encouraged. With this in mind, where else can we look but to the Baltic Sea? All Northern Member States The issue of politics also plays a part. Since the are located on the shores of the Baltic Sea. heyday of Sweden as an empire, the Nordic The Baltic Sea also unites the European Union countries have been politically marginalised. and Russia. This is a real connection which The European Community welcomed its first implies a sharing of responsibilities for common Nordic member in 1972 when Denmark joined problems. This summer, beaches all over the its ranks. It took over twenty years for other Baltic Sea were once again visited by floating Nordic countries to join the European Union. algae, showing that the eco system really is This happened ten years ago when Finland on the brink of collapse. More assistance from and Sweden both joined. And a year ago it was programmes like the Northern Dimension finally time for the Baltic States and Poland to would be very much welcomed. Water waste join the European family. Together the Baltic treatment in St. Petersburg, reducing the risks of Sea countries have a potential third of the increased oil transport, preparing for oil spills power, of the gross national product, and of the and taking measures, all require vast sums of population in the European Union. money. A new problem waits in the wings; the The Nordic Council has lost its appeal overflow of nutrients from increased agriculture in the new Member States is a very serious I am rather worried by the plethora of threat. Soviet influenced agriculture used few organisations devoted to promoting cooperation fertilizers. Now that the new Member States in Northern Europe: perhaps it is time to have come under the Common Agricultural rationalise these structures under the Northern Policy, the use of fertilizers will expand rapidly. Dimension umbrella. Measures to protect the Baltic Sea should be taken immediately, as part of the Common The oldest and by far the strongest cooperation Agricultural Policy. mechanism is the Nordic Council, with its investment bank and cultural apparatus. For The Baltic Sea connection is not all bad news. some time, I have felt that the Nordic Council The Baltic Development Forum issued a study last autumn, comparing four equally large has not been able to change with the times. This and equally populated regional economies. has meant that several new organisations have The regions were the Baltic economic area, come into being. The most viable of these are the Central Europe, the British Isles and the Iberian Barents Euro Arctic Council and Council of the Peninsula. The study found that the Baltic Baltic Sea States. All traditional Nordic countries economic area has the highest potential of all. are represented in all of these organisations This result is not surprising. Expanding trade and overlapping activities can be a problem. and increasing investment flows are sure signs of The Nordic Council has the most resources growth. This sort of exchange forms most easily and it also funds activities arranged by other between countries where development varies. organisations. So a question arises: why do we Moreover, the sea has throughout history been need people making applications for funding, the strongest uniting financial factor between say, in the Council of the Baltic Sea States and different nations. then other staff checking their applications in92 European View
  • 86. Jyrki Katainenthe Nordic Council? The Northern Dimension The Finnish Foreign Ministry has naturally alsoshould serve as a gravitational centre pulling begun its own work. The Ministerial Committeethese different organisations together. for European Affairs received and also approved the latest overview of the situation. The FinnishThe European Commission has lately toyed with Government was very satisfied with the overallthe idea that the Northern Dimension would plans that the Commission has sketched for thebring together Northern parliamentarians. This future of the Northern Dimension.could signal the beginning of a new era, althoughI fear that one new annual parliamentary get- I feel that the situation can also be depictedtogether will not change much. otherwise. Both the Finnish government and the European Commission lack the ambition to trulyThis theme that I have touched upon was develop the inherent potential of the Northernalso discussed in the Finnish Parliament last Dimension concept. For the latter, this isNovember. The speakers were mostly MPs worrisome and for the former very reprehensible.with a deep involvement and commitment to Current Commission plans are not sufficient tothe different Nordic cooperation organisations. transform the Northern Dimension. The existingBut even so, or perhaps exactly for that reason, hotchpotch of cooperation organisations andthe discussion echoed these same worries I mechanisms has not offered the expectedhave voiced here. Unfortunately our Minister results. There are no plans to improve theof Foreign Affairs, Mr Erkki Tuomioja, spoke effectiveness of Northern Dimension or towithout either enthusiasm or vision, which solve future financial shortcomings. There areleaves little hope that Finland will take the no ideas of how to better commit the Balticinitiative. States, Germany or Poland to this concept. The Commission hasn’t even addressed the questionBut what will happen when Finland takes over of how to improve Russia’s poor commitment.the EU presidency in the second half of 2006? Lack of visionFinnish Presidency has a heavy agenda The Commission is proposing a permanentThe Second Action Plan expires by the end of political agreement to replace the multi-annual2006. In its place, we will have a framework Action Plans. But what is left after this conjuringagreement between Russia and the European trick? Surely nothing but paper. This approachUnion. It will be signed at the Summit meeting does not help us to reach an agreement withheld during the Finnish presidency. Finland will Russia on concrete projects, which is thealso most likely have to finalise the negotiations ultimate goal.for the new EU Budget. This process willalso be of great importance for the Northern In a nutshell one can say that the CommissionDimension. proposal does not solve our most basic problem, which is Russia’s discontent with the following:But the truth is that others will have to bear a) the meagre resources that the Northernthe brunt of the work involved in reviving Dimension has at its disposal,the Northern Dimension. This will take place b) the fact that important infrastructure projects,later this year and at the beginning of 2006. which would encourage growth, are lackingThe Commission is entering into discussions from the whole proposal,with Russia about the future of the Northern c) that fact that the second Action Plan fosteredDimension. The end product of these discussions a perception that Russia was forced to acceptwill be common guidelines to be adopted at the something dictated by the EU. The CommissionNorthern Dimension ministerial meeting to be also clearly rejects the notion that the Northernheld this autumn. Dimension should have a separate budget. 93 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 87. Releasing the Northern Potential: Benefiting from Baltic Area Investment Through this overall lack of vision one can see only one rationale. The Commission wants to incorporate the Northern Dimension into the European Union’s overall Russia policy. The Commission is proposing that the Northern Dimension structure is adapted to fit the road map structure for the four Common Spaces which was agreed to recently in the EU-Russia Summit. One can hardly blame the Commission for doing this. From its vantage point this is only natural, if and when the structural cooperation between Russia and the EU is finally moving from words to concrete deeds. However, I am personally convinced that as long as the road map is merely a list of good intentions for further cooperation, no existing and functioning cooperation structure should be left to decline. I am encouraged by the recent interest in the Baltic Sea cooperation by the CDU in Germany and other Member Parties of the European People’s Party (EPP) from the Baltic Sea area. At a recent conference organised by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAS) in Berlin we agreed that our parties should deepen and prioritise this kind of cooperation. It is a strong message from the EPP to the people and governments around the Baltic Sea: Europe will benefit from investing in the Baltic Sea area. Jyrki Katainen is Chairman of Kokoomus, Finland.94 European View
  • 88. John McCain Transatlantic Relations: An American View By John McCain The transatlantic part- The catastrophic terrorist attacks on our country ners form a community produced a shift in perception that remains unlike any other in poorly understood in some European quarters. the world. United by This changed perspective was clearly evident in common interests and last year’s presidential campaign. For all of the sharing common ideals, talk of “red states” and “blue states”, there wasthese liberal democracies possess the will and the a remarkable consensus in America about themeans to protect and advance both. The story of urgent need to defeat international terrorism.this relationship is one of historic successes, and While Republicans and Democrats may havethough divisions over Iraq and other issues have differed on the exact combination of instrumentstested our ties, America’s relations with Europe required to do this, all shared a resolve toremain of paramount importance. prevent future attacks on our homeland or those of our friends. Across the Atlantic, the choiceIt is both possible and necessary to recapture between President Bush and Senator Kerrythe commonality of spirit that has been eroded was often portrayed as one between vastlyover the past few years. Governments on both different foreign policies, chiefly with respect tosides of the Atlantic have taken important steps our European allies. Yet both President Bushthis year to do just that, but to go further in and Senator Kerry promised to fight terroriststhis direction requires first laying aside a central wherever they are found, both promised tomisconception of the post-Cold War era, then prosecute and win the war in Iraq, and bothentails moving ahead collaboratively on a new pledged to work with our friends and willingtransatlantic agenda that will draw on our shared allies to enhance our security and prosperity.strengths and values. There were important differences in both style and substance between the two candidates’The times they are a changin’ . . . . approaches, but these differences were not as vast as many in Europe maintained.It is beyond doubt that the foreign policypostures in America and Europe have each A misconceived misconceptionchanged since the end of the Cold War. Europeis bigger, with new entrants joining the European As I believe the gulf between “red” and “blue” inUnion and NATO, more diverse, with eastward the United States has been overstated, so too doexpansion and new immigration, and more I believe that the issues that divide the Uniteddynamic, with ever-increasing economic and States and the countries of Europe on issues ofpolitical integration. And while many remain great significance are manageable. A popularskeptical of the European project, it is safe to argument among foreign policy thinkers todaysay that Europe’s view of its own global role is runs along the following lines: the Cold Warchanging. At the same time, anti-Americanism bound the United States and Europe together inhas risen dramatically throughout Europe. the face of a common enemy. After 1991, theSomething has changed. US and Europe began drifting apart, but the two sides remained interlocked due to geopoliticalIt is also worth reflecting on how the United inertia and an uncommonly tranquil period inStates has changed since September 11, 2001. international affairs. But as Europe continued 95 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 89. Transatlantic Relations: An American View to integrate and grow more powerful, it relied For so much that we seek to achieve in the world, less and less on the United States, while the a shared transatlantic commitment and a shared aftermath of September 11 and the war in Iraq transatlantic effort is indispensable. Americans exposed fault lines that already existed. America not only welcome European leadership, we and the countries of Europe inevitably began to believe it is necessary to make the world a better, head down separate paths. It is only natural, safer place for our interests and our values. This this argument continues, that the United States means true leadership - not a group of countries will emerge as one of several power centers in that merely follows American directives, as some the world, with the EU as another. These two fear, nor a coalition that opposes American powers would have occasionally overlapping power simply because of its country of origin, goals, but our so-called “transatlantic values” as others suggest. Winston Churchill defined an are not enough to counteract the centrifugal optimist as one who “sees opportunity in every tendencies in the relationship. difficulty”. As an optimist, I see that we do not lack opportunities in the world today. To pay This is nonsense. Surely there is some truth to real tribute to our shared history and values, the explanation that the demise of the Soviet we must enhance and update the transatlantic Union has prompted us to look at other issues in partnership, transforming challenges into the US-Europe relationship with a more critical opportunities for cooperation. eye. Certainly the war in Iraq strained our relations beyond anything we have experienced Iraq and the Middle East in recent years, just as it caused division among European countries themselves. But there The first challenge we face is ensuring success in always has been, and there will continue to be, Iraq. Good people on both sides of the Atlantic much more that binds the transatlantic partners disagreed about the wisdom of toppling Saddam together than divides us. Celebrating the values Hussein and liberating the people of Iraq. I that the United States and Europe share is not choose the word “liberate” deliberately, because simply nostalgia for the days when our alliance I firmly believed - and continue to believe - that was young. These ideals of democracy, the rule intervening in Iraq was the right choice. But of law, human and civil rights, freedom from even if in some European countries there exists tyranny and oppression, and individual liberty lingering and significant domestic opposition to - are the essence of our identity as nations, the coalition military operation, it seems hard to cultures, and allies. Indeed they are the essence understand that these same countries would be of our importance in history. We confide in prepared to accept the consequences of possible our foreign policies, not narrowly calculated failure. Neither America nor Europe can afford national interests, but rather our best hopes for such a scenario with all the implications that a the progress of humanity. Our duty to fortify our failed state in the heart of the Middle East would common purpose in service to these ideals - a have for our homelands – not to mention the continuing duty for the leaders of both the United bloodshed that a true power vacuum would States and Europe - makes the relationship more unleash on the Iraqi population. It would also than a collective response to a once imposing be wise to recall that the benefits of success in and now finished threat. Together, Europe and that country would be profound, not just for America constitute a fraternal, if occasionally Iraq but throughout the region. fractious, order of liberal democracies with the will and the means to protect our shared Victory is difficult but still possible. If realized, ideals from outside threats, and to help advance success in Iraq would set that country on a them where they have too long been denied to new course, in which democratic expression others. and economic opportunity could provide a96 European View
  • 90. John McCaincompelling example for other societies in that Both Iran and Iraq are key elements in thetroubled region. So despite the mistakes we emerging consensus that the United Stateshave made in conducting this war, there remains and Europe must support so as to encouragea compelling case for all countries to help the democratic change in the broader Middle East.Iraqis in any way possible. This does not imply For many years it was axiomatic that bonds ofmerely putting more troops on the ground, friendship among governments led to peace,though more troops are needed. It also implies irrespective of their domestic nature, and thatassistance of all kinds, ranging from computers a despotic ally was preferable to an unfriendlyto well digging, from doctors and civil engineers democracy. The September 11 attacks pointedto military and police trainers. The scope out most painfully that, on the contrary, thefor help is limited only by the creativity and domestic condition of other states, even thosegenerosity of the donors. The coalition and with friendly governments, does matter to ourIraqi security forces must hold down violence security. We have learned that, where repressionto the absolute minimum and support the rules, the lack of political participation andnew Iraqi state while the Iraqis themselves economic opportunity engenders despairhash out political settlements to the issues that and extremism. When extremism becomesnow divide them. They can get there, but it terror, what was once under the domesticrequires Americans and Europeans alike to treat purview of one state becomes a securitythe situation there as an emergency in need of concern for everyone. This is not to say thatimmediate assistance. political repression is the only root cause of terrorism; undoubtedly there are others, as theWhile Iraq remains our paramount challenge, recent bombings in London suggest. But it isother important issues provide great opportunity nevertheless clear that when autocratic regimesfor collaboration. Iran continues to travel along subvert their people’s desire for democracy,the nuclear path, threatening to disrupt security violence becomes a more attractive the region and beyond. The EU has shown Where economies stagnate and fail to providegreat leadership in attempting to dissuade the jobs, especially for the educated, extremismIranians from continuing on their dangerous finds fertile ground.course and in convincing them that the US andEurope cannot be split on this critical issue. This problem is acute today in the Middle East,But just as we have been united until now, we but it is also solvable. In recognition of this,must remain so, and the ruling mullahs need to the G8 leaders last year launched their Broaderhear one unified message from all of us: the Middle East/North Africa initiative, and NATOdevelopment of nuclear weapons constitutes a launched its Istanbul Cooperation Initiative.grave breach of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Both of these are building blocks on which theTreaty, to which Iran is a signatory, and a transatlantic partners can do more to engagethreat to international peace and stability. This the region. Working in partnership with willingmessage must indicate that such behavior will reformers, the US and Europe must deepenincur specific penalties, including referral to the their long-term commitment to use economic,United Nations Security Council, the imposition political, and diplomatic resources to promoteof multilateral economic sanctions, and targeted positive change in the region.penalties (such as visa bans) against the regimeleadership. At the same time, the reformers There are many avenues through which weand the millions of Iranians who aspire to self- can do this. Programmatically, institutions likedetermination must hear that we support their the National Endowment for Democracy, thenatural desires for freedom, democracy, and International Republican Institute (which Ieconomic opportunity. Oppression in that great have the honor of chairing), and the Nationalland must not forever endure. Democratic Institute support budding democrats 97 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 91. Transatlantic Relations: An American View and civil society institutions around the world. resources and appropriate political support to Europe has some fledgling organizations that make this endeavor a success. At the same time, work in a similar fashion, but can and should we need to encourage both the Israelis and the be doing much more. IRI frequently partners Palestinians to return to the Roadmap as soon as with European organizations in its work – with possible. Should they do so, NATO may have a Slovak and Czech organizations in Iraq, with key role to play. While I believe a peacekeeping Spanish foundations in Latin America, with role would serve only to prolong the necessary German, British, and Austrian parties and peacemaking, and should be avoided, there are party foundations in the Balkans – but these other options for NATO participation, including worthwhile initiatives only scratch the surface training of security forces, enhancing border of what is possible. Diplomatically, the US security, and monitoring the implementation of and Europe should stand together in calling Roadmap commitments. for reform and democracy, never allowing the autocrats to split us in our ambition to support Neighbours to the east the reformers. While the Middle East cries out for change, the As we move ahead on this agenda, it is worth neighbours to Europe’s east illustrate some of recalling that the drive for reform in the Middle the rockier soil on which the seeds of democracy East is, of course, not merely a transatlantic have fallen, and they call for a cooperative mission, nor can it be imposed from without attempt to support the forces of freedom there. - the people of the Middle East must seek From the great success stories, in the Baltics, freedom and democracy of the their own Georgia, and elsewhere, to the countries in accord. We push for reform there because our which democracy has struggled, like Ukraine security demands it and because we believe that and Azerbaijan, and where it no longer exists, the abridgement of Arab or Kurdish or Iranian in Belarus and Uzbekistan, the United States human and political rights are no less offensive and the countries of Europe must work together than the abridgement of our own. But we to promote democratic rule. The effects of ultimately push for reform in the Middle East our firm messages are greatly enhanced when because the people themselves demand it, and they are coordinated and supported by all of because this demand is so clearly deserving of the transatlantic democracies, as events during the support of the United States and Europe. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution illustrated so dramatically. Reacting to Russian interference In the Middle East it is evident that many issues, and blatant electoral fraud, both the US and the both related and unrelated, are viewed through EU refused to recognize the declared victory of the prism of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Viktor Yanukovich as President. The world - Achieving peace between these two peoples and Ukraine - took notice. Only when these would have positive reverberations throughout types of governments see that it is impossible the region and the world, and recent events to split the United States and Europe do they there present a real opportunity. In withdrawing look inward at their own actions and consider from Gaza, Prime Minister Sharon took a huge change. and courageous step, and this action has the potential to reenergize the peace process Nowhere on the continent is this as important – an opportunity that may not last forever. At today as in Russia, where President Vladimir the same time, Mahmoud Abbas faces huge Putin rules as a “creeping coup” his efforts to challenges in managing post-withdrawal Gaza, use the Chechen war to roll back the democratic and he will require the help of the international gains Russia won in the 1990s. Over the last year, community. It is in the continuing interest of “galloping coup” has become a more appropriate the transatlantic partners to provide financial term, as Mr Putin has moved to eliminate the98 European View
  • 92. John McCainpopular election of Russia’s regional governors, in the absence of high-level European attentionend the election of independent members and in this sense contrasted sharply with theof Parliament, continue the crackdowns on Orange Revolution in Ukraine. But the futureindependent media, and persist in repressing of Central Asia is of paramount importance tobusiness executives who oppose the President. Europe. With its abundant oil and gas reserves,As President Putin reasserts his own form of pipelines traversing the region, flows of people,old-style Kremlin control, Russia continues to narcotics, and goods, and potential for stabilityinterfere in so-called frozen conflicts in portions or upheaval, it deserves greater attention fromof Georgia, Moldova, and Azerbaijan. Europe and provides an opportunity for the US and Europe to work together to bolsterMr Putin is pursuing autocracy at home and democracy.exporting autocracy abroad. Yet in the faceof these outrages, both Europe and the United On August 12, the Presidents of Ukraine andStates have remained too acquiescent, preferring Georgia issued the “Borjomi Declaration,”to deal with Mr Putin as an equal. We have inviting leaders of all countries in the Baltic-the power to hold Russia to a higher standard, Black Sea-Caspian region to create a Communityboth at home and in Europe’s backyard. A of Democratic Choice. With a summit scheduledstrong, unified message is necessary: reversing for this autumn and the EU invited as an observer,democracy in Russia will inevitably cause our this pro-democracy initiative illustrates just onerelations with Russia to suffer, however much way in which the reform-minded leaders arewe value its cooperation in other areas. moving forward. With diplomatic, financial, and programmatic support, the US and EuropeFor those skeptical about what a cooperative can work together to bolster the reformers intransatlantic relationship can achieve, I would power and the civil societies in countries wherepoint out the progress in the Western Balkans. democracy is lacking.By deploying peacekeepers in 1995, we haltedthe bloodshed in Bosnia. Working together, we Africa, transnational issues, and stylestopped further killing in Kosovo by wagingNATO’s only war, and then together averted a While we focus on Europe’s borders, we shouldcivil war in Macedonia. A look at this region not neglect the continent of Africa, wheretoday shows just how far it has come. Albania, European countries have a special responsibilityCroatia, and Macedonia are on track for NATO to assist the development of post-colonial lands.candidacy, perhaps as soon as 2006, and are The UK’s focus on the continent during the G8on the path toward eventual EU membership. summit was an important start, and we needThere are remaining challenges in Serbia and in to build on this momentum in the pursuit ofresolving the final status of Kosovo but, overall, long term change. But we also need short termthe transformation of the Western Balkans has solutions to immediate problems, and nowherebeen a significant transatlantic success. is this more critical today than in Sudan, where the world’s greatest humanitarian crisis continuesAs we look to the countries on Europe’s borders to unfold. As the Sudanese government and itswe must not neglect the countries of Central allied Arab militias rampage through the regionAsia. The democratic revolution in Kyrgyzstan of Darfur, leaving in their wake a level of deathshowed the power of a movement that has and destruction the United States has labelledshowed stirrings in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, genocide, we must do more now. Targeted,even in repressive states like Uzbekistan. And coordinated penalties against all responsibleyet Europe has been strangely quiet in Central Sudanese government officials and militia leadersAsia, seeing it as beyond its borders and out of are long overdue. The transatlantic partnersmind. The revolution in Kyrgyzstan transpired should rally the call to install a broad visa ban, 99 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 93. Transatlantic Relations: An American View an arms embargo, and freeze assets, and then emphasize our areas of agreement and manage increase the international armed presence in our disagreements. Only bad blood results Darfur, to protect refugees in their camps and when one side disengages completely, whether ultimately help them return home. it is the Americans over the ICC or the French over Iraq. We have seen improvement on both But the opportunities to improve our ties do sides this year, but we clearly have more work not stem from country-specific challenges to do. alone. The specter of climate change, for example, presents a real and present danger This brings me to another point, one that con- to all countries and, indeed the world, and yet cerns the importance of style in the transatlantic this issue hardly registers on the US-European relationship. Behind the substantive policy agenda. Prime Minister Blair has shown great debate is a perception on the European side leadership on this issue, and he is right in that I think is poorly understood in Washington. describing climate change as “a challenge so Europeans quite rightly wish to be heard and far-reaching in its impact and irreversible in its respected by the United States, while Americans, destructive power that it alters radically human perhaps true to our nature, often let our certainty existence”. Scientists observe an increased and self-regard override our impulse toward melting of the polar ice caps, the shifting and consultation and deference. For the American destruction of many species, the destruction side, I believe we should heed Teddy Roosevelt’s of coral reefs, unprecedented heat waves and famous dictum to “speak softly and carry a big extreme weather, and new outbreaks of health stick”. We have carried - and used - a big stick, problems linked to climate change. in recent years, and even more so now perhaps it is time to speak more softly. We must reopen US-European talks on climate change and work toward a new solution Our exuberance, when perceived as arrogance, acceptable to both sides. I have introduced is rarely successful, and we should not forget in the US Senate legislation that would require to listen to the advice of friends. But our a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but European friends should also note America’s this is a modest start. What is required is a real determination to work toward a freer, more successor to Kyoto, a cap-and-trade system that secure world - for our sake and for theirs. We delivers the necessary environmental impact in intend to continue, whether our efforts are a financially responsible manner, and one that appreciated in our time or whether we must includes developing countries like China and wait for the judgment of later generations. India. New technologies hold great promise. We need to revise our innovation systems, so that The true generational challenge we have policies in place that will encourage the marketplace to embrace more ideas originating The true generational challenge, facing the in research labs. Together we can rekindle the United States and Europe today, cuts to the heart spirit of creativity to find affordable solutions to of what makes our countries special. I have long the looming climate problem. believed that the only means to happiness and the true worth of a person is measured by how Many other issues - from the dangers of faithfully we serve a cause greater than our self- proliferation to trade issues to the role of an interest. The same holds true for the conduct of international criminal court - deserve serious nations, particularly in this unique era, during consideration and discussion on both sides of which the traditional balance of power has the Atlantic. With issues such as the International faded and America, along with its democratic Criminal Court (ICC), we need to recognize that, allies, stands astride the world with unmatched if they are important to our European friends, so power. Political scientists refer to this time as too they are important to America. We need to the “unipolar moment” and I’d emphasize the100 European View
  • 94. John McCain“moment” part of that formulation. None of in our respective societies, and will require thatus knows for how long the United States will we think proactively about how our foreigndominate international affairs, but we do know policies shape the world. Above all it willthat history has handed us a unique opportunity. require leadership – European leadership andThe US and its democratic friends could choose American pursue narrowly defined national interests- internal and external security, economic But there is no more appropriate project for theprosperity at the cost of others, perhaps even United States and the countries of Europe, interritorial domination. We must choose a very which the Enlightenment was born and tookdifferent path. root, where the social contract saw its great fulfillment, and where the oppressed peopleWe choose to infuse our foreign policy with of the world naturally look for solace andvalues, the ones common to the world’s inspiration. President Harry Truman observeddemocracies and that are the natural rights of that “Men make history, not the other way around.all mankind. We orient our national ambitions In periods where there is no leadership, societytoward these ends, so that our interests and our stands still. Progress occurs when courageous,values converge. Americans’ love of country skilful leaders seize the opportunity to changeis based not on some ill-considered desire for things for the better.” There are, in both theempire, any more than is Europeans’ love of United States and in Europe, the necessarytheirs. Rather, America’s patriotism is based on skilful leaders, and the opportunity for changea kinship of ideals, a shared dedication to the now presents itself. Built on shared values,proposition that all men are created equal, and possessing bountiful resources and democraticpossess certain inalienable rights. So, too, with legitimacy, the transatlantic community inspiresEurope, the continent to which Americans owe the world. There are other democracies, otherso many of its liberal conceptions. Whether we military powers, other economically prosperousare speaking of America, or Britain, or Germany, countries. But when the United States and theor Latvia, one thing binds us - we rightly believe countries of Europe stand together, it creates aour core values to be universal part of the moral and political force that gives no groundbirthright of all people. to the enemies of freedom. The world needs us together, and we need each other.And so it is natural to work together to promotethese rights in lands where they are lacking.We must use our power and influence not onlyfor security and prosperity, but to promote the John McCain is United States Senator andconcepts we hold dear: democracy, the panoply Chairman of the Board of the Internationalof human and civil rights, strong and legitimate Republican Institute (IRI).international institutions, a world of recognizedinternational norms and rules. If we aresuccessful in creating this lasting liberal order,we will have established a set of expectationsfor international and domestic behaviour thatwill endure long after the unipolar momentis passed. That is the great project that liesbefore the transatlantic democracies today. TheAmerican historian Charles Beard once said that“the supreme challenge to intelligence is thatof making the noblest and best in our curiousheritage prevail.” If we are to do this, it willrequire the brightest and most visionary minds 101 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 95. Don McKinnon The Commonwealth and the European Union By Don McKinnon The relationship be- Cyprus, and Malta. There is a queue of those tween the Common- wishing to join. wealth and the European The glue that unites the Commonwealth today, Union is being built on is a commitment to uphold certain fundamental a clear understanding political and human values enshrined in the of respective interests, Singapore and Harare Declarations of 1971 andwhere they coincide and where they can be best 1991. Where a member does not adhere to thoseadvanced by cooperation and collaboration. values, there are mechanisms for encouragementThat is why the relationship is currently growing and sanction. Our membership also derives itsin size and strength. It is a strategic partnership strength from the strong networks and linkagesfrom which both gain. at the civil society level which are all entirelyWhile the memberships of the Commonwealth voluntary. Just like the EU, Commonwealthand EU are obviously distinct and based on politicians and officials assemble regularly anddifferent geopolitical considerations – one being work together, but also professionals – frominternational and the other regional – they are dentists and architects, to broadcasters andnevertheless like-minded in many ways, sharing journalists, to artists and writers. On top of that,similar values and goals. Both the Commonwealth ordinary Commonwealth citizens come togetherand the European Union champion democracy, of their own volition in clubs and associationsdevelopment, and fundamental human rights simply because they believe in the organisationat home and further afield. Both are essentially and want to promote all that it represents andpolitical organisations. advocates.Evolved commonwealth As the political landscape has changed in Europe, our relationship has been strengthened. TheIf there is any misunderstanding about the relevance of the Commonwealth to the Europeanrelationship, it arises because the Commonwealth, Union, or of the EU to the Commonwealthlike the EU, has evolved considerably in the last for that matter, has become easier to discern.40-odd years in terms of who it represents and The commonality of view and purpose ishow it works. We were once a basic construct well understood between the Commonwealthof Britain and its former colonies and, indeed, Secretariat and the European Commission. Wewere known as the “British Commonwealth”. thus find it easy to talk, and I have done soNowadays, the Commonwealth has a diversity with many Commissioners and EC Presidentsof members. The two most recent members to over the years. Such political dialogue has nowjoin were Cameroon and Mozambique. Neither become could be seen as conforming to thatcommon past, but both chose to share in our Our joint Commonwealth/EU work isvision of the future. The Commonwealth spans increasingly focused on giving practical effectcontinents and oceans and embraces the biggest to this comfortable political relationship. Theand smallest of countries from India to Tuvalu. Commonwealth, for instance, has taken a leadIt has members in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, role in providing negotiating capacity for the EU’sthe Pacific, North America and the European developing country trade partners, found in theUnion. We count three EU members – Britain, African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) grouping. 103 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 96. The Commonwealth and the European Union The ‘Hub and Spokes’ project is a creative €20 that. Our work on the unique vulnerabilities and million partnership between the Commonwealth needs of the world’s many small states is another Secretariat and the European Commission, along area of cutting edge work where the World Bank with support from La Francophonie and the is now in firm partnership with us. ACP Secretariat. It is in the process of placing a network of nine trade policy advisers (the hubs) Sometimes, a rapid deployment of warning at the headquarters of regional organisations signs and safety barriers at the top of the cliff is and 48 trade policy analysts (the spokes) in the required rather than an ambulance at the bottom. capitals of ACP countries. With our low-key, quiet diplomacy “Good Offices” work, the Commonwealth Secretariat Building on the success of the Hub and Spokes has developed an effective way of influencing project, President Barroso and I have agreed to change and strengthening the building blocks develop greater collaboration in strengthening of democracy. We have used this approach to democratic institutions. Given that democracy is help prevent and resolve conflicts in member one of the cornerstones of the Commonwealth countries from Fiji to Guyana to Swaziland. and Europe, it is a strong foundation on which Our engagement in Cameroon, for example, is we are strengthening the relationship in a progressively bearing fruit with progress towards practical and collaborative way. Both of us are the establishment of an independent electoral committed to contributing, and Africa is likely to body and human rights commission. be the focus of our next partnership. In 1995, Commonwealth leaders set up the Developing democracy Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group on the Harare Declaration (CMAG). This “democracy Promoting democracy is about working closely watchdog”, empowered to suspend member with member countries to help strengthen countries when they are in breach of fundamental democratic institutions and root them in a Commonwealth principles, has given a great culture of good governance and transparency. deal of influence and moral authority to the The Commonwealth achieves this through organisation globally. After ten years, CMAG working in our member countries to develop is still the only mechanism of its kind in the sound electoral systems; clear separation of architecture of international organisations. powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary; transparent public account Above all, the Commonwealth champions systems; accountable bodies to protect human democracy with the liberties and opportunities rights and freedom of information; and so on. it offers our citizens. Only if democracy lives in Observing elections is another activity where the hearts of the people of a country and is real our work is well respected and where we often to them will that country’s institutions work as meet EU counterparts in the field. they should. Only if their democratic culture is genuine and strong and benefiting the people The Commonwealth knows its power is limited will they defend them. – some would call it, “soft power” – but it can at times be just as effective if not more In short, democracy must deliver. If this does not so than tougher versions. We have networks occur, as we all know from so many examples and influence and we have been trying to use - look for instance at what happened in Western both to secure some important international Europe just 70 years ago – democracy will be decisions. It is often forgotten, for instance, in dire danger. Even today, there are many in that the issue of writing off debt for Highly those new democracies to the east of the EU Indebted Poor Countries – the HIPCs – began as who point to a lack of benefits and suggest that a Commonwealth initiative in 1995, and we had democracy be discarded. But if it is easy to state, worked on the issue for a decade or so prior to we all know that it is less easy to tackle.104 European View
  • 97. Don McKinnonEconomic development together through trade so they wouldn’t go to war again. By further integrating economies andThe Commonwealth, like the EU, acknowledges developing closer trade relationships, we canthat the fight against poverty is also a struggle reduce the risk of political, religious and ethnictowards economic development. Over the next conflict. But for that to work, trade must notdecade, the fight against global poverty will be only be free. It must also be of the central issues on the internationalagenda as we work towards the 2015 deadline for The Commonwealth accounts for one fifth ofmeeting the Millennium Development Goals. world trade. We also make up about 40% of the WTO membership, and we have representativesToday, over one-third of the Commonwealth’s in almost half of the key WTO negotiatingnearly two billion citizens live on less than groupings such as the new Quad, the G20, G90US $1 per day. Women constitute almost three and the Cairns Group. The Commonwealth isquarters of all those living in poverty across the not a trading bloc today but its roots are foundCommonwealth. Almost two-thirds of HIV cases in a pattern of colonial-era trade relationshipsin the world occur in Commonwealth countries. which spanned the world. Our membership hasHalf of the world’s 115 million children one of the longest histories, of any group ofwithout access to primary education live in the countries, in trading with each other.Commonwealth. In February this year, I welcomed the EUThese are staggering statistics, and not ones Commissioner for Trade, Peter Mandelson, toabout which the Commonwealth is proud. They the headquarters of the Commonwealth for aunderline, though, that we have work to do that high level seminar on the Doha Developmentcannot be done by any one person, country, or Agenda. Its purpose was to raise awareness oforganisation alone. The Commonwealth and the the DDA and to increase levels of understandingEuropean Union together have an important and support for trade liberalisation as a meansrole to play here. With combined populations to economic growth, poverty reduction andtotalling over two billion people and a diversity development. It was also a determined effortof nations which include five G8 members, to keep development at the heart of the Dohathese two organisations can deliver real change the lives of tens of millions of people. Theycan also help create the political environment It was a successful seminar on many levels, butin which the needs and interests of developing one of the most important conclusions was thecountries are taken seriously. acknowledgement that the Commonwealth has a strategic role to play in securing a conclusionTrade to the Doha Round. There are three main areasTrade is one of the most effective tools in the to consider. First, no deal will ever be reachedfight against global poverty. Moreover, trade can in the Round - and even less, implemented -prove an effective antidote against conflict. If without real, sustained political impetus. Tradethe stability of an economy and the well-being negotiations are conducted by officials, but theyof a population depend on trading with a are driven by leaders.neighbour, the likelihood of war is considerablydiminished. The Commonwealth’s 53 Heads of Government will be meeting in Malta in November and IEuropean leaders after World War II, understood anticipate that they will conclude with a strongthis well. With the establishment of the sense of political direction for their WTOEuropean Coal and Steel Community in 1951, negotiators. Then, the Commonwealth’s Tradeand subsequently, the European Economic Ministers will be meeting in Hong Kong on theCommunity, they decided to link their economies very eve of the WTO Ministerial in December 105 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 98. The Commonwealth and the European Union to add political weight and momentum to the The European Union’s commitment to double Commonwealth’s collective position on the aid to US$80 billion by 2010 is a step in the Doha Round. right direction. It is good news for developing countries, particularly, in Africa. It can fund Secondly, development must come first. In educational projects and give people at least the past, development issues were relegated one decent meal every day. But aid without fair to the periphery of trade negotiations. We trade denies countries the opportunity to sell must now ensure they take centre stage. Peter their goods and services at competitive prices in Mandelson has made a number of positive the international market and the opportunity to remarks in this regard, and I congratulate him repay their debts. and the Commission for this policy setting. Putting development first, will not only create a I was pleased to hear that for the first time more level playing field that allows developing in 50 years a single framework of principles countries to get their fair share of the benefits will be drawn up to establish a roadmap for of global economic integration it will also bring the EU’s future development activities abroad. rewards to the industrialised world: as poor It will enable the EU to speak with one voice, countries grow wealthier, they provide new establish further partnerships with developing export markets for rich nations. countries and help to attain the ultimate goal - to eradicate poverty. It is an ambitious proposal Cutting trade subsidies, ending the “trade which will require the support of all twenty five apartheid” that prevents farmers in poor nations Member States and the Commission, but I am from selling their products in rich countries’ confident it can work. The Commonwealth markets, will not only benefit the poor. Money has long held the view that progress is better saved on subsidies will also make consumers in achieved through consensus. the developed world better off through reduced taxes and lower grocery bills. We are seen as a trusted partner by developing countries. We have networks and access to It is no surprise that many developing countries people and decision-makers which are the - especially the small ones - do not see any of envy of many. We also have a track record of the concessions offered thus far in the Doha working effectively with other international and Round by either the EU or US as concessions intergovernmental organisations including the or even gifts, but rather as two-edged swords EU. which they are being obliged to grasp. At the moment, world trade arrangements are Given the commonality of our two organisations stifling, if not entirely choking the life out of interests and objectives, it is inevitable that the entrepreneurship in the developing world. The Commonwealth and the European Union will EU ought to be worried about that. It is why continue to find opportunities to collaborate as Special and Differential Treatment provisions in partners, especially in the areas of democracy the Doha Round are critical. and development. I look forward to that. I have visited some of the most poverty- stricken places in the world. I have witnessed men, women and children who are desperately Don McKinnon is Secretary General of the hungry, existing in makeshift shelters and still Commonwealth and former Deputy Prime trying to make a living. They pick coffee beans Minister and Foreign Minister of New Zealand. despite suffering from HIV/AIDS; they collect water even though there is barely a drop in the well; and for their labour they accept the bottom dollar because they have no choice.106 European View
  • 99. John Edwin Mroz Securing Europe and its Neighbours By John Edwin Mroz Europe’s policy makers it clear that a lot will be happening before the currently face two key 1st of January. challenges: finding new methods for After years of indecision on the matter, the need governments to work for a concerted European security approach has better together, and finally been brought to the fore. The Europeanidentifying new ways for businesses and civil Union is and should be the natural ‘bearer’society to protect the continent’s citizens, of policies to support such a harmonisedinfrastructure and economies from the threat collaborative approach. The question remains,of terrorism. The terrorist attacks in Madrid however, as to whether the Member States areon 11 March 2004 and London on 7 July 2005 unified enough in their approach for a commonwere vivid reminders that not enough has been policy to emerge and whether there are the pre-done. requisites for sufficient trust for cooperation to take place at all levels, including intelligence-In many ways, the European Union’s response sharing. There is also the question of whatto these terrorist attacks has been markedly instruments the EU has at its disposal to dealmultifarious in approach, reflecting the current with such problems and whether these can bestructure of the Union and the limitations of effective.policy integration when it comes to the moresensitive issues of defence and security. The As the EU becomes both a regional and globallooming question is one of how European actor, it will have to deal more effectively withintegration can proceed while ensuring that international problems such as cross-bordera more effective European security policy is terrorism. The distinction between internaldeveloped. security and external security is dissipating. One consequence is the need to tackle the problemI was in London immediately before and after of international terrorism by better protectingthe July underground and bus bombings. A Europe’s borders, especially if the Union wishesvisit to Brussels several days after the London to maintain and promote freedom of movementattacks was particularly revealing. There was an within its borders. Unfortunately, this impliesextraordinary meeting of the Justice and Home harsher border regimes with the EU’s neighbours,Affairs Council of the European Union on 13 just at a time when the EU is seeking to reachJuly to discuss the post-London strategy. The EU out to these very neighbours in support ofInterior Ministers also held talks with high-level an integrative approach to stabilisation andUS Homeland Security officials. Participants of development in a region too often describedboth meetings told me that amidst an unusually as a potentially threatening arc of political andheavy atmosphere, agreement was reached security uncertainty. Harsher border regimesto significantly accelerate the implementation would hardly be a carrot to these countriesof new policies to better protect citizens and for closer cooperation, a cooperation that isinfrastructure – many of which had been under paradoxically vitally necessary if these samediscussion since 9/11 or Madrid but had yet external EU borders are to be secured. Borders,to be adopted and moved forward. The new it has been shown, cannot be properly managedBritish Presidency of the EU Council has made by one side alone. 107 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 100. Securing Europe and its Neighbours In addition, measures that might further The European Security Strategy constitutes widen the socio-economic gap for the EU’s the first clear articulation of the EU’s security outer frontiers can only contradict the EU’s interests. It defines the key threats facing the security interests. True partnerships are EU, and outlines the EU’s policy objectives in therefore required, not only between Member countering these threats. The European Security States, but also between the EU and its direct Strategy was written partly in response to the neighbours. An integrated approach to border tragic events of September 11, 2001 in the management, which incorporates principles of United States, and it therefore reflects recent trade facilitation (movement of goods as well security thinking. as people), alongside border control, and which also supports socio-economic convergence In the strategy, traditional post-Cold War threats through border region cooperation is the key. such as regional instability are complemented by a focus on how to counter the threat of terrorism, The EU has developed fledgling policies and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, mechanisms in this vein for Southeast Europe’s regional conflicts, state failure and organised borders, which might, if optimally developed, crime. Furthermore, the strategy emphasises serve as a template not only for EU’s outer the need to “promote a ring of well-governed borders but also for the management of borders countries” around the European Union in order throughout the ‘EU neighbourhood’. Finally, to increase security, bringing external policy bringing in the business community can help together with security policy. provide the newest technologies to assist in better security and can also lead to a public- This promotion of a ring of well-governed private cost-share in terms of the financial burden countries around the EU is carried out through of securing Europe’s borders. The EastWest the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). Institute’s Centre for Border Cooperation and the The ENP is an important new policy, sharing EWI Consortium on Security and Technology, the benefits of European integration with the both based in Brussels, are examples of tools neighbours of the enlarged European Union, that can advance both of these goals. through increased cooperation and active engagement. The ENP constitutes the regional The European Security Strategy and its dimension of the EU’s security strategy, in that regional dimension a stable and well-governed neighbouring region adds to the security of Europe as a whole. The European Union has had a distinct approach to security since cooperation between the Member States was strengthened in the 1970s in The EastWest Institute’s European Neighbourhood the face of the threat of terrorism by such groups Initiative (ENI), which has a special focus on the as the Red Brigades in Italy or the Bader-Meinhof Eastern Dimension, draws on a range of EWI’s Group in Germany. Exchange of information and programmatic competences and experiences the working out of complementary strategies to bridge the new dividing lines that EU between Member States were set early on as the enlargement threatens to create in Europe and main objectives. to maximise the opportunities offered by EU integration processes. Such work focuses on The rapid, albeit at times painful, development helping the countries of the European Union’s of the Common Foreign and Security Policy new Eastern neighbourhood to take advantage (CFSP) and cooperation in the fields of Justice of their EU proximity and to work towards and Home Affairs ( JHA) in the 1990s, taken creating a Pan-European Space of Security and together with the European Union’s ongoing Prosperity that will include the European Union process of integration and enlargement, has and the Russian Federation. given the EU the capabilities of a global actor.108 European View
  • 101. John Edwin MrozFirstly, we are dealing with the very real danger too has recently become more vocal about itsof a new dividing line between the European need to be included. The EU, Russia, UkraineUnion’s “ins” and “outs”, in particular the and actively involved parties in Moldova andwidening socio-economic gap and challenges Transdniestria have an unusual opportunityto free movement of people and goods on the to work together on creating workable borderEuropean Union’s outer borders. Secondly, we are arrangements and an eventual solution to theworking to create a new quality of co-operation conflict.and partnership between the countries in theEastern neighbourhood, the European Union Strengthening the new borders of theand the Russian Federation, leading towards European Unionthe creation of that “Pan-European Space ofSecurity and Prosperity”. Finally, we are utilising Free movement is one of the fundamentalopportunities provided by the EU’s ENP for principles of the EU. Within the EU, bordersaccelerating domestic reforms in the countries are withering away and controls at the externalof the Eastern neighbourhood, as well as for borders are being strengthened. With thetheir strengthened sub-regional co-operation. enlargement of the European Union, its external frontiers moved eastward. The EU sharesThe EU has drawn up a 10-point plan for borders with Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania,relations with Ukraine that now accompanies and Serbia. The new European border has 6.000the Action Plan, a policy move that shows the km of land borders and 85.000 km of coastline.tailor-made approach of the ENP vis-à-vis eachcountry involved. A tailor-made approach does During recent years, with the increase in majoroffer the possibility of combining several policies acts of international terrorism, and with theif they meet the EU’s interests. This can be seen increase of cross-border flows of illegal goods,in the relationship with Ukraine’s neighbour of illegal trafficking of people and substances,Moldova. The EU has requested Ukraine to play the question of border management and bordera facilitating role in a peaceful resolution of the regimes has finally come to centre stage. We areconflict in the Transdniestrian region. faced with a key strategic challenge, which is the question of how to balance the new requisitesThe new Ukrainian administration under of security with requisites of facilitation ofPresident Yushchenko, in its bid to speed up trade and the transit of people – basically, thethe integration process for EU membership, requisites of freedom. We are also faced withhas delivered in this regard by increasing its a challenge of trying to develop a commoncooperation with the Moldovan government, vision on how to balance these requisites. Wecoordinating a plan for a peaceful resolution of should also not forget that trade and people-to-the conflict. This has so far resulted in a common people contacts are a basis for socio-economicapproach by the two Presidents, expressed in a convergence, and socio-economic developmentletter that was delivered to Mr Solana by the itself will underpin European security.Moldovan President Voronin during his visit toBrussels on 7 June 2005. The recent enlargement of the European Union has placed a focus on securing the new externalIn this letter, the two Presidents ask for EU borders of the Union. The EU has soughtassistance in establishing international customs a balance in preserving the integrity of thecontrols on the Transdniestrian segment of the common, free travel area provided by SchengenUkrainian-Moldovan state border, as well as cooperation, and the need to tackle the threatsfor the creation of an effective international of terrorism and illegal migration into the EU.monitoring mechanism for this area. Russia’s In preparation for this enlargement, the EUparticipation is absolutely crucial to any efforts invested in equipment and training for borderto resolve the Transdniestrian conflict. Romania guards from the 10 new Member States, and in 109 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 102. Securing Europe and its Neighbours the coordination of joint operations aimed at organised by the EastWest Institute and the guaranteeing an equal level of border control. World Customs Organisation in February 2005. After enlargement, some of these countries He was explaining the need for partnerships are now responsible for the protection of EU’s with key actors and organisations, as well as external borders. The financial burden that this the development of a comprehensive strategy to implies needs to be better shared within the EU. tackle terrorism. For Europe, a strong partnership A welcome step was taken in November 2003 with its neighbours, in particular Russia, is crucial when the Council decided to create an external in tackling international terrorism. Nowadays, borders agency. it is increasingly difficult to make a distinction between internal security and external security. In April 2005, Warsaw was chosen to be the headquarters of the European Agency for the The EU’s common strategies towards Russia Management of Operational Cooperation at include a Justice and Home Affairs dimension. the External Borders of the Member States, or For instance, at the EU-Russia Summit in Moscow FRONTEX. This agency is meant to coordinate on 10 May 2005, a single package of road maps and assist the activities of national border guard for the creation of four Common Spaces was services of those Member States that represent adopted. The road map for a Common Space the external borders of the EU in implementing of Freedom, Security and Justice includes the Schengen acquis on control of persons at cooperation on border issues. If managed the external borders. Unfortunately, very little properly, operational cooperation between the has been done to date. Moreover, there is an EU and Russia in the framework of FRONTEX important problem with how FRONTEX has could enhance good relations. been shaped by policy- makers and politicians. Russia’s relations with Europe have always been While this will go some way to harmonize complicated to manage and this will not change and hopefully increase the efficiency of the following major elections on the continent management of these external borders, the fact this autumn. Critical issues at the heart of the that customs authorities have not been engaged security relationship between Russia and Europe in the development of FRONTEX, and will are energy security, the fight against terrorism, not play any direct role in FRONTEX at least and relations with Russia’s neighbours from the for an initial period, raises concerns about the former Soviet Union. the agency’s ability to support an ‘integrated’ approach to border management. Customs and President Putin has helped the West in the fight border policing cooperation is at the heart of a against terrorism and is committed to tackling properly integrated border management strategy the fundamentals that will assure social stability and customs authorities bring an important and economic viability, as the state comes to alternative perspective to border management, grips with issues of ownership and resources, in large part focused on the facilitation of equitable taxation and the need to maintain trade. It will be vital for the EU to pursue such some distance between big business and integrated approaches to border management if politicians. Russia is taking the lead in crafting broader European integration is to be achieved a new public-private partnership in fighting whilst still ensuring a high level of security. terrorism as part of its upcoming G8 Presidency - an important initiative that was acknowledged Partnering with neighbours in the Glen Eagles Summit papers. “Because terrorism is a global phenomenon, we Issues of counter-terrorism and energy security need a global response” said Javier Solana at the are those areas where the Russian Federation Second Annual Worldwide Security Conference, has much to offer in terms of its resources,110 European View
  • 103. John Edwin Mrozexperience and new ideas. The EastWest clearly stated their difficulties in communicatingInstitute is working with both the EU and Russia with European government officials and EUto improve cooperation between the two actors regulators due to slow procedures in policyin these fields. At our Third Worldwide Security development. Implementation of regulationsConference in February 2006, one day of the can take several years, while new technologiesconference will be devoted to Russia’s role in continue to progress, and furthermore,the world as a security actor and will be chaired monitoring of the implementation of securityby Russian officials. policy is lacking. Hence, there is a strong need for better cooperation and coordination betweenMore attention needs to be given to the common public and private sectors.neighbourhood of Russia and the EU. TheUkrainian elections did cause tensions between Jonathan Faull, Director General for Justice,Russia and Ukraine as well as difficulties in EU- Freedom and Security in the EuropeanRussian relations over the electoral process that Commission, has a very important impact onled to the coming to power of Viktor Yushchenko. the way we move forward. We are committedEWI and others have been stressing the need to strengthening and making more effectiveto promote greater confidence and stability the fledgling partnerships that already existthrough an intensified schedule of higher level between governments and EU institutionsand expert meetings to break down stereotypes on the one hand, and large and small-scaleand biases, build confidence and move the leading technology companies on the other. Iagenda forward in a practical way. The issues fully agree with Mr Faull when he says that thewe are focusing on include border cooperation struggle against terror in the European Unionas well as “frozen conflicts”. will succeed only if the private sector and governmental bodies work closely together, andBringing in the private sector that this can only be done effectively if private and public actors come together to set the rightTerrorism is an asymmetric threat. It requires legislative and regulatory framework and thenan asymmetric response. Governments alone ensure that this framework is kept up to datecannot do the job. Business and civil society and that rules are properly enforced.must be included. The European Commissionis developing a long overdue European Security Representatives from both sectors challengedResearch Programme (ESRP) to do just that. It the conference organisers last February to findis now in the second-year of its preparatory more effective ways to forge better public-privatephase (Preparatory Action for Security Research partnerships in the area of security, justice &– PASR), funding selected projects that have to home affairs. One of our major responses hasdefine both the required technological solutions been the creation of a Consortium on Securityand the supporting operational concepts. and Technology.Particular attention is given to security of theEU’s borders. The Consortium provides a forum through which public-private partnerships in the field ofOne of the main conclusions that emerged civil protection can be built, thereby developingfrom our Second Annual Worldwide Security a more consolidated European technologyConference in Brussels was the existence of market. It includes both European as well asan enormously wide gap between private and US companies. Its members’ businesses arepublic sectors. While high-level EU decision- global, Europe-wide as well as nationally-makers called for stronger efforts to be made based companies from France and Germany toby the private sector, business representatives Romania and Russia. 111 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 104. Securing Europe and its Neighbours The Consortium focuses on various issues of Action begins with understanding. The best civil protection, among them the supply chain hope we have for being better able to provide and border security. This work is meant to security for Europe’s citizens is to take that bring together the public and the private sectors leap of faith: build new links between issues, around the issue of enhancing citizens’ security, develop unthinkable partnerships and build actively including different processes such as the new approaches based on what we now have actors involved in the EU’s development towards in place. an ESRP, but also bringing in expertise from the Member States, Eastern European countries, NATO, WCO, and many others. In so doing, we are working to resolve some key challenges: John Edwin Mroz is President and CEO of the how can the private sector, with more than EastWest Institute. 80% of the world’s critical infrastructure in its hands, become a more effective partner with governments? How can IT-infrastructures linking many critical infrastructures together improve coordination between sectors in the protection of this infrastructure? Conclusion European institutions, both public and private, are doing a great deal to meet the major security challenges of the 21st century. But they are working largely independently of one another. We will experience graver acts of terrorism than the ones we have been seen in London, Madrid, New York or Moscow. Our ability to limit their scope and provide maximum security for our citizens requires a Kierkegaardian leap of faith by governments, the private sector and citizens alike to cross old boundaries and cooperate in new ways with new partners. We can and will do a better job of protecting Europe’s citizens, infrastructure and economy. Until now, security against terrorism has been looked at in a compartmentalised way, rather than as a whole. From borders to partnerships, Europe needs to think more boldly about how security can better be provided through new ways of cooperation. Thinking out of the box is always useful, but today it is more than that: it is essential. Many of the necessary tools are already in place; they only need to be connected and expanded.112 European View
  • 105. Per Stig Møller Working Even Closer: the EU, the United Nations and the Reform of the Security Council By Per Stig Møller 2005 is the year of review European Union – a global actor of the United Nations’ Millennium Declaration With approximately 450 million citizens and the and of dealing with world’s largest internal market, the European reforms of the United Union represents a quarter of the world’s Nations. 2005 is therefore Gross National Product. Compared to otheralso the year where the need for clear European international actors, the European Union hasUnion positions on engagement in the United a unique capacity to make its weight felt onNations’ agenda is of obvious importance: for the global stage through a broad spectrum ofthe European Union, for the United Nations and different policy instruments: aid, trade, politicalfor the world. The European Union’s size, its dialogue, diplomacy and crisis management,values and partnerships, and its foreign policy among other. The economic weight of theinstruments all warrant a crucial role. The European Union’s development aid and itsUnited Nations and the world community face share of global development aid underlines itsunprecedented challenges, and the European potential role as a global political actor. TheUnion is particularly well-equipped to handle European Union and its Member States donatethem. The present cooperation between the more than half of the world’s development aidtwo must therefore be intensified, and to this and earlier this year the European Union agreedend we need stronger political will and courage to reach a collective goal of 0.56 per cent ofwithin both the European Union and the United GNP by 2010.Nations. Despite being a superpower in terms of economyIn its Security Strategy, “A Secure European and development aid, the European Union isUnion in a Better World”, from December only slowly transforming itself into a global2003, the European Union presented the case political player and, with its increasing politicalfor an international order based on effective clout, it is gradually defining its role on themultilateralism with a stronger United Nations as global scene. We need to speed up this process.a key component: “In a world of global threats, The fate of the Constitutional Treaty does notglobal markets and global media, our security change the need for European engagement onand prosperity increasingly depend on an the global scene. Despite the two “no-votes”, theeffective multilateral system(…) Strengthening European Union can still be a driving force inthe United Nations, equipping it to fulfil its many fields, such as the WTO negotiations andresponsibilities and to act effectively, is a the ODA targets, and it must continue to playEuropean Union priority.” this role. We must continue to strengthen our ties across the Atlantic and with Asia in order to keep the focus on the long-term solutions to theWhether we strive to fight poverty, terrorism and present day and future challenges.crime or to prevent crises and stop conflicts, itis not a question of using the European Union The need for Europe’s involvement on the globalat the expense of the United Nations – it is a scene is indisputable, but our cooperation is notquestion of strengthening both. always that simple and important differences 113 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 106. Working Even Closer: the EU, the United Nations and the Reform of the Security Council still exist between the European Union the beginning of 2003, and some have been Member States. It is therefore essential that launched after an explicit request from the we all genuinely seek to work together in an United Nations Security Council. open, inclusive and transparent manner with a view to finding sustainable solutions. Such an At the same time it is clear that the European approach not only reinforces European Union Union needs to strengthen its capacities further positions, but also safeguards the perception of the European Union as a serious and reliable if the European Union is to carry out more international partner. intensive tasks for the United Nations. Here, the creation of European Union Battle Groups is The present Treaties offer many opportunities central. The United Nations Secretary-General for strengthening our global role, but the nature recently stated in his report, ‘In larger freedom’: of the Common Foreign and Security Policy “Decisions by the European Union to create (unanimity) asks for strong will on the part stand-by Battle Groups, for instance, and by of the Member States. This should not be too the African Union to create African reserve difficult, if we realise that everybody benefits capacities, are a valuable complement to our from a strong European voice. When 25 States own efforts.” Quick action is often of crucial speak with one voice, our external relations importance. A European Union Battle Group on policies gather more strength than any Member stand-by is to be an important first choice in State can mobilise alone. Furthermore, we the time it takes to gather a traditional United gained firm evidence during the Iraqi crisis that Nations peacekeeping force. the expectations of the Europeans for a unified European Union position are high. The fate In September 2003 the United Nations and the of the Constitutional Treaty won’t change that European Union agreed on a “Joint Declaration either. The European Union must mobilise the on UN/EU Co-operation in Crisis Management” necessary will in order to live up to its potential in order to deepen the cooperation in this area. and these expectations. It’s the only way to The declaration describes further practical steps move forward and strengthen our cooperation to be taken, building on the momentum of the with and support of the United Nations. positive cooperation between the two partners. The idea behind the declaration is that in order for Closer EU/UN cooperation the United Nations to carry out its peacekeeping operations, it needs regional organisations and While growing into the role of a stronger global players to strengthen their capacity to carry player, the European Union has taken on greater out crisis management missions and, in turn, responsibility, and the following five areas show strengthen United Nations operations. how the European Union, in concrete terms, may assist in further strengthening the work of 2. In this vein, Denmark and the European the United Nations. Union strongly support the establishment of the Peace-Building Commission (PBC), which is to 1. Strengthening the European Union’s crisis remedy the absence of a body in the United management capacity is also a means to make Nations system to help countries through the the United Nations stronger. Over the last couple difficult transition from war to lasting peace of years, important progress has been made in by coordinating the work of all relevant actors. the European Union’s capacity to engage in The fact is that almost half of all countries that international peacekeeping operations. This emerge from war lapse back into violence progress has taken place within the framework within five years. Consistent, coordinated and of the European Union Security and Defence better-funded strategies for peace building are Policy (ESDP). In total, eight civil and military crucial to sustainable peace and long-term missions have been successfully launched since development. Denmark strongly supports filling-114 European View
  • 107. Per Stig Møllerin this institutional gap in the United Nations of cases. In April 2005, partly through strongsystem. lobbying by European Union Member States in the United Nations Security Council, the CouncilThe PBC will provide advice on peace-building referred the horrific crimes committed in Darfur,strategies for countries emerging from conflict. Sudan, to the ICC; the first such referral ever toNotwithstanding this, it will be for other take place and a significant boost for the ICC.participants; international financial institutions,regional organisations etc., to use the conclusions 4. In the area of counter-terrorism, the Europeanof the PBC’s discussions in adapting their own Union is a privileged partner to the Unitedpolicies and activities towards the country in Nations. They each have areas of comparativequestion. advantage and benefit vastly of the actions of the other partner. The United Nations provides the3. The shared acceptance of and respect general framework for the international effortsfor international law is a prerequisite for to combat terrorism. This ensures that the fightstrengthening peace and security on the global against terrorism has global reach and legitimacy.stage. The problem is not open disagreement The United Nations’ actions are supported andabout specific aspects of international law. supplemented by the European Union just asSuch disagreements have always existed and the European Union member states implementare completely normal in any legal system. But a large share of the United Nations obligationswe must realise that the world has changed through European Union legislation. Moreover,significantly in the last couple of decades, and the European Union Member States are oftenthat there is need to reaffirm the understanding able to undertake stronger, more detailedand support for the existing basic principles of commitments in their common implementationinternational law. of the United Nations obligations than what is possible to find in the ‘global’ United NationsTo this end, Denmark has initiated a number of Security Council resolutions.national and international initiatives designed topromote the issue of strengthening international Another good illustration of the partnershiplaw. During the Danish Presidency of the between the United Nations and the EuropeanSecurity Council in the second half of 2006 we Union in counter-terrorism is the current workintend to launch a debate on the need to reaffirm undertaken to ensure all countries have theour commitment to fundamental principles and adequate means to counter terrorist networks.rules of international law, focusing on a number A lot of this work springs from the Counterof key areas. Terrorism Committee (CTC) under the Security Council. Denmark chairs this committee inThe European Union is a good starting point 2005-6 and during our presidency, a key priorityfor reaffirming international law. One aspect will be to facilitate technical assistance to thoseof the international legal order - where the countries which lack the resources and know-European Union already plays an important role how to fight terrorism effectively. An important- is the fight against impunity for international task of the CTC is therefore to identify the needscrimes. European Union Member States were of these countries and relay the request forinstrumental in the historic creation of the technical assistance to donors with the requiredInternational Criminal Court (ICC) in 1998; know-how. Not least due to its first-handa truly global, permanent judicial institution experience with international terrorism, thewith a mandate to prosecute genocide, crimes European Union supports this work vigorouslyagainst humanity and war crimes. Almost 100 and offers its technical expertise, for instance inStates have ratified the ICC statute and the ICC regard to border control or terrorist financing,has already started investigations into a number to a number of the countries identified by CTC. 115 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 108. Working Even Closer: the EU, the United Nations and the Reform of the Security Council In this manner, the European Union’s efforts with the strengthened role for the Office of the to bolster third countries’ capacities to combat Commissioner for Human Rights, combined terrorism make a valuable contribution to the with the agreed doubling of its regular budget work of the Counter Terrorism Committee funding. The creation of a standing Human and the United Nations. Consequently, the Rights Council is an idea that Denmark has European Union is and will continue to be a promoted for some time and to which we attach strong partner for the United Nations in the fight major importance. against terrorism. Reform of the United Nations Security 5. The European Union is founded upon the Council principles of liberty, democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental At the beginning of the 21st Century, the freedoms. For many years, the European Union international community needs a United Nations has continuously played a central role in the that is capable of handling the new challenges international efforts to promote and protect these and threats the world is facing today. To this principles worldwide. In these endeavours, the end, it is crucial that the Security Council European Union bases itself on a comprehensive continues to play a decisive role in maintaining human rights policy developed and refined international peace and security. The present over time to become one of the priorities of its composition of the Security Council reflects the foreign and security policy. balance of power of the world immediately after the Second World War – a world that no longer The European Union welcomes the prominent exists. A broader representation is therefore place given to human rights in the process of needed with a more balanced geographical United Nations reform. It unreservedly supports representation. For this reason, a broad majority the proposal to replace the United Nations of the United Nations Member States have, over Human Rights Commission with a standing the last months, demonstrated clear support Human Rights Council, which should be able for reform and enlargement of the Security to meet whenever the need arises rather than as Council. the calendar dictates. In Denmark’s view, such enlargement should be The European Union strongly believes that the enacted by increasing the number of permanent establishment of a Human Rights Council will and non-permanent members and by including contribute to a strengthening of the United developing and developed countries as Nations human rights mechanisms, thus permanent members. The draft General Assembly reflecting the universality of human rights and resolution of the Group of Four (G4), which their central position in the United Nations consists of Brazil, Germany, India and Japan, system. With a strong mandate, such a council reflects this view. Denmark therefore supports would improve the ability of the international the proposal and has offered its co-sponsorship. community to effectively address thematic In addition, we have expressed our support to issues and country-specific human rights issues Germany and Japan as new permanent Security as well as urgent human rights crises. A Human Council members. Rights Council would also contribute to the streamlining of human rights issues throughout With an enlarged Security Council as outlined the UN system. in the draft resolution, voices representing the whole world will be much stronger and It goes without saying that the replacement of thereby enhance the legitimacy, credibility and the Human Rights Commission with a permanent effectiveness of Security Council decisions. Human Rights Council should go hand in hand Effectiveness in the sense that the collective116 European View
  • 109. Per Stig Møllerpressure to adhere to Security Council decisions A European Union speaking with one voice in thewill increase. Broader representation will also Security Council would reinforce the normativeenhance the Council’s responsiveness to the and operational capacities of the Securityviews and needs of all Member States. Council, and increase the global importance of common European Union fundamental valuesAs this Security Council reform has already such as democracy, rule of law, and humanbeen on the agenda of the General Assembly rights. As mentioned above, a key prerequisitefor more than 12 years, it is now time to decide would be strengthening the existing cooperationon the issue. The G4’s draft resolution provides under the scope of the Common Foreign andus with a unique opportunity to take action, and Security Policy.without reliable alternatives, a rejection wouldmean no to change, no to reform and yes to Conclusionthe status quo. In addition, a decision wouldbe a great leap forward in our common effort The European Union still punches below itsto make progress on the comprehensive United weight on the global political scene. We have aNations reform agenda. However, the reform great idea to sell and help implement – namelyof the Security Council must not develop into that integration promotes peace and stability.a prerequisite or an obstacle to our common Peace and stability are on the top of the Unitedambition as to strengthening and modernising Nations’ agenda, and the European Union hasthe entire United Nations system. an obligation to contribute through cooperation with the United Nations.At the same time, adoption and implementationof the resolution will not mark a conclusion to The cooperation between the two is close todaythe Security Council reform process, but rather and there is no shortage of ideas on how tothe beginning of a new and reinvigorated intensify this cooperation. In order to do so,debate. The envisaged review clause is an we need willpower within both the Europeanexcellent mechanism to maintain a continued Union and the United Nations – the will to makedialogue within the General Assembly on better use of the European Union’s potentialthe Security Council reform issue. Hence, the on the global scene and the will to make theperformance of the new permanent members necessary reforms within the United to be appraised fifteen years after their Solid cooperation between the European Unionadmission to the Security Council. The review and the United Nations can contribute to stabilitywill also include the question of whether new and progress in our unstable world.permanent members should be granted a rightto veto. Denmark opposes any such extensionof the veto right as it would seriously hamperthe effectiveness of the Security Council. Per Stig Møller is Foreign Minister of Denmark.In a long-term perspective, Denmark favours apermanent seat for the European Union in theSecurity Council to represent the interests of allEuropean Union Member States. Close EuropeanUnion cooperation on Security Council affairs hasalready proven highly valuable and importantto reach comprehensive peace solutions, e.g. asdemonstrated during the process of adoptingthe three Security Council resolutions on Sudanin March 2005. 117 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 110. Ong Keng Yong Advancing ASEAN-EU Relations in the 21st Century By Ong Keng Yong After 37 years of exis- ASEAN Summit in Bali, Indonesia in October tence, the Association of 2003. The adoption of the Bali Concord II was a Southeast Asian Nations landmark decision for ASEAN. It committed the (ASEAN) comprising ten ASEAN Member Countries to work towards Brunei Darussalam, an ASEAN Community comprising three pillars, Cambodia, Indonesia, namely, the ASEAN Security Community (ASC),Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), andSingapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, remains the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC).energetic and relevant to the well-being ofSoutheast Asia. ASEAN continues to maintain an The ASC’s aim is to bring ASEAN’s politicalactive agenda in promoting peace, security, and and security cooperation to a higher plane, toprosperity for the region. ASEAN’s progress has ensure that countries in the region live at peacebeen determined by regional and international with one another and with the world at large indevelopments. Its vision, dexterity and sagacity a just, democratic and harmonious environment.have helped the grouping obtain a substantial It addresses issues of security cooperation androle in shaping the future of Southeast Asia and peaceful settlement of differences, and thusits immediate neighbourhood. relates to the first theme of ASEAN Vision 2020.ASEAN in the 21st Century The AEC will be characterised by a single market and production base, with a free flow ofASEAN’s long-term goals are articulated in the goods, services, investment and skilled labour,ASEAN Vision 2020, which was adopted by and freer flow of capital. The AEC is defined asthe ASEAN Leaders in 1997, during the Second the end goal of ASEAN economic integration,Informal Summit in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. which relates to the second theme of ASEANThe vision defined four themes, namely, (1) a Vision 2020.concert of Southeast Asian nations, embodyingASEAN’s vision of peace and stability The ASCC is a community of caring societies,throughout the region; (2) a partnership in diverse in culture, yet with a distinctive regionaldynamic development, describing ASEAN’s identity. The ASCC encompasses social andgoal of economic integration within the region, cultural issues and therefore relates to the thirdand achieving global competitiveness; (3) a theme of ASEAN Vision of caring societies, bound by acommon regional identity and aware of its The fourth theme, the goal of an outward-cultural heritage, which successfully addresses looking ASEAN, cuts across the ASC, AEC andthe social issues of poverty and deprivation; ASCC. It envisioned the will of ASEAN Memberand (4) an outward-looking ASEAN, that forges Countries to be inclusive and have productiveintensified relationships with Dialogue Partners relations with all those who wish to befriendand other countries and organisations, based on the grouping. ASEAN believes a balancedequal partnership and mutual respect. relationship with all major powers will generate security and stability for Southeast Asia.The four themes of ASEAN Vision 2020 were givenfurther clarification by the Declaration of ASEAN Plans of Action for the ASC, AEC and ASCCConcord II (also known as the Bali Concord II), were drawn up and adopted within two years.adopted by the ASEAN Leaders at the Ninth In each plan, specific activities, measures and 119 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 111. Advancing ASEAN-EU Relations in the 21st Century projects were spelt out. Deadlines were also sense of purpose: it serves as a definition of what specified. The challenge today is to implement ASEAN wants. The year 2020 is the target date each of the Plans of Action according to the because it is the year when many of the ASEAN time laid down. Since these steps lead all the economic agreements should be realised. This way to 2020, a strategy of maintaining the three is also the target date for security and political pillars and managing the actions was adopted. cooperation to produce results. A blueprint setting out the separate sections of work has been established. This is the Vientiane What can ASEAN learn from the EU’s Action Programme (VAP) which covers the community building? period 2004 to 2010. The VAP also builds on the Hanoi Plan of Action which steered ASEAN’s The historical, cultural and ideological market integration and community building foundations that impelled the EU’s formation efforts before the Bali Concord II. After 2010, and shaped its character are different from it is anticipated that there will be two more those of ASEAN. From European Coal and Steel action programmes like the VAP, each of five Community to European Common Market, the years’ duration, ending in 2020 when the ASEAN European Economic Community, the European vision is realised. Community and finally the European Union, the journey took half a century. It is gradual and In short, ASEAN is determined to build the steady institutional construction and design which ASEAN Community. It is not a community in has shaped Europe. ASEAN is different from the the same sense as the EU. Political union is not EU. Unlike the EU, which embarked on the route contemplated. The glue is economic integration of institution building, ASEAN favours functional and a common vision for a better society for all cooperation first. ASEAN has proceeded even ASEAN citizens. without the required institutions. In the 1970s when ASEAN first began, For years, ASEAN cooperation has been premised cooperation was very patchy and disparate. on political commitments. It subscribes to the In the 1980s, ASEAN focused mainly on fundamental principles of non-interference and economic problems. The sweeping forces of respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity globalisation and economic interdependence of Member Countries, with consensus building which characterised the decade of the 1990s playing an important part. We call it “the ASEAN compelled ASEAN Member Countries to venture way”. Many outsiders regard this approach on to a higher plane of economic integration. as slow and cumbersome. They see it as too Strengthened economic cooperation in ASEAN informal and tentative. Yet, it is necessary to included the establishment of the ASEAN Free promote trust and confidence, in order to Trade Area (AFTA). The ultimate objective of deepen ties between ten diverse countries. AFTA is to increase ASEAN’s competitive edge as a production base geared for the world Although ASEAN will not be like the EU, the EU market. With the AFTA, ASEAN economic can certainly be a useful reference for ASEAN’s integration was elevated to a higher level. The own community building efforts. ASEAN can acceleration of the AFTA deadlines on several certainly learn from the integrated approach occasions reflects the great importance that of the EU in developing its high level regional ASEAN attaches to trade liberalisation as an institutions. instrument for competitiveness and integration into the global market for goods and foreign The significance of European regionalism is direct investment (FDI). that all European countries have been gradually absorbed into a united and highly integrated The ASEAN Community has given ASEAN a new “Grand Europe”, by a single market, a single120 European View
  • 112. Ong Keng Yongcurrency, as well as a single political system. In The combined GDP of ASEAN is close to $700this respect, ASEAN still has a long way to go. billion and ASEAN has a population of 540 million growing at more than 2% a year. If theIn ASEAN, the association is not a supranational region is able to achieve an average economicorganisation where the ASEAN Secretariat has the growth rate of 6% a year, it will have a combinedmandate and legal instruments to direct Member GDP exceeding $1 trillion by 2010.Countries and drive regional policies. It is anorganisation that is very much led and paced The EU remains one of ASEAN’s major tradingby the Member Countries with the Secretariat partners, third largest after Japan and theplaying a coordinating and facilitating role. United States. On the economic front, totalFrom time to time, the ASEAN Secretariat might trade between ASEAN and the EU is aroundserve as a catalyst but it must be mindful of the $100 billion. In terms of FDI inflows to ASEAN,sensitivities of Member Countries. the figures showed the EU contributing more than one third of the total FDI receipts in 2003.Although we have improved the existing ASEAN There is more scope for improvement in tradeDispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) for and investment between ASEAN and the EU.economic and trade matters, ASEAN does nothave the power to impose sanctions. This is Consultations between the ASEAN Economicagain by design, as the aim is to get all Member Ministers (AEM) and the European CommissionerCountries to behave in a responsible way on Trade were first initiated in 2000 and, sincethrough a common vision, political commitment then, have been held annually. They have becomeand logic of group interest over national ego. As the highest-level forum where trade policiesmore and more economic agreements and other and initiatives supportive of closer ASEAN-EUformal documents are signed among ASEAN partnership are being discussed. ASEAN SeniorMember Countries and between ASEAN and Economic Officials (SEOM) also regularly meetexternal parties, rules-making has become more (twice a year) with their counterparts from theand more prominent. Over time, it is expected European Commission.that ASEAN’s decision-making will be more rule-based and this could transform the grouping. ASEAN perceives the EU as a strong supporter ofThe EU’s experiences in coping with community ASEAN economic integration. This is clear fromrules over national laws can be instructive. ASEAN-EU cooperation in a number of areas,ASEAN-EU Relations: Strengthening the namely, Standards, Quality and ConformityPartnership Assessment, Intellectual Property Rights, Energy, Environment, Regional Integration Support,Looking at the progressive changes in both and Higher Education. ASEAN also welcomedregions - the EU is enlarging its membership TREATI or the Trans-Regional EU-ASEAN Tradeeastwards, while ASEAN is entering into a new Initiative which the AEM and the EU Tradecommunity and institutional building process - Commissioner value as a “vehicle to develop athere exists a strong desire on the part of the EU partnership for regional integration, establishingto share its experiences on forging regionalism greater understanding between the two regionsand on the part of ASEAN to adopt the best on issues of mutual interest and acting aspractices of the EU and to modify them to a framework to establish the direction andfit the ASEAN context. This would certainly priorities for technical assistance and capacity-provide ASEAN and the EU with a common building.” Through TREATI, both regions hopeplatform to launch policy dialogues in a number to expand existing trade and investment flows. Aof important sectors where ASEAN regional number of joint activities in the areas of mutualintegration efforts have been intensified, economic interest are currently being identifiedsuch as in trade and investment. and implemented. 121 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 113. Advancing ASEAN-EU Relations in the 21st Century The TREATI would pave the way for a deeper and interaction with different religions has a and broader ASEAN-EU Economic Partnership significant value for ASEAN’s own processes for which does not preclude a potential ASEAN- inter-faith accommodation and co-existence. EU free trade arrangement. As the EU has its own concerns, ASEAN’s efforts to launch a free On the social and cultural front, poverty trade area agreement have not been successful reduction, education and the environment would to date. Nevertheless, the AEM and the EU Trade be areas of common interest to pursue in the Commissioner have agreed to do a joint feasibility short to medium term. The EU has undertaken study. Officials from both sides are scheduled to a number of innovative changes in the field meet soon to decide on the modalities of this of education such as introducing the concept proposed study. of lifelong learning to keep up with the rapid changes of today and integrating protection Like the EU, ASEAN Member Countries play of the environment as a key ingredient in its an active role in the World Trade Organisation economic policies. ASEAN too is making (WTO), particularly under the current Doha efforts to improve its human resources through Round. Discussion of the developments in the education and to safeguard the environment WTO is one of the regular features of ASEAN- while pursuing economic development. The EU consultations, whether it is at the level of key element is sustainability. The EU’s policy- the Ministers or the Senior Officials. Both sides making in these areas, particularly in application take such opportunities to share each other’s to and conformity by new Member States of the expectations and to understand each other’s EU, would be instructive to ASEAN Member positions. Countries. On the political and security front, ASEAN The EU has successfully developed strategies remains a main conduit for the EU to engage Asia. to minimise poverty through the harmonisation The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) continues of social protection policies. The EU wants to to feature prominently in the EU’s strategy for include the eradication of poverty as a priority engaging the region as it provides a window in its cooperation with ASEAN. This is another for the EU to extend its political presence in the strong point for ASEAN-EU collaboration region. Besides, the ARF is the most important since ASEAN will have to continue to address and successful political and security forum poverty eradication through developing better in the Asia-Pacific in which all major powers socio-economic policies and by narrowing the participate. Currently, the ARF consists of 23 development gaps between the more developed participating countries and the EU. and the less developed ASEAN Member Countries. Transnational crime was identified as an area for substantive cooperation since ASEAN and In the longer term, ASEAN and the EU should the EU fully recognise its negative impact capitalise on the historical and cultural bonds on their economies and societies. Given the that have linked both regions for centuries. A global campaign against international terrorism greater mutual understanding through enhanced and crimes related to it, fighting transnational interactions in the areas of youth, media, culture crime and adopting common approaches in and the arts is essential. There are perception international fora is of mutual benefit. An gaps which hamper a closer relationship at the increasingly important aspect in the fight government-to-government as well as people- against terrorism is inter-faith dialogue and to-people levels. More student, business and understanding. ASEAN is a region with almost all civil servant exchanges, and more tolerance of the world’s religions in active co-existence with each other’s diversity are necessary to close the one another. Europe’s long history, civilisation comprehension gap.122 European View
  • 114. Ong Keng YongConclusionThe key point of ASEAN’s community building isto enable it to compete in a highly competitiveglobal economy. It is a survival game. ASEAN doesnot want to become irrelevant in internationalaffairs and the global economy. It believesthere is vast potential in coming together andorganising ten diverse countries into a coherentgrouping. The strategy is economic integrationand the philosophy is “prosper thy neighbour.”The EU has been part of the Southeast Asianlandscape for many years. The EU’s individualMember States have been in the region forcenturies. Therefore, as ASEAN develops itssurvival plan, the EU has a prominent part in it.The question is how the EU wishes to play itsrole: with a traditional west-and-east approachor an innovative global citizen stance?The existing cooperation illustrated in thepreceding paragraphs has brought significantgoodwill and benefits to both ASEAN and theEU. The base is broad and the foundations deep.This is the strength of the partnership. However,in the New Economy where technology andspeed are paramount, the primordial mindsethas to change. The relationship must be basedon the spirit of partnership, leveraging oneach other’s strengths with respect for diversityof cultures and traditions. New innovativeprocesses must be applied to the ASEAN-EUpartnership to take it to a more enduring andengaging level. The TREATI and the recentlysettled READI (Regional EU-ASEAN DialogueInstrument) seem promising. Indeed, the healthof ASEAN-EU relations seems to rest on positivedialogue, a focus on the bigger picture andsustainable development of opportunities, whilestrengthening bilateral ties between the EU andindividual Member Countries of ASEAN.Ong Keng Yong is the Secretary General ofthe Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN). 123 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 115. Jan Petersen Europe’s Role in Solving Conflicts and Building Peace By Jan Petersen Ten years ago, on 11 should we put our limited resources into the July, the Bosnian Serb management of conflicts that are taking place army forced its way past far from home? Dutch UN peacekeepers and took control of Of course, this is first and foremost a question what had been declared of principles and values. We have a morala “safe area” for Bosnian Muslims. Until then, responsibility to contribute where we can. TheSrebrenica had been just another place on the victims of wars in other parts of the world aremap of Yugoslavia. But since that day, Srebrenica our brothers and sisters, and not so very longhas symbolised the cruelty of man and the ago, many of our own people were suffering ininadequacies of the international community. a similar way. Norway is one of the proponentsThe Muslims were herded out of the town, and of the concept of “human security”, where theas many as 8000 men, women and children focus is on civilians. It is civilians who are atare believed to have been killed. It has been the epicentre of contemporary wars, bothdescribed as the worst atrocity in Europe since as collateral victims and frequently as primethe Second World War. targets. Our approach to security, therefore, can no longer focus solely on the security ofHow could Srebrenica happen? All armed territory, states or governments. We must takeconflicts can create conditions under which the security of individual people as our point ofatrocities can occur. This shows how vital it is to departure. Individuals should be able to live inprevent situations from developing into armed freedom, and without fear.conflicts and to resolve ongoing conflicts. Norway also endorses the UN SecretaryI believe that Europe has a major role to play General’s appeal to embrace the principle ofin preventing and resolving conflict, both “responsibility to protect” as a norm for collectivecollectively and in terms of individual countries. action in cases of genocide, ethnic cleansing andEuro-Atlantic co-operation must function as a crimes against humanity. The question of thestabilizer in Europe and its vicinity. European responsibility to protect has been more hotlystates must contribute to the peace and debated in the context of Iraq, than in relationprosperity of other regions of the world. Our to Rwanda or Bosnia, and I am aware, of course,response must combine peace, diplomacy, that this is a highly sensitive issue.humanitarian aid, development co-operationand military means. We must also co-operate We must not, however, allow misconceptions toby creating sustainable and robust multilateral distort a debate of such paramount importance.structures for dealing with conflict. The principle of “responsibility to protect” applies to the protection of civilians within theA question of values parameters of international law; it does not imply authorisation of the illegitimate use ofWe are faced with seemingly overwhelming force.challenges, the chances for success are limited,and the political upside within individual The concept of human security and the principlecountries is negligible. Why, it is asked, of responsibility to protect, create a moral 125 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 116. Europe’s Role in Solving Conflicts and Building Peace imperative: the obligation to do what we can. stability and security for all. The unique This is why Europe has responded and must contribution of the EU to peace and stability in continue to respond to the call to help resolve Europe cannot be underestimated. conflicts. The EU is so far the most advanced example The global challenge - resolving conflicts is of an endeavour to achieve stability through in our own interest integration. But it is not alone. Systems of regional co-operation are emerging throughout Today there are fewer conflicts between the world. The African Union’s efforts and countries. However, the new security order that ambitions to bring peace to the African continent emerged after the end of the Cold War has led are encouraging and should be supported. to an intensification of internal conflicts and Often the motive behind regional co-operation greater international focus on these conflicts. is economic, but the end result is more political One positive development is that the current co-operation and thus also greater stability. political climate is more favourable towards Although countries that are engaged in regional external engagement. However, the effects of co-operation are not immune to conflict, they war have much wider repercussions. have a forum for discussing issues that arise, and this makes conflict less likely. Furthermore, Globalisation has proved to be a double-edged regional economic interdependence provides a sword. On the one hand it has brought the greater incentive to find peaceful solutions. countries of the world closer together through the flow of trade, investment and ideas. On the European achievements have served as a other hand, it allows instability and insecurity to model for integration efforts in many regions. flow freely through the system. The effects of By continuing its efforts to further develop internal conflicts spread beyond the immediate European co-operation structures, the EU will site of the conflict through migration, disease, also continue to provide inspiration for co- environmental degradation, transnational operative solutions around the world. organised crime and international terrorism. The attraction of the Euro-Atlantic co- The humanitarian challenges of yesterday have operation become the core security policy issues of today. Internal conflicts are now a global concern. Euro-Atlantic co-operation has safeguarded It is therefore in our own interest to engage peace and democracy in our region since World in preventing and resolving conflicts and War II. NATO is a cornerstone of our foreign rebuilding societies that have been ravaged by and security policy. NATO’s rapid enlargement conflict, not only in our immediate vicinity, but has drawn an increasing number of countries also globally. into the community of values on which the Alliance is built on. Through its peacekeeping The European response operations, NATO has supported the forces of democracy and helped secure peace in the Europe has several distinct roles to play in the Balkans and in Afghanistan. management and resolution of armed conflicts. The prospect of becoming part of the Euro- European integration as a model for Atlantic structures can serve as an incentive to peaceful development choose peaceful solutions over conflict. Over the last fifty years, the EU has promoted Stability in the Western Balkans is of great democracy and boosted economic development importance for Europe and the Euro-Atlantic in the whole of Europe. This has led to greater area as a whole. Norway has played an active126 European View
  • 117. Jan Petersenrole in security and development efforts in the Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro shouldWestern Balkans since the early 1990s, both be considered for membership in NATO’sat the bilateral level and by contributing to partnership arrangements.multilateral efforts, such as those of the UN,NATO and the OSCE. We also contribute to the The future of the Western Balkans lies inoperations and programmes run by the EU. integration with the rest of Europe, and the prospect of EU membership is a major drivingThe main foreign policy goal of all the countries force for reform in this region. We should takeof the Western Balkans is integration into Euro- care to maintain the attraction of the Euro-Atlantic structures. The integration process Atlantic structures as a means of promotingcontributes to stability in each country and in development and prosperity in the region.the region as a whole. The countries, however,are at different stages of this process. Croatia Europe as an actoris already an EU candidate, and the FormerYugoslav Republic of Macedonia has applied The strengthening of the Common Foreignfor membership. and Security Policy (CFSP), including the development of a European Security andThe EU has initiated negotiations on a Defence Policy (ESDP), over the last few yearsStabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) has increased Europe’s ability to contributewith Albania, and negotiations on an SAA with to peace and stability on a global scale. TheBosnia and Herzegovina may start in the autumn. adoption of the European Security Strategy byThe European Commission also concluded the European heads of state and government inin April this year that Serbia and Montenegro Brussels in December 2003 was a milestone inhad made sufficient progress in meeting the this respect.conditions and developing the capacity to beginnegotiations on an SAA with the EU. These The Security Strategy points to weapons ofare also expected to start in the autumn. For mass destruction, failed states, organised crimeSerbia and Montenegro, with its recent history and ethnic and regional conflicts as challengesof conflict, this is truly an achievement, and is a we will have to confront together. The strategystrong testimony to the will for reform both in adopts a broad approach to these securityBelgrade and in the rest of the country. threats, and emphasises conflict prevention, based on international law and multilateral co-Despite these achievements, there is still a long operation, as the best means of tackling them.way to go, as was demonstrated by the recentdiscussions between the EU and Croatia over Important steps have already been taken inits lack of co-operation with the International the implementation of the Security Strategy,Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. including the efforts to make multilateralismSustained effort is required to maintain the more effective. Another important step is themomentum for change. Development co- Joint Declaration on UN-EU Co-operation inoperation and the presence of security forces in Crisis Management. Further steps are the EU’sthe region must be kept up. action plan to combat terrorism, its strategy against the proliferation of weapons of massPerhaps most important of all is a firm destruction, and its strategic partnership withcommitment to the idea that the Euro-Atlantic the Mediterranean region. The Security Strategysecurity architecture should encompass all also provides a basis for strategic partnershipscountries in the Euro-Atlantic area. This means with countries such as Russia, China, India,continuing EU membership and association Japan and Canada.processes with the countries of the WesternBalkans. It also means that Bosnia and 127 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 118. Europe’s Role in Solving Conflicts and Building Peace The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is through its participation in a number of peace another initiative that is based on the Security processes and negotiations around the world. Strategy. The ENP creates a framework for This takes different forms. We are acting as the developing stability and prosperity in the vicinity official facilitator of negotiations in Sri Lanka of Europe, establishing a ring of friends around and the Philippines. We have sponsored back the continent. Specific action plans for each of channels for secret negotiations - in the Middle our neighbouring countries are being drawn East for example - and we have been and still up to enable them to take part in European co- are an actor in several international coalitions - operation in certain areas. Sudan, Ethiopia-Eritrea, Somalia, Colombia and Guatemala. Plurality and flexibility in the European response There are several reasons why Norway has come to play such a role. Generally speaking, Although Norway is not a member of the EU, Norwegian efforts are part of a broader setting. we face the same security challenges as all Our role as a peace facilitator springs from our other European countries. Norway aligns itself long-standing support for UN mandates for with most of the decisions in the CFSP, and we peace and security, and builds on a tradition participate in the European discourse on foreign of humanitarian action and development co- and security policy. operation. We fully subscribe to the objectives of the Security Although we tend to support other leading Strategy and support the efforts to implement actors rather than taking the leading role it. We have contributed actively to several of ourselves, we do take a leading role in certain the EU-led crisis-management operations, and cases. This is always at the request of the parties will continue to work with the EU on meeting involved in the conflict and, in the cases where common challenges. we take up this challenge, we are always careful to underline that we are peace-helpers, not However, a common European approach to peace-makers. As a facilitator, we do what we foreign policy does not necessarily mean a can to support the parties, but in the end the uniform foreign policy. The new, emerging will to bring about peace has to come from the European approach to matters of peace could parties themselves. be described as one of communality. European states share many of the same ideas and ideals, Turning to some general features underpinning and co-operate - in a number of different our efforts, one of Norway’s strengths as a constellations - on peace and reconciliation in facilitator is the broad political consensus in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, each Norway on our policy for promoting peace and country has its own policies, shaped according reconciliation. For example, our engagement in to its history and its present circumstances. Thus Sri Lanka has been kept up by three different each country has differing levels of room for ministers of foreign affairs, from three different manoeuvre, and is able to fill a different set of political parties. This ensures consistency. We functions. Maintaining this plurality is essential are able to maintain our commitment regardless for preserving the flexibility of the European of changing governments and political currents. response, since individual countries are able The broad domestic political backing for our to deliver individual solutions that Europe as a policy in this field also means that resources are collective unit cannot. always available for peace and reconciliation efforts, and we are able to use these financial One example is the Norwegian contribution to and human resources in a flexible way. This the European response to conflict management means we can become engaged quickly.128 European View
  • 119. Jan PetersenAnother important feature of our efforts is the international response is often uncoordinated,importance we attach to co-operation with partial and fragmented.national and international NGOs. NorwegianNGOs have gained valuable experience through The EU, with a large number of instrumentstheir activities in different parts of the world at its disposal, is very well equipped to meetover several decades. And perhaps even more the complex security challenges of today.importantly, their altruistic approach has earned These instruments include diplomatic activity,them a reputation as highly professional teams development and humanitarian aid, trade policyof experts dedicated to helping others. The and, as a last resort, the use of force. The taskNGOs have valuable networks and hands- ahead is to co-ordinate the application of theseon knowledge of the various regions, and instruments in the best possible way.we have been able to draw on the skills and The possibility of combining civilian and militaryexpertise of their members. Furthermore, in capabilities is an important aspect of Europeanmany of the places where we have become crisis management. Civilian means, such as theinvolved in peace processes, we already have a police, rule of law programmes, civil protectionlong history of development co-operation and and civil administration, may be used alone; buthumanitarian assistance. In the case of Sri Lanka, recent experience has demonstrated the value ofour development co-operation dates back to deploying a combination of civilian and military1977, and in Sudan we have had a significant means. The EU is directing substantial effortshumanitarian presence through our NGOs towards further developing civilian-military co-since the early 1970s. The interaction betweendiplomatic and humanitarian assistance, and ordination.between government and non-state actors, More effective multilateral structuresallows us to find synergies that make us moreeffective. In addition to examining concrete ways of dealing with situations on the ground, it is alsoHowever, we cannot achieve success on our important to concentrate on strengthening theown; we work closely together with other ability of individual states to tackle situationsinternational actors. This enables us to draw of unrest and human suffering at a moreon resources we do not have ourselves, and general level. The capacity of the internationalensures the necessary support for the processes community to provide assistance when requiredwe are involved in. must also be increased. From our experience of conflict resolution, we have learned that aThe need for an integrated, multifaceted concerted effort by the international communityresponse is vital. No individual country is strong enough to bring about peace on its own.There is a wide range of measures for managingand resolving armed conflicts and complex Our fundamental task must be to strengthen theemergencies, and we must make sure we rule of law on international and national levels.choose those most appropriate for the situation To achieve this, we must strengthen the UN. Thein question. organisation needs a major overhaul if it is to operate in the way we want it to.Countries like Afghanistan, Iraq, Liberiaand Sudan are examples of the complex The UN’s capability and capacity for takingchallenges facing the international community. preventive action, for intervention and for peace-Peacekeeping, state building, election support, building must be increased. We need to reformdemobilisation, human rights monitoring, the way the UN operates, the way memberhumanitarian aid and long-term development countries and other international bodies co-co-operation are all needed. However, the operate with the UN, and the way international 129 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 120. Europe’s Role in Solving Conflicts and Building Peace initiatives and actions are planned, co-ordinated Conclusion and funded. As centre-right parties in Europe, we have a long We must build greater consensus around the tradition in solving conflicts and building peace need for collective action and early diplomatic through close international co-operation. The response, which can eliminate the need for European Union has a great role to play in our military intervention. Steps should be taken future quest for peace and stability. We believe in to strengthen the Secretary General’s role and European integration, and integration is itself a his capacity in preventive diplomacy. There is strong peace-creating force. By developing new potential for the Secretary General to play an structures for co-operation within the European even more important role in mediation efforts Union, Europe can play an even greater role in to end conflict. managing conflicts. Until Norway becomes a member of the European Union, we will remain It should, however, also be clear that in a close partner of the EU in this important area. situations where international peace is There are no tasks more important than solving threatened, including situations of mass atrocity, conflicts and creating peace. it is the responsibility of the Security Council to act effectively, without hesitation and with authority. Jan Petersen is Foreign Minister of Norway and Clearly, there is a need to establish an inter- Deputy Chairman of the International Democrat locking system of peacekeeping capacities; to Union (IDU). create a new partnership between the UN and regional organisations. We welcome, therefore, the proposals for a more consistent approach to peace building. The proposal to establish a new Peace-building Commission is an important step in the right direction and we are eager to see it implemented. The Commission will be an important new arena for discussions on conflict and peace-building and a new framework for the co-ordination of assistance. When Anand Panyarachun, the Chairman of the High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, delivered his report to Secretary General Annan, he wrote: “Ours is an age of unparalleled interconnection among threats to international peace and security, and mutual vulnerability between weak and strong.” The efforts to create a world based on binding international co-operation, respect for international law and freedom from want and strife are clearly in our own interest. This is a challenge that the European countries must take on, both at the individual and at the collective levels. It is our own future that is at stake.130 European View
  • 121. Mariano Rajoy EU and Latin America - A Special Relationship By Mariano Rajoy If I were asked to identify community of democratic values constitutes – one region of the world particularly at this time – the greatest strength of that has a particular the bi-regional relationship. affinity with Europe, the first that would spring to On a political plane, the most visible expression my mind would be Latin of this relationship consists of the meetingsAmerica. The very name “Latin America” – or of Heads of State and Government from theIberoamérica as we like to call it in Spain – is two regions and the Caribbean, which havea reflection of that essential, even constituent, been held regularly since 1999. The ultimatenexus between the two regions. Over and above aim of these Summits (Rio de Janeiro, Madrid,the mere name, though, few would deny that Guadalajara and the upcoming meeting inour continent and Latin America share common Vienna in May 2006) as established initially, is tovalues. form a bi-regional strategic association.The fact that we have the same cultural, social In May 2004 the highest representatives ofand political values - representative democracy, over fifty nations met in the capital of Jalisco,a market economy, respect for human rights in the first such meeting to be attended by theand an adherence to international law - and that leaders of the EU’s ten new Member States. Thethe history of the two regions has been closely Guadalajara declaration itself points out thatintertwined for over five centuries, forms a solid the EU-LAC (Latin America and the Carribean)foundation on which we can build a special association now encompasses over a quarter ofrelationship which will aid its integration into the world’s’s globalised world.Of course, Latin America and the European At the time of the Rio de Janeiro meeting, theUnion are two large complex sets of nations and EU and Latin America had already been forgingsocieties with their own strongly differentiated complex and intense links for several decadesfeatures: in the European case, a multiplicity at a number of levels. During the 1960s, leadingof languages and (often conflicting) national political groups in Europe entered into closehistories; in the case of Latin America, notable collaborative relations with their Latin Americandevelopmental differences at a regional and counterparts, further developing them overnational level, and the existence of large the next two decades and providing hope andindigenous populations. resistance against the military dictatorships ruling much of the continent at that time.Beyond this diversity, however, there is an Simultaneously, the EEC began to developessential homogeneity in terms of the principles its first instruments of cooperation with theand values on which coexistence is built in the region. In the 1980s, European involvementtwo regions, enabling the building of a close in the conflicts of Central America and in theand mutually beneficial relationship, that will restoration of democracy in South Americaalso have a positive impact on the stability and – motivated by both political and strategicprogress of international society as a whole. It issues – helped provide major visibility on theis not empty rhetoric, then, to say that that this international stage, possibly for the first time. 131 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 122. EU and Latin America - A Special Relationship This relationship received fresh impetus when social foundations), whose contributions are Spain and Portugal joined the European particularly evident in the preparatory stages of Community in 1986. In the 1990s the EU and the Summit. Nor should we forget the role played the various sub-regions and countries of Latin by the human fluxes of immigrants, tourists, America signed a series of third and fourth students and families who – as a consequence generation agreements. European Member of historical migratory trends – live half way States became the largest investors in the region between the two worlds. and the Rome Declaration institutionalised the dialogue between the EU and the Rio Group, Together with the high-level meetings held thus furthering the increasing maturity of during the Summit and the relations between contacts between the two. European and Latin American countries within the general and specialist institutions of The Summit meetings marked a major international society, there is also major dialogue advancement of the relationship, becoming the between the EU and the Rio Group and the San corollary to that process of rapprochement, and José Dialogue. “Specialist dialogues” are held marking a recognition by both parties of the between the EU and Mercosur, the Andean importance of existing links and, above all, a Community and Central America, intended to reaffirmation at the highest level of the potential work towards Association Agreements along the of the relationship. By the turn of the century, lines of those already entered into with Mexico the EU and its Member States were already the and Chile (largely the result of a determined drive largest investors Latin America, the region’s by the Partido Popular government in Spain). second largest trading partner and the leading These accords, which encompass both political provider of development cooperation (around dialogue and economic cooperation, reflect the €2 billion a year). more advanced phase of the relationship. A complex and intense relationship at In addition, every year since 1991, the Iberian many levels countries of Europe – Spain and Portugal – and the Latin American countries have met The Summits have not been built out of thin at the Iberian-American Summit, where Heads air; rather, they form the cornerstone of an of State and Government address major issues extremely complex relationship involving many and programmes of specific interest to that different players and a variety of frameworks for community. relationships between the EU and Latin American sub-regions and countries, and encompassing EU and Latin America - perceptions, practically all the issues that currently form part asymmetries and risks of the international agenda. This is not a static relationship, nor is it impervious to events either Not surprisingly, the themes that dominate the within these two great communities of nations EU-Latin America agenda vary depending on or elsewhere in the world. All of these variables internal changes in the two groups and events affect the EU’s policies towards Latin America. on the international stage. Whereas in the 1970s and 1980s they were predominantly political Naturally a leading role is played in these and in the 1990s the emphasis was economic, relations by European states (some of whom they are currently grouped around two main have strong historical ties in the region), Latin pillars, as set out in the Guadalajara Declaration: American states and EU institutions, particularly multilateralism and social cohesion. This is a the European Commission and the European direct consequence of the two leading concerns Parliament. But they also involve all agents currently preoccupying the international of civil society (NGOs, companies, trade community: coordinating the fight against the unions, universities, churches, political and threat to democracy (so brutally manifested on132 European View
  • 123. Mariano Rajoythe American continent in September 2001 and Furthermore, in this globalised world, we mightlater in Europe—in Madrid in March 2004 and well have to pay a high price for relegating theLondon in July 2005) and the struggle against relationship with Latin America to second orpoverty, considered not only as an affront to third place amongst European priorities – andhuman dignity but a barrier to the consolidation much sooner than many might think. Theof democracy and peace. current upturn has already turned a number of Latin American countries into world players byThe priorities also vary depending on the virtue of their political, economic, demographicdynamics of each regional group’s interests vis- and cultural importance. For them, Europe is aà-vis the other. Here mutual perceptions are convenient partner, but not a priority one.particularly important, as well as what analyststerm the asymmetries of the relationship. There is another latent risk in our relations withPerhaps one of the most widely held Latin America, which I believe to be visible inperceptions is that Latin America has a greater certain sectors of Europe, and also in someneed of the European Union than vice versa, areas of Latin America: I refer to the danger ofsince the EU as a whole has greater economic yielding to the temptation of anti-Americanismand technological strength, greater degrees of both in the way we view the nature of the bi-democratic governability and social cohesion, regional relationship itself and in the way wea higher level of integration and supranational devise the joint frameworks that will enable usinstitutionalisation and is more fully integrated to take on the global challenges we face.into the process of globalisation. Adding tothese asymmetries, it is often said that there is a I believe that for Latin America and Europecertain disinterest on the part of the Europeans alike, closer mutual relations are positive in(or at least an absence of sustained interest) themselves and also because they contribute totowards Latin America, caused by the specific diversifying contacts with other global players.political and economic features of the European But that strengthening, whose ultimate aimconstruction, eastward expansion, the absence must be to consolidate democracy and inclusiveof serious threats to Europe’s strategic and economic development as basic shared values,economic security coming from Latin America must not be built in opposition to any third(with the possible exceptions of the drug trade party, least of all a country like the United Statesand the revolutionary ambitions of the Havana/ which proclaims those same values.Caracas axis) and the un-containable spread ofAsian economies onto international markets. It would be grossly irresponsible to try to use the bi-regional relationship to drive a wedgeTo mistake these asymmetries – which may into transatlantic – or inter-American – objectively true – for an immutable reality Such loyalty does not, of course, preclude eitherwould, however, be to run the risk of indulging an autonomy of policy or discrepancies as toin both paternalism and simplification. In all approach, nor indeed does it prevent clashesthe areas of comparison we have mentioned, of interests on important issues. However, ILatin America has made undeniable progress in believe it would be highly damaging wererecent years and it would be a very short-sighted the atmosphere of the relationship to becomeanalyst who could think that such imbalances impregnated by a tang of anti-Americanismwill last forever. We are all too familiar with this (and it would also be helpful if the distrustsituation in Spain: just a few decades ago, our and prejudice felt in some circles of Washingtontransatlantic cousins far outstripped us in terms against the EU were to be dissipated).of political and economic development: indeed,hundreds of thousands of Spaniards seeking The international action of both the EU and Latinopportunities they could not find here, sought America is indisputably characterised by theirrefuge in Latin America. attachment to multilateralism, albeit this concept 133 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 124. EU and Latin America - A Special Relationship may sometimes be viewed differently in the two Although Latin America (according to the World regions. But for multilateralism to be genuinely Bank) has more income inequality than any other effective and to act as a positive contribution to region in the world, the poverty of the many – world governance it must be realistic. It must just as dramatic as that of the poor in Africa – is take into account the existing make-up of the often obscured in national statistics by the wealth international community and be capable of of the few. The result is an insidious “statistical clearly recognising who the allies of democracy spin” by which the EU should not be fooled. An and freedom are. It must defend democratic increase in European funding for development principles and respect for human rights as cooperation in Latin America, together with fundamental absolutes, especially in view of the more effective planning and management of the fact that they are expressly mentioned as being instruments of such cooperation, is therefore amongst the inspiring factors behind the EU’s of pressing importance. Well thought-out external actions. programmes, such as Eurosocial (approved at the Guadalajara Summit), which seeks to A desire to work together and in the same strengthen the capacities of Latin American direction is in everyone’s interest: it is in the states in the areas of administration of justice, interest of the EU, Latin America and the US itself, tax, health and education, with an allocation of because these three regions are essential pillars €30 million, clearly run the risk of falling short of what is known as the West. If this were not of the mark. The same might be said of some the case, the consequences for the promotion of existing programmes which urgently need to be democracy and development would be grave, revised. fostering the emergence of a terrain ripe for the most outrageous initiatives with regard to world At the same time, the winds of populism now governance. blowing through certain areas of Latin America, which are jeopardising the progress towards If we accept that social cohesion and regional democracy made in recent years, require that integration are now the main challenges for the EU provides intense political cooperation Latin America, the EU’s policies vis-à-vis the aimed at strengthening the institutions region must be tailored in such a way as to and consolidating democratic governance contribute as much as possible to achieving this (with particular stress on again promoting goal. Europe is especially well placed in this collaboration with democratic political parties field, given its experience and its achievements in the region, without whose backing it will be in these two areas - both internally and in impossible to create the structure for politically the field of development cooperation, where mature societies). The EU must continue to it has been operating over recent decades - provide efficient and sufficient support to and its cooperation schemes can therefore be furthering the moves towards integration, reform particularly helpful for Latin America. and democracy that begun in the region in the 1980s and 1990s. Doing so will help counter In the area of social cohesion and its central the opportunism and demagogy of certain plank, the war on poverty, there is, however, leaders who have capitalised on the fragility a clear risk that European priorities may be of some of the region’s democracies (reflected diverted towards other regions of the world. It in the UNDP’s 2004 report on “Democracy in is certainly commendable that the international Latin America”) in an attempt to profit from the community has chosen to place the fight against suffering of the neediest sectors of society. poverty in Africa at the forefront of its agenda but we should not ignore the fact that Latin If the EU wants to prevent history from taking America has over 220 million poor, of whom 100 too high a toll for its prestige in the world, it must million are destitute. These poor, however, often follow the process closely, adopting suitable become invisible in international statistics. policies, in order to ensure that democracy wins134 European View
  • 125. Mariano Rajoyout against President Chávez of Venezuela’s Ultimately, the success of that twin commitment“revolutionary” project, his close ties with Cuban to integration and trade will not only benefitdictator Fidel Castro and the two men’s desire to exchange and economic growth, but at a politicaldestabilise the American continent. level it will enable Latin America to stabilise its democracies, balance the process of inter-actionTrading relations and particularly free access with Europe and become a more influentialby Latin American agricultural produce to the player on the global stage. The progress mademarkets (so sensitive an issue for the EU and in Vienna in these areas of the relationship willLatin America), has long been a sticking point undoubtedly be one of the aspects that willin the bi-regional relationship: Latin Americans attract most public attention in both regions.view Europe’s common agricultural policy asdiscriminatory, hindering their development The case of Cubaand holding-up further the extension of therelationship, as well as detracting from the Of over fifty countries attending the Guadalajaracredibility of the EU’s overall policy towards the meeting in May 2004, just one – Cuba – failed toregion. Some in the EU, on the other hand, see meet the minimum requirements on democracyLatin America’s agricultural sector as oligarchic and human rights that form the common bondand export-driven, contributing little to the amongst all the other participants. This Cubanredistribution of wealth and social development exception is mirrored in the institutional terrain,in many countries in the region. in that Cuba is the only country in the AmericasThe tension in the trading sphere between the which has no agreement framing its bilateralmultilateral and regional approaches should relationship with the EU. However regrettablebe overcome through a model that is “WTO- this absence of any legal framework, it is onlyRegionalism” compatible. This will allow the logical in the light of the fact that the EU, andcurrent talks on the Association Agreement by extension its foreign policy, is founded onbetween the EU and Mercosur to be brought democracy and a respect for human a swift completion and negotiations to bebegun on similar accords with the Andean In the political arena, the EU defined its CommonCommunity and Central America as well as Position in 1996, favouring a process of transitioneffective application in of the new GPS “plus” to to a pluralist democracy. The Common Position,the benefit of the two regions. Paralleling these which was adopted unanimously (and it isefforts, the EU must continue to provide even worth stressing that it is still in force, despite themore backing than previously to sub-regional surreptitious moves made by some Europeanintegration processes, stimulating the effective governments to ignore or even abolish it), statesinvolvement of Latin American leaders in these that full cooperation with Cuba is dependent onarrangements. improvements in the regime’s record regarding the rights and liberties of the Cuban people. ItTo a great extent, it is up to the European seems sorely unlikely that any such change willgovernments with the greatest commitments be forthcoming, as was made all too clear byin Latin America – particularly the Spanish the expulsions of MEPs and European citizensgovernment – to overcome the accumulated attempting to attend the opposition conferencelog-jam, breaking the present impasse in in May 2005 and by the latest wave of repressionnegotiations with Mercosur so that a conclusion in July. Fortunately the European Parliament,can be reached before the end of 2005 (or at the turning a deaf ear to certain siren songs thatvery least, before the next round of ministerial would try to persuade it otherwise, warned intalks in Doha). They must also decisively push a resolution of autumn 2004 of the dangers offor talks to begin with the Andean Community making any advance concessions to the Castroand Central America. regime. 135 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 126. EU and Latin America - A Special Relationship More recently, its latest human rights report To use the classical simile of the bottle, in the deplores the political situation on the island and lead-up to Vienna the bi-regional relationship firmly rejects the ungrounded and unhelpful might be considered half-empty or half-full. turnabout in European policy towards Cuba However, I would add two factors to this picture: proposed by Spain’s socialist government. At this the bottle is very large (because the relationship point, the policy of dialogue has clearly failed. has immense potential); and the glass from Its only accomplishment has been an increase which it is made is exceedingly resistant because in the number of democratic activists in prison the democratic convictions and cultural affinities to above 2003 figures, and the withdrawal of that make up the recipient of the relationship the invitations issued to those activists to attend are very solid indeed. functions at EU embassies on the island, thus depriving them of an effective instrument of Nonetheless, if Vienna is to be an unqualified visibility and contact. This lack of solidarity success, it is essential, as certain clear-sighted towards the democratic opposition in Cuba is representatives of the European Parliament all the more surprising given that the people of have repeatedly argued, that the EU should go the new European Member States faced similar to the meeting with an ambitious agenda, based situations of oppression and the danger of on a firm political determination and a long- isolation until recently. term vision. Only such an attitude can enable the European Union to retain its prestige and Ambition and rigour credibility as the world class international player it aspires to be. The next Summit is due to take place in Vienna in May 2006. It will be the fourth such meeting It is important that the Latin American attitude at of the Heads of State and Government of the Vienna is sufficiently rigorous when it comes to two regions in a little over five years. Few could setting out its positions on such important issues have imagined at the time of the Rio Summit as the consolidation of the rule of law and their that so many meetings would be held in such a legal frameworks, their work towards regional short space of time. Moreover, the regularity is integration and their fight for greater social not inbuilt: participants at each Summit decide cohesion. I am convinced that if the parties when the next is to be held. I think this proves approach Vienna with enough ambition and that the Summits are no routine exercise: rather rigour then decisive steps will be taken towards it is the complexity and importance of the consolidating a bi-regional association that will agenda that requires a suitable approach from serve as a role model for the rest of the world. the countries involved. The world has changed greatly since 1999 and so too has the situation in Europe and Latin Mariano Rajoy is President of Partido Popular America. The very geographical setting of the of Spain. next Summit, traditionally one of the gateways to Eastern Europe, is a reflection of those changes and should serve as a positive signal in stimulating Latin America’s relations with the new enlarged EU. This proximity to the half of Europe that suffered under totalitarianism will also be a suitable occasion for the EU to underwrite its active commitment to democracy, freedom and human rights, rejecting outright the authoritarian tendencies of certain Latin American countries today.136 European View
  • 127. Dimitrij Rupel Security and Cooperation in Europe - A View of the Future By Dimitrij Rupel Following the break- the transatlantic partnership, whose military- down of real-socialist political component, represented by NATO, systems in Central is undoubtedly the most successful alliance and Eastern Europe in modern history. I believe that most of us and the dissolution thoroughly agree with the words of the former of three multinational NATO Secretary General, Lord Robertson: “Itfederations (the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia has become fashionable to portray internationaland Yugoslavia), which were regrettably relations in terms of consumer choice. Europeoften accompanied by armed conflicts and or America. NATO or the EU. Multilateralismethnic cleansing, Europeans were once again or unilateralism. Tonight, I intend to be deeplyconfronted with fundamental questions. How to unfashionable. I intend to argue that this conceptorganise Europe in order to maintain peace and of choice is simplistic and damaging. We can nosecurity and guarantee overall development, more choose between Europe and America thannot only in Western Europe, but in Central and we can choose between food and drink. WeEastern Europe in particular, which for obvious need both. As Europe needs the United States,reasons is lagging behind economically, socially so the United States needs Europe.”1and politically. We certainly cannot deny that occasionally,In my opinion, the key elements for responding clashes of opinion and disagreements doto these questions lie in the enlargement of the occur in relations between the US and theEuropean Union and NATO. The EU admitted EU, or at least between some EU membersten new members last year, eight of which are regarding certain issues and dilemmas facingfrom Central and Eastern Europe. Furthermore, the global community. We need only to recallNATO enlargement also took place in 2004. I the disagreements regarding the interventionfirmly believe that both enlargements guarantee against Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq in thepeace, stability and prosperity for the countries spring of 2003. I believe we ought to keep aof Eastern Europe who for centuries were victims clear head about these tensions arising on bothof overpowering, aggressive, and totalitarian sides of the Atlantic, and above all, we shouldneighbours, who deprived them of human not overemphasise them. We must keep inrights and democratic development. In view of mind that even the best and most sincere friendsthis, it is not surprising that the populations of sometimes disagree, and occasionally they areCentral and Eastern Europe are generally more even involved in serious disputes. We shouldsensitive and attentive to the security situation be particularly aware that the transatlanticof our countries than the populations of Western partnership is not merely a common, more or lessEurope. This geopolitical uncertainty naturally provisional, military-political alliance, a classicaloriginates from our troubled history. system of collective defence. It grew, long ago, into a real, pluralistic security community asIt is understandable therefore that the countries defined by American political scientist Karl W.of Central and Eastern Europe have a vital interest Deutsch. In its essence, this is a unified Westernin maintaining and successfully transforming civilization determined by the values of ancient1 137 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 128. Security and Cooperation in Europe - A View of the Future philosophy, Judeo-Christian ethics, Roman law political weight behind the agricultural policy, and other ideological principles drawn from but I don’t see how ratios like 49:4 (agriculture various sources (enlightenment, liberalism, and rural aid to research) and 6:4 (administration democratic socialist thought, Christian socialism, to research) support our collective commitment etc.). I firmly believe that the EU and the USA to our future generations. It is highly unlikely can successfully deal with the various problems that Europe will again face the kind of war of the contemporary international community, where food subsistence will prove to be a but only if they act together. strategic asset. Our citizens and our companies are facing new daily challenges from the I believe in a comprehensive, enhanced and Chinese, the Indians, and the Americans to tolerant dialogue on the future of the European become innovative, more flexible, and more Union. It would be wrong if the political elites cost effective, while maintaining quality. of the Member States tried to ignore the fact that French and Dutch voters recently rejected Economic decline is a recipe for global weakness the European Constitutional Treaty. I also regret and incapacity to shape the global agenda. The that no agreement could be reached on the new best social security is an economy that creates financial perspectives of the Union. It is obvious jobs and not one that nurtures its unemployed. that the disparity between the ambitions and We have insisted on keeping an element of social plans of the European political and economic security in our approach to being competitive. elites on the one hand, and the wishes and This, I believe, is the appropriate approach. But expectations of citizens on the other, has social welfare cannot be an excuse for economic become too great. Yet it is encouraging that stagnation. Our model must do both: to provide the EU is increasingly serving as a model for for and protect those that fall through the cracks, numerous regions of the world (African Union, and to encourage those who have the drive to ASEAN, Mercosur, etc.). excel. This is not ‘mission impossible’. Many amongst us - especially the Nordic countries European values are a precondition for peaceful - have come very close to achieving and co-existence and cooperation between nations, maintaining this very delicate socio-economic for comprehensive progress and well-being. balance. The American expert in international relations, Jeremy Rifkin, even states that the “European South-East Europe Dream” has already replaced the “American Dream” and that a uniting Europe has become When we consider its geopolitical situation, the “new shining city upon a hill.” 2 It seems that history and numerous economic, scientific what we have achieved is often more appreciated and cultural ties, it is understandable that by non-Europeans than by ourselves. Slovenia is particularly interested in the rapid “Europeanisation” of South-East Europe and Despite these encouraging views, we must not particularly, the countries of the Western Balkans. disregard the unpleasant reality - the increasingly The accession process of the Western Balkan obvious economic and techno-scientific lag countries is progressing slowly, encountering of our continent, compared with the US and many problems along the way. However, it is particularly, the dynamic Asian giants China and clear that peace and security on the continent India. It must be clearly and firmly stated: EU can only be maintained in the long-term if the budget priorities need to prepare us better for region is fully integrated into European and increasing global competition. I understand the Euro-Atlantic structures. 2 Jeremy Rifkin, The European Dream (London 2004)138 European View
  • 129. Dimitrij RupelIntegration of South Eastern European countries As regards to Kosovo, Slovenia believes thatin European and Euro-Atlantic structures will the definition of a future international legalalso confirm their belonging within Europe and status would make it impossible to restoreWestern civilisation. A Special working group, the pre-1999 status. Division of the provinceset up by the EU Council in March this year, will according to the principle of ethnicity is alsopublish its assessment in the middle of October out of the question. Furthermore, it would beas to whether Croatia has really done everything equally unacceptable to integrate Kosovo intoto cooperate with the ICTY. Slovenia will Albania or to unite areas with majority Albaniancontinue to strive for an early commencement of populations in South Eastern Europe. The statusnegotiations with Croatia, as the harmonisation issue remains within the competence of theof the Croatian legal order and social life in UN, yet the European perspective for Kosovo isgeneral with Europe, is certainly in Slovenia’s crucial for its resolution. Slovenia, as an EU andinterest. Croatia’s accession to the EU can serve NATO member, shares the basic objective ofas a positive model for democratic change in the the international community: the establishmentrest of the Western Balkans. of a multiethnic and democratic Kosovo. We are aware, however, that this objective will beSoon, the European Commission is to prepare extremely difficult to attain unless the Serbits opinion on Macedonia’s readiness for EU minority participates in Kosovo structures andmembership. At that time, a possible date for in the political and social life of Kosovo.the beginning of accession negotiations shouldalso be recommended. Before it can commence The Mediterranean and Eurasianegotiations on the Stabilisation and AssociationAgreement, Bosnia and Herzegovina must European interest and the hand of friendshipfulfil quite a few (16) recommendations from must stretch beyond South-Eastern Europethe feasibility study. The main areas in which and Turkey – it must also reach people andprogress must be made include: cooperation countries on the south and east coasts ofwith the ICTY, police reform and the adoption the Mediterranean. I strongly believe the EUof public television legislation. We hope that Mediterranean policy (Barcelona Process) isour friends in Bosnia and Herzegovina can fulfil faced with a multi-layered and complex reality,these conditions as soon as possible. I must particularly in the Arab-Muslim world, which weadd that it is upsetting that the international may no longer perceive as a threat but rather ascommunity, led by the EU, often devotes more a good opportunity for cooperation and mutualattention to an extensive administrative apparatus enrichment. It is undeniable that ideologists ofin Bosnia and Herzegovina and various daily hatred and intolerance are constantly trying topolitical disputes than encouraging reforms stir-up violence between members of differentand pro-European efforts. Negotiations on the religions and civilisations, as was the case in theStabilisation and Association Agreement with recent atrocities in London. However, we mustSerbia and Montenegro could start by the end also be aware that a great majority of Muslimsof this year. In addition, more should be done do not want to fight Europe and the Westernconcerning cooperation with the ICTY. It also world, but rather, desire fruitful cooperationhas to strengthen the rule of law, intensify its based on mutual understanding and respect.fight against corruption and organised crime. TheKosovo issue must be addressed appropriately, In addition to its southern neighbourhood, theas this still has negative repercussions on enlarged EU must also devote much energy andrelations between Serbs and Albanians and thus attention to the Euro-Asian territories to the eastalso on the security situation throughout South of its borders. A long-standing European axiomEastern Europe. of international relations is that European peace and security cannot be established and preserved 139 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 130. Security and Cooperation in Europe - A View of the Future without the active engagement of the Russian international organisations whose operation Federation and Ukraine. We therefore consider is based entirely on the willingness of its it vital that the EU enhances cooperation and participating states to engage in a permanent, partnership with these two large countries in institutionalised and open dialogue on any issues all spheres. We welcome the fact that Russian falling within the OSCE’s sphere of activity. This President Vladimir Putin has often explicitly openness with regard to the OSCE’s agenda underlined that moving closer to Europe and was a revolutionary way to organise security promoting real integration, were two of the from the outset. It was at a time when political- main foreign policy elements of the Russian military alliances were the dominant actors, and Federation. The results of the Summit meeting when it was far from clear that “security is not between the EU and the Russian Federation in gained by erecting fences, but by opening gates,” Moscow last May are also encouraging. Plans as the Finnish President Urho Kekkonen put it were adopted establishing the four ‘common in visionary terms at the inaugural meeting of spaces’ covering Economy Freedom, Security the 1975 Helsinki Summit. and Justice, Cooperation in the Field of External Security, and Research, Science and Culture. Over the three decades of its existence, the OSCE has created and maintained a culture of dialogue Slovenia certainly shares the EU’s responsibility that has been the foundation of its success as for spreading security, freedom and democracy a key player in contributing to security and in its neighbourhood. The objectives of the cooperation in Europe. No organisation other European Council Common Strategy of 1999 than the OSCE has managed to unite Americans, also include the development of democracy, the Europeans and the post-Soviet nations in rule of law, good governance and human rights Europe and Asia. A comprehensive approach in Ukraine. In my estimation, political changes and cooperative security have proven to be the following the presidential election in Ukraine most efficient response to security challenges in provide an excellent opportunity for promoting the OSCE and also in the EU and NATO; they political and economic transition in this country must therefore remain the constant in the OSCE of 48 million inhabitants. The EU strives for operation. In the long run, the increasing respect Ukraine’s economic progress, social stability for human rights and human security in relation and the establishment of the rule of law as well to the security of the state strengthens peace as for cooperation in environmental protection, and stability in the entire Euro-Asian area. particularly in strengthening nuclear security. With EU enlargement in May 2004, Ukraine It is understandable that the nature of the threats acquired a common border with the EU, which and tasks faced by the OSCE has profoundly also requires strengthened cooperation in the changed, following the end of the bipolar field of justice and home affairs and in the structure of the international community. The prevention of illegal migration and trade. The unbalanced socio-economic and political new border of the enlarged Union must not development in the OSCE area as well as the become an insurmountable dividing line, but an new security threats deriving from uncontrolled area of closer cooperation. processes of globalisation, technological change, fast demographic growth in certain regions, The OSCE community of nations illegal migration, various forms of international organised crime, proliferation of weapons of Slovenia is particularly aware of the dynamic mass destruction and terrorism, require new political, security and economic processes approaches and working methods. in Eurasian regions this year, as it chairs the Organization for Security and Co-operation in To conclude, I would like to emphasise my Europe (OSCE). The OSCE is one of the few conviction that we should aim for further140 European View
  • 131. Dimitrij Rupelintegration of the community that today isrepresented by the OSCE. What we need mostis a Partnership for Prosperity, based on thesupposition that the world from Vancouver toVladivostok has so much in common that it shouldwork together more effectively. Whether thiswill mean eventual extension of the EU towardsUkraine and Russia, or gradual upgrading of theOSCE, is less important. The important issuehere is how to protect and develop stability andeconomic progress in places like the Caucasus,South-East Europe and Central Asia. Withoutan enhanced OSCE/Euro-Atlantic partnership,without a guarantee of ever closer cooperation,places such as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosniaand Herzegovina, Georgia, Kosovo, Macedonia,Moldova, Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey orUkraine might become targets of dangerous anddestabilising influences. The EU, NATO and theRussian Federation would be confronted withnew, unnecessary sources of instability. We mustall work together tirelessly in order to preventthis dreadful scenario.Dimitrij Rupel is Foreign Minister of Sloveniaand Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE. 141 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 132. Mikheil Saakashvili Democratic Choice By Mikheil Saakashvili Georgia is a country challenges to entrenched ruling groups in of democratic choice. Slovakia, Indonesia, Croatia, Yugoslavia, Nigeria Before the citizens of and Mexico, as well as those in Georgia, Ukraine Georgia could elect and Kyrgyzstan, Gershman said, me as their President, they first had to choose ...these breakthroughs, especially the so-democracy. And they did. In November 2003, called “coloured revolutions” in Georgia,hundreds of thousands of Georgian citizens took Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, have sent shock-a courageous stand for freedom and democracy waves through the remaining semi-closedagainst massive election fraud by which a autocracies in the post-communist regionhopelessly corrupt and incompetent post-Soviet as well as in other regions. The leaders ofregime was attempting to perpetuate itself. And, these regimes, alarmed at what they see asagainst almost everybody’s expectations, the a new threat to their power, have steppedGeorgian citizens won! Without a shot being up measures to prevent a repetition of anyfired we succeeded in bringing about a dignified such events in their own countries. This isand lawful resignation of a government whose the political context we face at the presentfailure to uphold law finally became evident to time. It consists of a concerted backlashall. against internal democracy movements as well as against international democracyIt is almost two years since our Revolution assistance...1of Roses, and during this time we have beenworking hard – with extremely useful assistance In the face of this “concerted backlash” againstfrom the EU – to strengthen the institutions of democracy movements, we recognise thatdemocracy in Georgia through court reform, preserving our own democracy requires Georgiaby adopting suitable laws on local governance, to create a public conversation for democracyby downsizing our government, overhauling within and among the countries of our region.our tax code, and rebuilding the economy and That is why the core of Georgia’s foreign policyinfrastructure. Throughout this process we have is, and has to be, the promotion of democracypursued a vigorous anti-corruption campaign and freedom, not just for Georgia, but for the– and the efforts of this campaign are bearing region at-large.fruit. Recently, Ukraine joined Georgia in an umbrellaWhile we are proud of the progress we have of nations united by their commitment tomade, one thing is clear: we can only build a Democratic Choice, and today we are activelyvibrant Euro-Atlantic style democracy in Georgia looking for ways to provide a formal structureif Georgia’s neighbours are also committed to to this public conversation in support ofbuilding democracy. The basic problem was well- democracy. On 12 August 2005, while Viktorexpressed recently by Carl Gershman, President Yushchenko and I held a meeting in theof the National Endowment for Democracy. Georgian resort of Borjomi, we published theSpeaking about the successful democratic “Borjomi Declaration” in which we proposed to1 From Remarks by Carl Gershman, President of the National Endowment for Democracy, delivered at The World Meeting of Democracy Promoting Foundations, Stockholm, Sweden August 29, 2005. See html. 143 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 133. Democratic Choice convene a “Community of Democratic Choice” violations of human rights, from any spirit in the area linking the Baltic-Black-Caspian Sea of confrontation, from frozen conflicts region: and thus to open a new era of democracy, security, stability and lasting peace for the Borjomi Declaration whole of Europe, from the Atlantic to the Caspian Sea. We, the Presidents of Ukraine and Georgia, express our strong belief that the strengthening We have thus decided to invite all the Leaders of democracy and civil society is one of of the Baltic-Black-Caspian Sea region, who the main tasks of and prerequisites for the share our vision of a new Europe, our faith economic development of our countries and in the future and potential of this area our region, which, set in Europe, unites and our democratic goals, to join us and the three seas - Baltic, Black and Caspian, the Community of Democratic Choice. We and is gifted with an enormous potential. invite those devoted to ideas of democracy Democracy and stability in this region is to our Summit in Ukraine and to unite our also the condition for a lasting stability and efforts to turn the Baltic-Black-Caspian Sea security for whole Europe. region into a sea of democracy, stability and security, to make it a fully integrated We express our firm conviction that our region of Europe and of the Democratic and region, if based and developed on the right Atlantic community. principles of democracy, freedom and prosperity, represents today in Europe one Stating our intention to hold the Summit in of the major areas of opportunities, with a autumn 2005, we are hereby calling on all unique potential of human resources, transit the Leaders of the region, who share our goals, lines, energy resources and communications to join us in this celebration of Democratic between Europe, Central Asia and the Far Choice. We also invite the European Union East. and Russia to attend this Summit as observers in order to examine the ways in which this We pledge to conduct policies in our democratic region, as a close neighbour, respective countries, Ukraine and Georgia, can benefit the security and stability on the based on those principles, as members of the entire continent. We invite the United States European family, sharing European values as an observer and as a representative of the and history. Community of Democracies. As members of the Community of In Ukraine, we offer to put a final end to the Democracies sharing the universal goals of history of division in Europe, of restricted the global forum that unites democracies freedoms and domination by force and worldwide, we adhere to the principles by fear, and mark a new beginning of of this Community and in line with the neighbourly relations based on mutual implementation of the Seoul Plan of Action, respect, confidence, transparency and that envisages regional cooperation for the equality. promotion and protection of democracy. In this regard, we are considering the creation During the September 2005 meeting of the UN of a community of democracies in our part General Assembly in New York, representatives of Europe: the Community for Democratic of Georgia and Ukraine met with representatives Choice. Our objective is to make this new of other relevant countries and announced that community a strong tool to free our region the first summit meeting of the Community from all remaining dividing lines, from of Democratic Choice will be held on 1 and144 European View
  • 134. Mikheil Saakashvili2 December 2005 in Kiev, with participation in 2003 and continued by Ukraine’s Orangeexpected from Poland, the Baltic countries and Revolution in 2005. At the same time, ourthe Black Sea countries, as well as Georgia and references in the text of the Borjomi DeclarationUkraine and other observers. to the “Seoul Plan of Action” and to the “Community of Democracies” are intended toIt is important to note that the Community signify that this initiative is aligned with -- and isof Democratic Choice is not designed to be an expression of - the international movement forantagonistic toward Russia or any other former democracy promotion that has been gatheringSoviet country. On the contrary, the Community strength since it was initiated more than fiveof Democratic Choice is intended to promote years ago with the Warsaw Declaration.dialogue in what we mutually stand for. Ourcall for the constitution of this community is, in Perhaps the most ambitious of the resultspart, motivated by our perception that if we do mentioned in the Borjomi Declaration is thatnot engage in dialogue we will by default find of using the new Community of Democraticourselves engaged in what individually stand Choice as a tool to free our region from “frozenagainst - this will leave us divided and weak. conflicts.” By “frozen conflicts” we refer to a group of secessionist disputes – particularlyConcretely, the result we hope to achieve those in Abkhazia and South Ossetia in Georgiathrough this initiative is an open and forward- and Transnistria in Moldova. All of these conflictslooking forum for the new democracies of our have in common the fact of political and militaryregion to share our experiences, learn from one intervention by external powers. And it appearsanother and better coordinate our efforts to to us that these conflicts remain frozen becausepromote democratic reform. We are looking to neither the external powers nor their localcreate stronger ties between democracies from partners see an interest in resolving them.the Baltic, Black Sea and Caspian regions. Of course the term “frozen conflict” does nothingThis process is already underway. For the last to convey the tragedy of these conflicts for theyear, Georgia and Ukraine have been actively people who live in these regions or the harmsharing with one another the most valuable and instability caused by the conditions whichasset we gained following our revolutions: the are allowed to persist in the conflict zones. Inexperience of democratic transition and nation March of this year, when I met with Presidentbuilding. We have exchanged ideas on reforming Voronin of Moldova in Chisinau, we issued aour police forces, bureaucracies, schools and declaration against what we called the “Blackhow to conduct a meaningful anti-corruption Holes” in Europe:campaign. In doing so, we discovered that tobecome real democracies, we must build and Zones of conflict and separatist territoriesbecome strong nations - a process that, in turn, have become “black holes” in our countriesrequires us to support and uphold democratic and are openly supported from the outside.processes. Specifically, this means conducting These territories function as criminal havensfair elections, encouraging an open and free where massive contraband enriches a fewpress, and engaging with a vibrant civil society. corrupt leaders, while the populations liveThe process of nation building will never be in poverty; where basic human rights arecomplete as long as citizens feel they are not disregarded; where hundreds of thousandsmasters of their own countries and lack a sense remain outside their native homes andof personal responsibility. In one sense, the where arms smuggling, human and druginitiative announced in the Borjomi Declaration trafficking, and kidnapping are consideredis a product of the new wave of liberation that “business as usual”....was set in motion by Georgia’s Rose Revolution 145 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 135. Democratic Choice If these conflicts remain frozen because neither inhabitants of these regions a very high degree external powers nor their local partners in these of local autonomy – much greater in fact than “black holes” see an interest in resolving them, either would have if they were to become part what about the rest of us -- the countries of the of the Russian Federation. European Neighbourhood, the countries of the European Union, the countries of the soon to We believe that the resolution of these conflicts meet Community of Democratic Choice? Do is not merely in our interest, nor merely in we not all share an interest in resolving these the interest of our neighbours and our friends conflicts? in Europe. We truly believe that resolution of these conflicts is in the larger interest of all our I am convinced that the answer to that question neighbours, including Russia. Most of all, we is a resounding yes. Aggressive separatism on believe that resolution is in the interest of the the territories of Georgia and Moldova has citizens of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, whose created fertile ground for the imperial ambitions well-being concerns us very much as they are of those who do not want our countries to be our fellow citizens of Georgia. free and prosperous. This separatism is not simply a local problem. It is a problem that How, then, can the Community of Democratic creates instability on Europe’s eastern flank. It Choice serve as a tool to free our region from slows economic development in the region and these frozen conflicts? It must do so in the same seriously hampers efforts at enhancing Euro- way, and for the same reasons independence Atlantic integration. The frozen conflicts are an was embraced by former Soviet countries. I unresolved legacy of the Soviet Empire, and it is believe that our best hope of resolving the very much in the interest of the European Union frozen conflicts is to have the Community of to work actively with us to put this sad legacy in Democratic Choice generate strong, public the past, where it belongs. dialogue for democracy and peace that engages as much as possible with the people of the The government of Georgia has committed itself conflict regions and with whatever leaders will to the peaceful resolution of conflicts in our listen – a dialogue dedicated to exploring all Abkhazian and South Ossetian regions. We are peaceful avenues of conflict resolution and strongly committed to the principles, expressed having the participants see the benefit of joining in the Warsaw Declaration, affirming the right the community of democratic choice. And I of persons belonging to minority groups to believe that the chances for that public dialogue equal protection of the law and the freedom to to be fruitful would be immeasurably aided enjoy their own culture, profess and practice by the serious and active participation of the their own religion and use their own language. members of the European Union. As Georgia is, and has always been, a multi- ethnic country, we recognise that Georgia can The initial meeting of the Community of only achieve full unity and stability when it Democratic Choice will convene in Kiev on develops institutions that are respectful of ethnic 1 December 2005. I invite all members of the difference and that allow a high degree of local European Union to send representatives to this autonomy, especially in regions which include meeting to contribute your energy and ideas significant concentrations of ethnically distinct to the task of making democracy flourish in minority populations. And we are prepared and this region. I also look forward to seeing you committed to do just that. in Georgia, so you can discover for yourself the transformation and progress under way in We have made it clear that we are prepared to today’s new Georgia! resolve the problems affecting our fellow citizens in Abkhazia and South Ossetia in accordance with these principles – which would grant to the Mikheil Saakashvili is President of Georgia.146 European View
  • 136. Nicolas Sarkozy France for a More Ambitious Europe By Nicolas Sarkozy The rejection of the resolution of many of these problems. This Constitutional Treaty by is why I supported the ‘yes’ campaign, along the French, then by the with the government, and with the support Dutch, plunged Europe of Jacques Chirac, who was right to pose the into crisis. On the one question to the people, as it was so fundamental hand, this rejection to our future. But the institutional question ismakes the entry into force of the Treaty legally not the only problem, and this is a point weimpossible, even though Europe urgently needs have maintained throughout the reform its institutions. On the other hand,this Treaty was a carefully balanced agreement I’m surprised, I really am, by the clichéd argumentsbetween the 25 Member States and it is difficult that we so often hear about Europe. Of course,to see how it could possibly be changed. The as the continent was once so divided, Europeaninfamous plan B heralded by the ‘no’ campaign integration is nothing less than a miracle, andunfortunately clashes rather badly with a we must uphold its successes. But it’s a fact thatprinciple that is particularly strong in Europe: today Europe does not function as well as it oncethat of reality. did, and that it hasn’t taken on the geo-strategic, political and economic strategies of today.Faced with what seems like a dead-end, it is verytempting not to discuss it. I disagree. Because The strength of the no vote was due to the synergythere is too much at stake here, we must have between economical and social difficulties inthe motivation to rebuild Europe, and right now! France and the French people’s perception ofNobody interpreted the referendum results of 29 Europe, not as an opportunity, but as a threat.May as a rejection of Europe. These votes rejectedthe way Europe is run today. The proof is that Today we have responsibilities and a missiondebates concerning the Constitution focus onPart III, which covers present rules. This is not a Today, our responsibilities lie with the yesrejection of Europe. The French people want us to campaigners: we cannot let them down.react to their expectations and to the resentment 85% of our supporters voted in favour of thethey expressed through the referendum. Constitutional Treaty, making the UMP the most European party in France. We must takeWe campaigned for the yes vote in the referen- the necessary initiatives and formulate thedum. This doesn’t mean that we should disre- right proposals in order to achieve the politicalgard the weaknesses of the Europe in which we Europe that we a Europe which extended its borders beforereforming its institutions, a Europe which is Our mission is to follow up our unquestionableincapable of taking less than three years to make engagement in Europe, in order to hear thea decision… I see it every day in the domains arguments of those who voted no, in particularof immigration and security; a Europe which those of friends and family, to understand theirdoes not protect us from globalisation - on the vote and answer their questions. We don’t have tocontrary: it fuels globalisation within its borders. apologise for the French vote. On the contrary,The Constitution would have allowed the we, and our partners must seize the moment to 147 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 137. France for a More Ambitious Europe work, right now, at putting Europe back on the agriculture and the agri-foodstuffs industry, right track. We have to move beyond the divide of which constitute a distinct strategic sector. the referendum, give a decent response to those against the Constitution without disappointing Europe can and must implement a Community its supporters, and propose a European project policy in the field of research and innovation, that will unite 80% of the French population. because in this domain it can act as a lever. Along the same lines as Erasmus and the BA, First of all we must give Europe a vision MA, PhD system, Europe must encourage the setting-up of European university networks and Just like many of us, I learnt the cost of Europe’s also, in their wake, research laboratories and divided past from my parents. Because of innovative enterprises. Europe must set up a my roots I was able to learn this lesson twice European research agency which will finance over. And I know what it would cost us in the future projects. At the Eurogroup level, it must future if we make the unforgivable mistake set up economic governance that will reconcile of thinking that we can “do without” Europe. the control of inflation, of public finances and of growth objectives more effectively. Europe must This strong link between past memories and keep its promises of growth and prosperity. future possibilities is perhaps what was most obviously lacking in the referendum, and this Controlling globalisation is why there was no victory for the yes vote. A closer look at the votes reveals that it was Controlling globalisation means re-establishing mostly the young, active population who the Community preference principle, which has rejected the treaty, in particular the 30-55 age been neglected. This does not mean a return group. For this generation, the objectives of to protectionism. Thanks to an expansion in peace and freedom, which were at the origin of trade, world growth has reached its highest European integration, no longer appeal, as they point since 1976. It is up to us to work out have already been attained. This might seem how to benefit from this. On the other hand, ungrateful or immature, but that is how it is. But we must also ensure that our business and for these generations, the need for Europe to employment interests are properly defended. face the future more effectively does not seem any more relevant, because in the last ten years, We are much too reactive in the use of safety Europe has not proven its ability to accommodate clauses and anti-dumping clauses which are the disruptions caused by globalisation. provided for by the WTO itself, and which America uses three times more than us. Without abandoning its ideals of peace and freedom, Europe must take on new ambition, Trade policy is one of the most important a new raison d’être. This ambition must be domains which the Member States have to control globalisation, to help European entrusted to Community action. I don’t want to countries take advantage of all the possibilities challenge this. But in these times of globalisation, that it presents, but without abandoning which make this policy decisive, the defence of their people its excesses. Europe must European interests must be ensured with all the follow globalisation, control it, and protect it. force of political legitimacy. Once the posts have been created, the President of the European Following globalisation means helping European Union or the European Minister of Foreign economies to focus on what they do best, on Affairs must represent the EU in negotiations those areas where Europe has a competitive with the WTO. Our policy-makers must address advantage: goods and services with a high added the key questions for our future and growth. value and high technology. I would also include Public purchasing must focus primarily on148 European View
  • 138. Nicolas SarkozyEuropean products and services, particularly powers, which would not make sense, but in orderthose offered by SMEs, in order to encourage to create a pole of influence and stability in thegrowth in our smaller businesses. This is a today’s multipolar world. Giving Europe a newchallenge that concerns 15% of our GDP. Europe vision, and a new ambition that has meaning formust buy European. This can be achieved at no its people will enable it to become an importantextra cost to public finances, and is perfectly actor on the international scene. Europeans havecompatible with our WTO commitments. the capacity to defend positions and lead joint actions on a wide variety of subjects, for exampleEurope must finally protect against globalisation. in the Balkans. We must reinforce Europe’sBy this I mean that it must be an area role in the domain of international relations.which allows us to consolidate economies,businesses and territories in order to open We must increase our deployability in the fieldthem up to international trade, and not an of external intervention. We must set up thearea given over to unbridled competition. necessary institutions to sustain a commonEuropeans do not want Europe to aggravate foreign policy, in particular the creation of aglobalisation within our borders, as they fixed post of Foreign Minister, whose role willare already confronted with it outside them. be to ensure coherence in all the EU’s actions in the international domain (foreign policy,Competition policy must not prevent us from defence, cooperation, trade). Finally, from nowbecoming European champions capable of on we must implement European policies in theacting on world markets. It must not stop us domains where we have reached an agreement.from implementing an industrial policy. In the One such domain is that of development.same way, tax dumping and social dumping Today, development aid is dispersed, inefficient,must not be accepted within the EU. A country and often corrupt. Europe can radicallycannot claim to be rich enough to abolish its change this by making development aid usefultaxes and poor enough to receive European and constructive and above all by makingstructural funds. it an important factor in democratisation, as Jacques Chirac has already proposed.Europe should also aim to promote a world-wide conception of globalisation that is more Europe must act effectivelyhuman. Globalisation has enabled growth, but ithas also caused injustice, both in industrialised Our aim must be to ensure that Europe isand developing nations. Globalisation does not active, and that it acts effectively. Europemake sense if it leads to the economic slavery of must be reconciled with its people via theordinary men and women. Europe has invented implementation of concrete plans and futurealmost everything in the domain of political ideas, policies. When it comes to future challenges,now it must invent a more human globalisation. Europe often participates insufficiently or inappropriately. This is the case in the domainIn international trade negotiations, Europe of health and the ageing population, in that ofmust address the questions of child labour, energy, of immigration and of internal security.working conditions and forgery. Europemust lead discussion and action in favour of Europe no longer has a “motor”, because thedevelopment, justice, defence, the environment, Franco-German duo is no longer enoughbalance in trade, respect for different to provide an impetus that will be acceptedcultures and identities and social progress. by 25 countries. The Commission has too many Commissioners and the politicalThis is assuming that Europe is at ease in its importance of its role has been lost. Manyinfluential role, not in order to oppose other policies cannot be implemented because they 149 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 139. France for a More Ambitious Europe depend on the rule of unanimity, which is It is in the EU’s interest for its Member States the best way to never reach a compromise. to work together in areas which function better with cooperation. In recent years, Europe has In the domain of immigration, we must be able undergone successive enlargements, but there to regulate the quantity of the flux, in other must also be some reductions. From now on our words, set a limit on the number of new entrants Parliament must respect the subsidiarity principle. according to our capacity to accommodate them, increase economic migration, forge Implementing these policies requires a agreements with countries of origin in order to budget and a plan apply a joint regulation of the migratory flux and contribute to development in these countries, We cannot expect Europe to implement new which will moderate the desire to emigrate. policies whilst remaining financially inactive. France must firmly defend coherent positions With regards to security, the Schengen members in the budgetary debate. The most obvious must cooperate in the fight against terrorism budgetary anomaly is the UK rebate. This and organised crime, which will allow those measure must be gradually phased out. And countries that wish to cooperate in a specific Europe must be allowed to implement new area to do so, (as was the case for Schengen), common policies efficiently, particularly in the in order to share intelligence, undertake domains of research and transport infrastructure. joint enquiries, harmonise procedures and A slight increase in the budget will no track down Islamic fundamentalist terrorism. doubt be required in order to achieve this. Energy is at the heart of the two major challenges It is an understatement to say that our farmers of the 21st century: environmental protection are feeling the brunt of the inequality that the and the depletion of oil reserves. The countries CAP has created, and the bureaucracy that it of Europe can’t solve this problem alone. The causes. The CAP benefits Europeans in many EU must focus on four points: a diplomatic ways: it guarantees us a healthy diet, ensures approach to energy in order to secure supply, as that we are competitive in the agro-foodstuffs the United States and the United Kingdom have trade, it is helping us to find a lasting alternative already put in place; an energy saving policy to petrol through the development of bio fuels with, for example, common fiscal incentives; a and enables us to live in a high quality natural questioning of the supremacy of road transport environment. All our farmers ask is that they and the implementation of piggyback transport are able to make a living from their work and solutions throughout the EU; and research that we support them. This policy has a price into new, cleaner energy sources. Europe’s and requires solidarity. We must take this into “new Airbus” must take the form of research account when drawing conclusions on the CAP. programmes into energy, for example to facilitate a quicker conversion to hydrogen cars. Whichever method is used, and however the institutions are reformed, we must find a new I would also like to propose that health, one of “motor” for Europe. I believe that we should open the Franco-German duo to the four other the major issues of this new century, become larger European nations, as the six countries a Community field of action. With a common together make up roughly 75% of Europe’s fiscal policy, harmonisation of research projects, population. Despite what it says on paper, a simplification of bureaucratic procedures European integration is not spurred on by the and the creation of hubs of competition, Commission, and has never been. This impetus Europe could aim to become as attractive an can only be political, and can only come from environment for health research as the United the countries themselves. For a long time, it came States or the UK. from the Franco-German duo. This “motor” is no longer enough to transform this impetus into150 European View
  • 140. Nicolas Sarkozyan agreement between all the Member States. believe one of the greatest problems in Europe today is that enlargement has taken placeThis is why I believe that this group of six without reforming the Institutions. We cannotmust be the “motor” of the new Europe. Its role permit new countries to join the Europeanmust be to drive new policies, in a transparent Union without first reforming its institutions;fashion and with the other Member States. TheCommission’s role is to use this impetus and - we must create an area of prosperity andgive it a community context in order to make security with the countries situated at theproposals to the other Member States. The aim, of borders of the European Union. This area mustcourse, is for G6 proposals to be adopted by the enable countries to hold discussions, haveCouncil. This is only possible if other countries specific trade agreements, develop specialagree. The other countries are Members in their relations of cooperation and trust on essentialown right, there must be no European “board political, cultural, immigration, security andof directors”. Nevertheless, if the six countries even defence matters; we must take ourmanage to reach an agreement without the inspiration from NAFTA, and improve upon it;support of the other Member States, the Councilshould not stop them from going further together. - finally, for the larger countries in this area, a new kind of partnership must be agreed upon:If we manage to deploy this method, we a strategic partnership. I am thinking specificallywill have addressed, without a reform of of Russia. This country is situated both in Europethe institutions, two of the major faults of and in Asia, and is too large to join the EUEurope today: Europe will act effectively, and without causing an imbalance in its will do so through the impetus of politicalresponsibilities, not that of anonymous officials. The UMP made its opinion known on the Turkey question during the Party Conference of 9 MayOur aim is to finally give Europe borders 2004 chaired by Alain Juppé at Aubervilliers, and again during the Conference of 6 March 2005.Today, Europe is divided between those who We believe that a special, strategic partnershipbelieve that the Union has no borders other than must be concluded. This opinion remainsdemocracy and free trade, and those who believe unchanged. As our president has alreadythat political Europe has no meaning unless it is said, the French people will have a chance tofounded on a European identity. The principles express their views at the appropriate time.that we must promote are simple and coherent: A Europe without borders, that has trade- firstly, there is a European identity and agreements with China, Brazil and India which areglobalisation, far from abolishing the need for sometimes more advantageous than those withidentity, actually reinforces it. Europe shares the countries in our immediate surroundings, is notsame humanist values with the United States, what we want. We want a Europe with bordersthe newly democratic Russia, and certain Asian that is also capable of creating a surroundingcountries. This does not alter the fact that its area of peace, security and prosperity.identity is very different to that of the Americanand Asian continents. It’s a question of history The institutional questionand of culture. Controlling globalisationmeans being open to exchanges, whilst at the There is no miracle solution. The Draftsame time confirming the European identity; Constitutional Treaty contains important advances which improve the functioning of- next, all those considering the European Europe, and would move towards a politicalquestion, including the French themselves, Union, which is the UMP’s aim: a stable 151 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 141. France for a More Ambitious Europe presidency of the Union, a European Minister There are two steps to be taken: of Foreign Affairs, double majority, reform of the Commission, co-decision, and the extension - firstly, lead the political, economic and social of the qualified majority. Our objective must be reforms that our country needs in order to to implement these advances, whilst respecting boost growth and attain full employment, as the democratic vote of the French people. other European countries have done before us. Nothing stands in our way; nobody can force it One way or another, we must give Europe the upon us, and nobody can make this decision in procedures that will enable it to make decisions our place. The no vote at the referendum was in a quick and effective manner. The rules that an expression of domestic and European fears have already been proposed have not been and exasperations. Both must be addressed; criticized, but they have nevertheless been refused along with all the rest. In order for these rules - secondly, we must find new ways to implement to be re-adopted, it is essential that Europeans European policy, and an influence strategy in rekindle their faith in Europe and its progress. Community discussions. The only possible way to re-convince Europeans Like many of our partners, we must find ways to to support European integration is for Europe to have more presence in Community Institutions, focus on concrete projects which address the and we must be more aware of the fact that real problems of the people: projects based Europe is an integral part of our national life. on growth, knowledge, security and identity. Decisions made in Brussels have direct effects on our legislation, our economy and the whole And we must also resign ourselves to the fact of public governance. Reforming the State means that both the enlargement and the failure of taking this into account, it means increasing our the referendum have revealed the need for a numbers of government officials working on more supple and agile Europe that is less static. European issues and only employing the best Increased cooperation, within the framework of individuals to work on them. And it means current Treaties or within an ad hoc framework making Community questions an obligatory such as those set up for the euro or for the stage in the careers of high-level government Schengen area, are the instrument of this officials, and also means defending our national reconciliation between a more political Europe interests without hesitation and giving them the and a more workable Europe. appropriate importance, without false modesty. Europe exists. We must make the best of it, and We already accept that certain states can be full we must make sure that our administration and members of the Union without participating in the structure of the State itself urgently adapts to certain policies. It’s a sort of “opting out”. So meet these requirements. why not have “opting in”? If some countries wish to do more, they should be able to do Our objective is simple, but clear: we want an so. France can certainly take initiatives in this active role for France in an ambitious Europe domain. France must be in a position where it that acts and protects. can put forward a European political project to its partners. Our influence today no longer represents the important role we played in the emergence of the European idea and of our Nicolas Sarkozy is French Minister of Interior ambitious conception of Europe. and President of Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP).152 European View
  • 142. Jacek Saryusz-Wolski Belarus: The Gate of Europe By Jacek Saryusz-Wolski The eastern border of 1. The country’s history has largely determined the Republic of Belarus its internal situation and to some extent its emerged more or less in relations both with Poland and Lithuania on its present form in 1667 the one hand and Russia on the other; as the border between the Polish-Lithuanian 2. The experience of the “old” 15 and of the newCommonwealth and Russia with the Smolensk Member States who are direct neighbours ofterritory (land that had been the source of disputes Belarus and have been dealing with Minskbetween the Great Duchy of Lithuania and Russia after 1991;for centuries). Two main rivers of the region, theDniper and the Dvina, flow close to each other 3. The current dynamism of the politicalnear Smolensk thus shaping a narrow pass called situation in the region created by thethe Gate of Europe. This was the route of many enlargement of the European Union, theRussian invasions of Poland and Lithuania, that Ukrainian revolution and the authoritarianof Napoleon’s march on Moscow and that of the route adopted by Russia.Bolshevik offensive towards the west in 1920.At that time no one doubted which side of the To answer the question about the frontiers ofEuropean border Belarus was situated. Europe we therefore must examine the region’s geography and history, its present situationTo answer the question on Europe’s frontiers and the potential for further developments inin the region we have to examine five main Belarus and their impact on EU interests.factors that determine its European character:i.e. the geography, history and culture of the Belarusian geographycountry, the aspirations of its people and theircapacity to endorse European values as their Although Belarus is situated close to theown. The answer, however, cannot be separated geographical centre of Europe, in politicalfrom the political dynamics that open the way terms its frontier borders the large Euro-for democratic change in Belarus and makes Asiatic landmass of Russia. The country sharesthe future European choice of its people a real a common northern and western border withpossibility. However, the decision to be taken three EU Member States (Poland, Lithuania andby Europe on its final frontiers should not be Latvia) and a southern border with Ukraine.based on geography and sentiment exclusively, Belarus covers an area of 207 600 km2 and iswe also have to take into consideration the inhabited by about 10 million people amongpolitical interest of the Union by analysing both whom Belarusians constitute about 7.9 million,possible scenarios: the positive one - admitting Russians 1.34 million, and Poles - according tothat Belarus is a part of Europe - and the negative Soviet data - about 420 thousand, however someone leading to the opposite conclusion. There figures estimate the latter group to be aboutwill be a price to be paid in both cases. Our task 1 million people. There are also about 290is to decide at what cost. thousands Ukrainians and 110 thousand Jews.When considering the entire issue we have to Thus, the country can be classified as a medium-remember that the present geopolitical position sized European country. It is worth stressingof Belarus is shaped by several factors. again the fact that one of the six largest EU 153 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 143. Belarus: The Gate of Europe Member States, namely Poland, possesses a large by Russia. However, until 1863 the political life minority in Belarus, which means Warsaw is not of Belarus was dominated by the Poles and and cannot remain indifferent to the future of its all the Polish national uprisings against Russia eastern neighbour. (1768-1772, 1794, 1830-1831 and 1863-1865) provoked a fierce guerrilla war of local Poles, History - what has shaped Belarus? joined particularly in 1863, by the most active Belarusians. Each lost uprising was followed by The country used to be a part of Kyivian Rus massive repression and forceful Russification. In and after the feudal division of that State (very 1918 Belarusians proclaimed independence but European in its nature) it was finally conquered their national movement proved to be too weak. by the Great Duchy of Lithuania in the 14th The State, the Belarusian People’s Republic, century. With its specific culture, Belarus existed only on paper. Finally, the territory of culturally dominated a common state created today’s Belarus, was partitioned between the with the Lithuanians. From 1385, together with newly reborn Poland and Soviet Russia and the Lithuania, Belarus became part of the Polish- Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic was born. Lithuanian Union. In 1569, it became the Polish- Since 1924 its eastern borders, with the exception Lithuanian Commonwealth with a common of the northern one, reflect those in existence Parliament and an elected king. To use the words between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of the eminent British historian Norman Davies, and Russia in 1667-1772. Belarus was a part of “the largest community of free men in the 15th –18th century world”. Although the weak national movement initially The laws of 1434 and 1447, based on Polish supported the BSSR, there were still massacres ones of 1422-1425 and 1430-1433, introduced by the Soviets in 1930s and 1940s (in the Minsk the principle of neminem captivabimus nisi suburbs – the Kuropaty forest - mass graves of iure victim which was a Polish-Lithuanian 200.000-300.000 victims of Soviet terror from (Belorusian) equivalent for the English Habeas 1937-1941 are a symbol of time). In the1930s, corpus act adopted in 1679 (almost 230 years a new era of forceful Russification began that later!). The elites of the country were Polonised ended briefly in the first half of the 1990s. by the end of the 17th century. The Lithuanian Statutes of 1529, 1566 and 1588 that were written in the old Belarusian language turned In 1939, the USSR, acting together with the the country into a state governed by law and Third Reich, invaded Poland and incorporated placed it among the leading European nations what is now Western Belarus into the BSRR. The of the time as far as the legal structure of the ethnic cleansing policy conducted by the USSR state was concerned. resulted in the extermination of a large part of the Poles and mass deportation of others. Due Belarus participated in all the European cultural to the lack of hostility between the Polish and eras – renaissance, baroque, enlightenment, the Belarusian national movements, the Soviet romanticism. If we want to see picturesque action was not as effective as in Ukraine. Nazi baroque pieces of architecture full of rich gold Germany’s terror completed the devastation of ornaments and paintings we can go to Spain, the country - Belarus lost about 20 per cent of Portugal or Italy. In Belarus, we can easily see its pre-war population. glorious monuments of the past, including old palaces and orthodox as well as catholic Belarus has no tradition of inter-war independence churches. It is true that the majority of them which was crucial to the Baltic nations in getting are in ruins now, though this is not the fault of rid of their Soviet heritage, nor of the glorious Belarusians. national mythology of intensive but fruitless efforts to gain independence on the battlefields From 1772-1795 the country was conquered of WWI or WWII, which was the case in Ukraine.154 European View
  • 144. Jacek Saryusz-WolskiDue to the influence of both totalitarian systems Poland and Lithuania, the two EU Member(communism and nazism) soviet Belarus was States with whom it has shared 600 years ofone of the most Soviet republics of the USRR. common history both in a common state andNational sentiments in the country were weak, in common enslavement by Moscow. This factortraditional elites decimated, and the Russification will inevitably lead to Polish and Lithuanianof a depopulated Slavic orthodox country - activity aimed at the democratisation of Belarussubject to soviet style industrialisation - attracted and encouraging its pro-European choice. Thegreat numbers of immigrants from rural Russia. long European tradition inherited by BelarusiansThat was the condition of the country in the as one of the heirs of the Polish-Lithuanianyears 1945-1989. Commonwealth is not very strong in the country now, but it still exists among the politicallyIndependence of Belarus active democratically minded elites that have adopted the symbols from that era. BelarusiansThe national movement, though existing in are still threatened with Russification, so theBelarus before 1991, did not play a decisive role Belarusian national revival must be Europeanin the creation of the independent state. The in its character. The fact that Moscow supportsbirth of the Republic of Belarus was the result of the authoritarian dictatorship of Lukashenka isthe external forces game (internal conflict within stimulating a positive combination of Belarusianthe elites of the USRR) rather than one of revolt national sentiment aimed at distancing themselvesby the Belarusians. Thus the new independent from Russia’s imperial tradition and replacingBelarus created in 1991, had no strong national it with democratic values symbolised by theindependently minded elites. It had almost European integration idea. Thus Belorusian softfully Russified cities where Belarusian culture nationalism or patriotism is now democratic inwas perceived as “peasants’ folklore”. Only one character and oriented towards Europe.secondary school with instruction in Belarusianexisted in the entire country. New dynamismThe period of independence after 1991 consisted The regime in Minsk is of the old soviet type,of two sub-periods. The first, 1991-1994, however Belarusians are not isolated in the wayalthough characterised by slow and superficial in which Soviet people were in the past. Thereforms, underwent a national renaissance: the transfer of ideas, information and experience isrestitution of Belarusian as a state language incomparable to what existed in soviet times.and a return to old national symbols. The years The example of Ukraine is inspiring, especiallyafter 1994 – when Aleksandr Lukashenka was given the fact that Belarus, like Ukraine has itselected President of the country brought an “elder brother” that backs the autocratic regimeend to the Belarusian national revival and the of Lukashenka. This is in spite of some minorcountry reverted to a mixture of the Soviet and quarrels between Moscow and Minsk over theRussian past, combined with more and more transit of Russian gas through Belarus. If theauthoritarian ways of governing on the part of Ukrainian media remains free, the majority of theLukashenka. Since 1999 he has become a full territory of Belarus will be covered by Latvian,blown dictator, the last in Europe. This is the Lithuanian, Polish or Ukrainian TV and radio“partner” the EU is forced to deal with. broadcasting. The impact will be even greater if the EU engages itself in promoting free informationEU interests and the inevitable changes in for the Belorusian people. Bielorusians willBelarus be able to travel to neighbouring countries, observe reality and draw their own conclusions.Historically Belarus is a European country with The number of Belarusian flags (white-red-strong historical, cultural and ethnic links with white) waved in Maydan Nezalezhnosti in Kyiv 155 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 145. Belarus: The Gate of Europe during Orange Revolution showed that there Belarusian people will effectively demand their were daughters and sons of that country ready rights and freedom. to take a risk and fight for freedom. Last autumn, young people in Minsk gathered many times to EU material interests demonstrate their opposition to the dictatorship. There were thousands of them and soon there Belarus is one of the crucial transit countries will be hundreds of thousands. It will take some for Russian gas and oil supplies for the EU. The time, but the collapse of Lukashenka’s regime peace and stability of that territory is therefore is inevitable. vital to the security of supplies of strategically important raw materials for Europe. Our security The Ukrainian Orange Revolution gave new can be threatened by political destabilisation dynamism to the political situation in Belarus. if the country remains a dictatorship, since The old Soviet style regime can hardly survive human thirst for freedom is eternal and the in an increasingly democratic Ukraine and an existence of authoritarian regime creates a enlarged European Union. The democratic constant risk of revolution. In other words, changes in the country will happen but they will political destabilisation. The backward political be neither easy nor quick. The sad fact is that system of Belarus is combined with an even the EU should be prepared for both scenarios more backward economic one, which is leading - violent and peaceful. Development of civil to the degradation of the infrastructure of the society increases the probability of peaceful country, thus creating a risk for the security of changes, it should therefore be supported. transit across the country. Corruption constitutes another obstacle for normal development of EU moral interests trade and transit between the EU and Belarus and the EU and Russia. There is no other way but to help democracy to prevail in Belarus. The EU must promote EU political interest the rule of law, human rights, freedom of speech and democracy since these are its own a) Democratisation of Russia fundamental values. It cannot refrain from The EU eastern policy priority is to have a supporting them unless it wants its political democratic, stable and predictable Russia. The credibility to be put into question. The proud proposals to achieve that goal are primarily declaration of the EU as a global player and an based on a false premise that the aim will be emerging superpower counterbalancing the US, best served by showing respect for Russian neo- active in Africa, Afghanistan, Indonesia, Timor, imperial ambitions and post-Soviet nostalgia. etc. will look doubtful if it proves to be helpless The Kremlin is inclined to think that Belarus, in facing down a dictatorship just at its borders, Ukraine etc. are part of an exclusive Russian in the very heart of Europe. One cannot ignore zone of interest. We often hear that one should the fact that one of the best developed regions not isolate Russia or humiliate it and that an of the world currently shares a border with a active EU policy in Belarus would lead to both backward dictatorship. humiliation and isolation of that great country. This is unacceptable for both moral and The Belarusian people aspire for freedom. They practical reasons. Morally, the freedom of other will achieve it. It is in the interest of the EU peoples cannot be sacrificed for the sake of to play a decisive role in that process unless Russian imperial sentiment, and practically, the it wants to be marginalized. The transfer of condition sine qua non of the democratisation ideas is inevitable and that will influence the of Russia is slowly abandoning illusions of a new authoritarian system of Lukashenka. The day Russian empire. We face a “Weimar Russia”: the will come, whether we want it or not, when the country which, under Yeltsin, was undecided as156 European View
  • 146. Jacek Saryusz-Wolskito the direction of its further development, and perspective that was created for those nationswhich under Putin is choosing an authoritarian and based on the common values shared bymodel of the state. To stick to that analogy the populations of the accession countries andwe should recall that the Weimar Republic that of the old Member States. Such a situationturned into the Third Reich, not because it was exists in the case of Belarus. Belarusians andhumiliated after WWI (the humiliation after Ukrainians share European values and are readyWWII was even greater and did not produce to adapt their political system to Europeansimilar effects) but because it believed it could standards. The Ukraine is an active securityeffectively revise the European order. It was a provider, supplying EU countries with an air lifthope for victory and not humiliation that lead it capacity in anti-Taliban operations, participatingfrom democracy to dictatorship and then to war. with its ground troops in peacekeeping missionsTherefore, the only way to democratise Russia in Bosnia and in Iraq. Its Orange Revolutionis to put an end to the dream of recreating the is positively influencing both Belarus andempire. Opening the European doors for Belarus Moldova, and Ukraine is doing her best to solveis a part of that process. –To deny a European the Transdnistria problem. This proves that ifperspective for Belarusians is to fuel Russian Belarus is given the right support on its way toimperial ambitions and to weaken the chances democracy, it can be turned into another sourcefor democratic changes in that great country. of European stability.b) EU political cohesion If there is any chance for an effective CFSPThe situation in Belarus is especially important – i.e. for achievements impressive enough toto Poland, Lithuania and Latvia. It is in the vital influence the public opinion of the EU Memberinterest of these countries to help to establish States, Europe must seize the opportunitya democratic and Europe-friendly Belarus. The for decisive action in the democratisation ofpolitical cohesion of the EU demands that the Belarus. Such a victory would be appreciatedother Member States understand the situation by at least a large part of central European EUand support the efforts of those EU Member Member States’ citizens. It would enhance theStates closest to Belarus. prestige of the Union as a serious international player, strengthen its credibility and its politicalc) The CFSP’s window of opportunity cohesion. It could also contribute to the creationThe EU CFSP has not had much success so far. It of a common European identity which canfailed in the Balkans in the 1990s, has had very only be born from real political victory, wonlimited achievements, if any, on the Palestinian under the European flag in a real struggle forquestion, on Algerian internal stability or on the democracy.Western Sahara conflict and has proved unableto produce a common position on the Iraq war. There will be consequences whatever ourIts military dimension is still more a project choice. We must be aware that lack of supportthan a reality, in spite of some minor actions on our part will bring a risk of destabilisationin Congo, FYROM or Bosnia-Herzegovina. It in an important transit territory, and will buildhas had a successful enlargement process and a potential for economic or political migrationit is effectively bringing accession countries like of impoverished or persecuted Belorusians toRomania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Turkey, step by the Union. It will also undermine the credibilitystep, towards democratic standards and the rule of the EU as a serious actor on the stage ofof law. international relations.Europe did not need military strength to achieve Finally, let us reflect on the moral dimensionthat success. Its soft power proved to be enough. of the issue. Aside from all the political andThis power was embodied in the European material reasons mentioned above, there is a 157 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 147. Belarus: The Gate of Europe strong moral reason to recognise the fact that Belarus deserves European solidarity. Belarusian opponents of the regime are probably the only people in the world who are risking their lives under the European flag by simply waving them during demonstrations and being charged by Lukashenka’s police. The EU should not ignore that fact, unless it is wishes to lose credibility in the hearts of a large part of its citizens and those of its eastern neighbours. Conclusion - Is Belarus both a gateway to and part of Europe? Historically, geographically and culturally, Belarus is a European country. The cultural links of Belarus with the western part of the continent were weakened after 1795 and heavily devastated after 1917 and 1939 but the country remains European. Belarus for Poles and Lithuanians is like Dalmatia for Italians, Croatia for Hungarians, Slovenia for Austrians or Ireland for the British. There have been ups and downs in our common history. Still, among our European neighbours, nobody dares to say that it is a different or non European civilisation. To show solidarity and support for the democratic and European aspirations of Belarus is nothing less than an obligation. Jacek Saryusz-Wolski is a Vice President of the European Parliament and former European Affairs Minister of Poland.158 European View
  • 148. Mirek Topolánek Enlargement, European Neighbourhood Policy and the Role of New Member States By Mirek Topolánek The process of the Neighbourhood Policy. I will concentrate further enlargement of primarily on the countries adjacent to the region the European Union, of Central and Eastern Europe. as well as the policy maintained in relation The Western Balkans cannot remain an to current and future island outside the EUEU neighbours for whom the EuropeanNeighbourhood Policy has been formed, The future of Western Balkan countries clearlyconcerns all EU Member States. Occasionally, we lies within the EU. We should not forget thatask ourselves whether the new Member States after Bulgaria and Romania accede to the EU,which acceded to the EU last year could play a the countries in this area will become an islandspecial role in these two areas. My perspective surrounded by Member States. This geographicon this issue is that the new members can circumstance alone is sufficient reason for thedefinitely make a positive contribution to both Union to focus on the Balkan countries as aprocesses. matter of priority.Personally, I hold the view that the new The prospects of membership or closerMember States should be the driving force for cooperation with the EU, as defined in theenlargement and the fulfilment of the European Thessaloniki Agenda, have correctly been madeNeighbourhood Policy. Who else is better placed contingent on continuing reform. Stability inthan those countries familiar with this issue this part of Europe must unquestionably remainfrom both sides of the barricades? They have an EU security priority, and not only becausethe experience of applying for candidate status, of the recent military conflicts in which the EUconcluding an Association Agreement with the had rather negative, wait-and-see attitudes. EachEU, and preparing for, and successfully rounding country merits its own individual evaluation,off, pre-accession negotiations. The citizens based on the speed at which it pushes throughof the new Member States still have accession reforms. This individual approach has alsoto the EU fresh in their minds, although some enjoyed the long-standing support of all theof them already doubt the wisdom of further states of the former Yugoslavia.enlargement. In common with many of thecurrent and future candidate countries, is the Progress in this field is evident by the attemptsexperience of several decades of totalitarianism, of the region’s countries to intensify their mutuala decade of preparations for accession to the cooperation, which has already been establishedEU, coupled with reforms intended to prevail with the EU. One commendable event in thisover the relics of the totalitarian period. respect was last August’s initiative where South Eastern Europe (SEE) Prime Ministers (fromAll this means that we are destined to assume Croatia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, andan active role in communicating with countries the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia),beyond EU borders. In this respect, I would held talks in Salzburg on the future of mutuallike to set out the position of the largest Czech economic and trade cooperation. Although thecentre-right party regarding further enlargement current system of 29 bilateral free trade areaof the EU and the states affected by the European agreements has had a positive impact on the 159 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 149. Enlargement, European Neighbourhood Policy and the Role of New Member States development of trade in the region, this structure EU would be entitled to suspend accession of mutual relations is rather complicated. The talks. Prime Ministers agreed that it would be practical to create a single free trade area to replace all I am of the view that the start of entry talks on the existing zones. They should seek inspiration Croatia’s accession to the EU is of key significance from the Central European Free Trade for the ongoing stability and democratisation of Agreement (CEFTA), an agreement established the Western Balkan countries, which have been at the initiative of the Czech Republic. promised membership in the European Union. We should not forget that all these countries The guidance of Western Balkan countries aspiring to EU membership must comply with towards EU membership is a prevailing feature a multitude of conditions laid down in valid in the manifestos of parties cooperating with European regulations. Conformity often requires the European People’s Party (EPP) and EPP- the transformation of the legal and institutional ED Group in the European Parliament. In this framework, in many cases coupled with painful field, these parties ought to have the support of political, economic and social reforms in these their partners in the EU. In this respect, there is countries. The launch of entry talks with Croatia no ignoring the fact that another country in the is sure to help improve the mood in this corner region – Albania – following this year’s elections of Europe. Moreover, the speedy accession of has now a right-wing government led by the Croatia to the EU will be the best possible proof Democratic Party of Albania. that a solution to Western Balkan instability has finally been found. Croatia is ripe for accession Turkey needs the prospect of membership There is one country in the Western Balkans which needs to take the final step towards the Perhaps the most frequently discussed issue process of integration into the European Union, connected with the EU’s future enlargement is namely Croatia. the possible accession of Turkey. In this case, European integration extends beyond the Croatia already meets all the Copenhagen geographical borders of our continent; however, criteria, which must be fulfilled before the we should consider this an achievement rather European Union recognises the right of new than a problem. Member States to join. I would like to underline that the Croatian government is cooperating Personally, I support Turkey’s EU membership. with the authorities in the extradition of Naturally, this will not be a rapid process; General Gotovina and has taken all measures to accession negotiations with Turkey are sure to ensure his prompt capture and dispatch to the require considerable time. Yet, the launching International Criminal Tribunal for the Former of accession negotiations is a clear and Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague. unmistakable signal to Turkey that it is in the European Union’s plans. Thus, I welcome the EU Council’s recent decision to commence entry talks with Croatia, which Many characteristics set Turkey apart from the were already postponed in March. However, the current members of the European Union. The European Union should link the commencement current structure of the EU, with 25 Member of these negotiations to the condition that Croatia States – soon to rise to 27 or 28 – is already very must continue its full, unreserved cooperation heterogeneous in some respects. This is reflected with the ICTY and honour all its commitments. in the way the EU works, where certain Member Should the Croatian government decide in the States do not contribute to particular EU policies future to stop respecting these conditions, the (e.g. the single currency and the Schengen160 European View
  • 150. Mirek Topoláneksystem). This precedence could be exploited in better times to come. Ukraine has a chancediscussions on Turkey’s future membership. to overcome the main obstacles that stand in the way of democracy, respect for human andThe main argument in favour of continuing civil rights, and economic prosperity. Thisthe process of EU enlargement with Turkey is European country has now started a process ofthe need to anchor the country in a European transformation as it seeks to realise the visionsecurity and geostrategic area. In addition, of an independent, thriving country and athe possibility of EU membership will have free, open society. There are solid grounds fora constructive effect on the Turkish political believing that Ukraine will maintain the coursesystem. The prospects of EU membership have, set in the spirit of the Orange Revolution andso far, had a positive influence on the speed that after the necessary political and economicand content of institutional and economic reforms have been implemented, the countryreforms in all the countries which have aspired will join the community of closely cooperatingto accession. This trend has become strikingly European and Euro-Atlantic nations.apparent in Turkey in recent years and sincethe 2002 elections in particular. Thwarting Relations between Ukraine and the EuropeanTurkish ambitions of membership would halt Union are now based on the Europeanthis positive process and could even lead to Neighbourhood Policy. However, this policy isthe political reorientation of the country, which designed for countries the EU is not planningwould result in major geopolitical complications to admit as members. While this instrumentfor the EU. was perhaps appropriate for relations with the ‘old’ Ukraine, it is inadequate in a situationTurkey, as a Member State, could boost the EU’s where the representatives of the new Ukrainianposition in areas where the Union is already leadership have clearly declared their intentioninvolved and the European Neighbourhood of gradually integrating into Euro-Atlantic andPolicy is intended to cover. Turkey can offer European structures. Ukraine is now shiftingEuropean interests not only its strategic location, from the status of EU neighbour to that of abut also a network of cultural, political, and future candidate country. In my view, the EUeconomic contacts. should respond to this shift flexibly. European institutions have already approved certainUkraine: from a neighbouring country to a changes in their approach, but this is a processpotential candidate for accession that needs to be continued.Ukraine is a large European nation with rich Naturally, the current line adopted by Ukrainehistory and immense potential. It plays an need not be definitive. We cannot ignore the factimportant role in the political and security arena. that there are political forces in the country thatAn independent, democratic, powerful and are keen to scupper the country’s “European”stable Ukraine is fundamental to the security of orientation. In March 2006, Ukrainian voters willthe West and the whole of Europe and for our go to the polls to elect a new Parliament. Thiscommon political and economic interests. will be the first serious test of Ukraine’s passage to a genuine democratic society.The Orange Revolution in Ukraine last yearsaw millions of inhabitants take to the streets It is the responsibility of European centre-rightin protest against rigged elections, oppression parties to provide considerable assistance toand corruption. The events at the turn of their like-minded Ukrainian partners, who formthe year were a remarkable example of the the core of democratic and pro-Western forces instrength and power of freedom. The changes the country, in the run-up to the election. In thisinitiated in December 2004 are a harbinger of respect, I would like to stress the significance 161 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 151. Enlargement, European Neighbourhood Policy and the Role of New Member States of converting the ‘Our Ukraine’ movement In the case of Moldova, the European into a fully fledged political party, capable of Neighbourhood Policy and its action plan must securing support in Parliament for the necessary play a key role. In one of the economically reforms and of communicating its manifesto to poorest states of Europe, economic issues the public. In particular, parties from the new should come to the fore. It is this aspect which EU Member States should be prepared to share could guide the longer-term orientation of their experience of the transformation of the Moldova in a European direction. The political political system in their countries and offer help transformation in Ukraine could be reflected in and advice. Moldova, especially in the form of a solution to the situation in the Trans-Dniester region. The Civic Democratic Party (ODS) has already announced its support. This announcement was Belarus and its wretched path to made in a joint declaration with partners from democracy the Visegrad Group. The ODS, together with Poland’s Civic Platform, Hungary’s Fidesz and Relations between the European Union and the Slovak Democratic and Christian Union, Belarus are even more complicated. Although clearly expressed our readiness to work with the country is geographically immediately the Our Ukraine party in the pre-election period adjacent to the EU, politically, it is the Union’s and afterwards. Ukraine belongs to Europe, it most remote neighbour. Lukashenko’s regime in has the right to strive for EU membership, and Belarus has made it the final undemocratic island deserves our help and support as it follows this in Europe and we must treat it accordingly. An course of action. uncompromising position is the only possible response to any undemocratic conduct by the Moldova and its indistinguishable Belarusian regime. This is the only way which orientation EU Member States can give Minsk a clear signal that its political regime is no longer tolerable. In the case of neighbouring Moldova, the possibility of EU membership is still very The EU’s current role in relation to this country remote. Although Moldova was part of Romania should focus on the breaches of human with whom it shares its language and culture, rights and provide universal support to the half a century in the Soviet Union has taken democratic anti-Lukashenko opposition. Only its toll. Moldova’s European prospects were when Belarusian citizens remove Lukashenko’s not helped much by the subsequent post- undemocratic regime can Belarus follow a Communist government either. The Communist course of European orientation. Only then will Party (it did not restyle itself with a new name) it be possible to ensure the bolder development has been in power for five years. Although the of the European Neighbourhood Policy in government has recently made a political U-turn Belarus, a tool to help make the country a stable and now declares a pro-Western orientation, the neighbour of EU Member States. constancy of this position is highly questionable. After all, it was not long ago that the Moldovan Shared responsibility Communists wanted to integrate in a completely opposite direction to the West. From this, we In this article I have intentionally focused in can infer that support should be channelled detail on those countries which are adjacent to primarily to those forces which have been the Central and Eastern European region. long-term actors and do not change their views with every term in office, notably the Christian The Union faces a wide range of challenges in Democratic People’s Party, which is a partner of its neighbourhood, placing enlargement and the the EPP-ED Group and an observer member of European Neighbourhood Policy at the centre of the EPP. its concerns. European centre-right parties play162 European View
  • 152. Mirek Topoláneka key role in these debates and their initiativeswill have a significant impact on EU policyin this region. Therefore, I am convinced thatpolitical parties from the new Member Statesand their indispensable contributions will makethe European Neighbourhood Policy a success.The Civic Democratic Party is no exception to thisprocess and will continue to remain very activeon the political field of our neighbourhood.Mirek Topolánek is President of ObcanskaDemokraticka Strana (ODS) of the CzechRepublic. 163 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 153. Yannis Valinakis Paving the Western Balkans’ European Path By Yannis Valinakis Europe is in the midst of The short answer is: “because Europe is about intense soul-searching. to change and you will want to be part of this The recent rejection of Europe.” the EU Constitutional Treaty by the citizens of Still, some countries on the EU’s periphery may two of the EU’s founding seem to be lingering at the edge of the future.Member States, the lack of consensus on the They know the criteria; they may be led tofinancial perspectives for 2007-2013, the current choose inertia. They seek EU help but they maystate of our economies and the emergence of an not be 100% attentive to EU obligations. Theyeven more competitive environment, all seem express their willingness to join but sometimesintended to diminish what is great about Europe they tend to act as if final accession is just aand underscore all that has gone wrong. In this European cultural imperative, akin to helpingcontext, many wrongly ask whether the time an ailing relative.has come to pull the breaks and start refuellingthe European vehicle, and wonder about the Turning the Balkan “powder keg” into aviability of yet another expansion. European neighbourhoodThe lingerers The “zigzag” path of the Western Balkans towards EU membership is a good part of this story. In theThere is the usual reply: who knows what same way that the EU was built, after a painfulthe state of affairs will be like in, say, fifteen and long war, now, these nations have beenyears? Why deny other nations the opportunity called on to proceed further to reconciliationto live and prosper as EU members, as long as and a European perspective. Two years ago,they have fulfilled all the relevant criteria and the EU leaders’ “Thessaloniki Declaration” maderequirements? clear for the first time that the separate futures of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,Doubters of future enlargements are not only to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniabe found inside the EU. Nations on its borders, (FYROM), Serbia and Montenegro and Kosovo,although still very eager to join, may entertain all lie inside the Union.the same doubts. More often than not, these suittheir parochial interests. The Stabilisation and Association Process, the European Partnership Action Plan andThese doubters ask: “if some EU citizens express the introduction of a new instrument of pre-doubts about European integration, as shown accession assistance, are the EU’s helping handsperhaps by last spring’s referenda, why should to these countries, to come closer to Europe.we trust the EU by adhering to its criteria?” To The underlining logic is always to encourageput it bluntly, how can those who seem to these nations to endorse European values anddoubt themselves want to promote democracy reach European standards, in other words: toand the rule of law in countries which, although turn the Western Balkans from the “powder kegless wealthy, are confident and proud - at least of Europe” into a European neighbourhood.of their own identities and particularities? 165 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 154. Paving the Western Balkans’ European Path Moreover, the EU has made clear that each should be. There is a clear need for all in the country will be assessed according to its own region to cooperate more closely, so that they merits. may improve their chances of success in their separate Stabilisation and Association processes. The past year has had its successes on that front. Some of the challenges can only be appropriately On the Srebrenica massacre’s 10th anniversary, dealt with in a cross-border context; others, alongside the leaders of all three constituent cannot. Here is a list of the region’s unfinished communities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, business: stood the leaders of Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro. In Albania, elections were held • Kosovo needs to fulfil standards. The EU and the general impression is that things could Foreign Ministers declared on 21 February 2005 begin to change for the better. In Kosovo, the that Kosovo would not return to the situation reviewing of the degree of achievement of the prior to 1999. Its future must take the form of UN standards is already underway. a multiethnic and democratic Kosovo which ensures effective protection for minorities, The past year has had its failures. The rule of law preserves and protects the cultural and religious and the strict observation of electoral regulations heritage of all its communities, and respects the have not always been observed, as the case of right of refugees and displaced persons to return the local elections in FYROM showed. FYROM – in other words, contributing to the stability unjustifiably rejected a compromise solution put of the region and adhering to the values and forward by the UN Special Representative over standards of the EU. the name issue, which would end a long overdue issue and push cooperation further. The sporadic This autumn, the international community outbursts of violence and crime in Kosovo, such will review how far Kosovo has progressed in as this summer’s events, demonstrate just how fulfilling the above criteria before the future fragile the situation still is there. status discussion starts. Dialogue is essential; the Kosovar Serbs and Belgrade must participate But successes and failures aside, the issue with actively in the process. In the end, any solution the Balkans always seems to be a question of must be in accordance with the UN Charter fundamentals. and resolutions, the Helsinki Final Act and the 1990 Paris Charter for a New Europe. The Unfinished business message must be clear. The Kosovar Albanians must work to strengthen democracy and the Ethnic suspicion, the poor progress in combating protection of human and minority rights; the organised crime and corruption and ongoing Serbs must be involved in a multiethnic Kosovo, problems regarding the distribution of state where the constant plague of unemployment power continue to hold back the region. and low quality of life must be tackled in a spirit of cooperation. As shown by the recent eruption of ethnic violence in Kosovo, the spectre of lapsing back • FYROM needs to show European to an atrocious past has not gone away. In credentials. The Former Yugoslav Republic certain areas, not only have organised crime and of Macedonia has made important steps corruption remained undefeated, but they are towards stability. Last year, the Stabilisation and still an everyday reality for many citizens, who Association Agreement (SAA) came into force were expecting the dawn of a different, more and FYROM applied for EU membership. The European way of life. Democracy functions EU’s “Proxima” force has contributed significantly albeit, at times, unsatisfactorily. Respect for to improving the security situation. However the human and minority rights is not where it “name issue” remains.166 European View
  • 155. Yannis ValinakisGreece has shown its willingness to see the Stabilisation and Association Agreement canissue solved. It constructively accepted the UN be concluded. There is certainly no time forproposed plan as the basis for a final round Albania to lose. Helping democratic institutionsof negotiations, so that a mutually acceptable mature, fighting organised crime and corruption,solution can be found. A speedy solution will respecting human rights and minority rights andaccelerate this country’s accession process (the lifting the Albanian economy out of a quagmireEU Commission’s Opinion is expected late this of dependence are necessary priorities foryear) and will enhance the two neighbours’ broaching closer relations with the EU.already good relations. The Former YugoslavRepublic of Macedonia must find the strength to These are issues that need to be dealt with asabandon past nationalist thinking and practices - soon as possible by the respective step into this new era and exchange accepted But no man is an island and the Westernwisdom for true wisdom. The ability to behave Balkan region is not an island, either. Some ofin a conciliatory way is, after all, the essence of the most pressing challenges that need to beEuropean politics. faced in the Western Balkans know no borders. The complexity of the issues involved and the• Serbia and Montenegro: involvement. significant benefits of regional cooperationSerbia and Montenegro cannot remain a “black can be doubted by none. With this in mind,hole” on the map of Europe. European integration the region’s countries agreed in Thessalonikiwill remain incomplete without its inclusion. to further promote their bilateral contacts.Belgrade has been making some real efforts. The need to work closely with each other onCo-operation with the International Criminal political and institutional issues, trade, justice,Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) creates as well as infrastructure, energy, transport anda positive climate; Belgrade was rewarded with the environment is a leadership challenge thatthe Commission’s acknowledgment that the should not be missed.ground is laid for beginning negotiations for anSAA. Regional co-operation is necessary for the Western Balkans. It is a precondition for coming• Bosnia and Herzegovina: self-reliance. closer to the EU, a complementary ratherBosnia’s extensive reliance on foreign aid and than antagonistic process on their Europeanon the Office of the High Representative is path. To achieve this, the tools exist. Theobviously not a model that can be pursued for region needs its own voice. The South Eastlong. The European perspective can provide a European Co-operation Process (SEECP), thevital solution to any possible deadlock. Progress only forum comprised exclusively of Balkanneeds to be achieved in the sixteen priority states, may become the main instrument ofareas for action as stated in the Feasibility regional cooperation. Greece, having assumedStudy, which is a part of the Stabilisation and the Presidency of the SEECP until spring 2006,Association process. Inescapably, the EU will ensure that all our partners understand thatprospect is dependent on full compliance with regional cooperation must gather in speed andthe ICTY and on Bosnia and Herzegovina having in greater efficiency.1 We are willing to giveefficient working institutions. a boost to the SEECP role and its institutional presence.• Albania: reforms. The Albanian authoritiesare the key to the implementation of the Regional cooperation needs also to be furtherneeded reforms so that the negotiations on a strengthened in combating organized crime1 See SEECP Hellenic Chairmanship in Office 2005-06: 167 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 156. Paving the Western Balkans’ European Path and the self-sustaining culture of dependency Western Balkan political parties have assumed on local crime lords. Drugs, money laundering a significant role on the European-level party and human trafficking must stop. Finalising landscape. Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian and agreements with Europol will play a useful Albanian parties have benefited from the EPP role in the fight against crime. Other sectors policy of fair inclusion. of cooperation can also bring immediate, tangible benefits for the region. In the field Today, the European People’s Party is a strong of energy, the “Athens Process” aims to create force throughout the region, giving the example an energy community for South East Europe.2 of greater co-operation to political forces Cooperation in transport can literally pave the formerly isolated, or misunderstood. It is still way for integration into the strategy of the the forum where even competing forces find Trans-European Networks and Pan-European a common ground and are, therefore, better Corridors. There also needs to be joint, sustained able to address current issues, without carrying efforts by these nations to increase the business worn-out labels over their heads. This process potential of air and sea transport and therefore, continues successfully for EPP members, bring the region physically closer to their associates and observers, and the European European future. logic of party cooperation must be assimilated by all. In South-eastern Europe the issues of stability and security are of overriding importance. Now The Western Balkans in an evolving EU we know that we cannot seek either economic development or the consolidation of democratic In the end, there are two parallel lines of institutions without enhancing the feeling of integration in Europe. One signifies further security of States, of the various communities, integration inside the EU, the other, the inclusion and of each and every citizen. Development, of all Europeans in a better future. For Europe democracy and security go hand-in-hand. The to be successful these two lines must meet at feeling of security can therefore spread and some point and Europe must fulfil its mission. substantial reform spillovers can enhance the efforts of the Western Balkan countries to fulfil As with any mission, what defines the final result their EU obligations. is the constant interplay between drawbacks and resolve. The drawbacks of the past have taught EPP’s role us that continuous engagement and a clear and firm strategy, assists all the relevant parties to In a region where much depends on party fulfil their obligations. politics, the greater involvement of European- level political parties has had a beneficial The successful accession strategies of Bulgaria effect on how the present politicians and next and Romania, and now Croatia following on this generations view their EU future. path, provide much-needed inspiration for the leaders and peoples of the region. The Western In 2001, the current Greek Prime Minister, Balkan countries are realising that they cannot Kostas Karamanlis, conceived and led the live in isolation, while their neighbours enjoy European People’s Party’s Western Balkan the full benefits of EU membership. Democracy Initiative.3 This way, the EPP has been a frontrunner in opening the path towards Moreover, the EU in 2007 and beyond, will the European perspective. In the process, the probably not be like the current EU; Europe is 2 See Economic Reconstruction and Development in South East Europe: apsecretariat.htm 3 See “The Western Balkan Democracy Initiative Report: Working Together, Moving Forward”. European People’s Party, Athens: September 2002168 European View
  • 157. Yannis Valinakisgoing through fundamental shifts in the public’s Europe is a great force for reform foundedperception of politics, which reverberate in on immutable principles and values; a forcepolicy itself. The end result may be nothing less for reform that functions on the basis of thethan a more immediate political environment, convergence and merging of views. It is anwhere tolerance for procrastination, broken institutional and political mechanism thatpromises and delays in reform will take a generates consensus. It is therefore a deeplydirect hit – and that necessarily applies to all democratic process.leadership efforts in the region. Thus, in amore competitive global environment, Europe Greece fully acknowledges the merits ofmay begin to insist even more vigorously on European integration. We believe that theclearly defined “Europeanness”. To begin to European integration project is gradually andtruly honour the ‘Thessaloniki Agenda’ and the thoroughly transforming the future of theEU leaders’ declared policy of inclusion, the states and peoples participating in it. SuchWestern Balkan nations must understand there a transformation is in the interest of peace,is no time to lose. democracy and the prosperity of people.Nevertheless, we should not underestimate the Our vision is to also transform our neighbourhoodincredible work that has been done already. into a region like the rest of Europe – in otherIn many instances, the countries of the region words, a region of peace, democracy, prosperityhave shown a collective urge to change and and stability; a region with full respect forhave adopted new Constitutions, laws and human rights and religious freedom; a regionmentalities in what is historically a very brief in which minorities are fully protected. This is aperiod of time. In terms of trade, the economy strategic choice for Greece.and the regional context, the Western Balkanshave come a long way from the bloodshed of There is a long road ahead to complete thisthe 1990s towards a new era of cooperation. promise of change; the process of integrationOften, a sincere willingness to mend the scars of must only gain in speed. This will be goodthe past and build together a common European both for the region and the EU. Honouringneighbourhood surprises even the perpetual “Thessaloniki” means bringing on board a newoptimists. The EU, through its Stabilisation European neighbourhood with great potential.and Association Agreements and the other Such a development can perfectly complementinstruments of policy at its hands, has been the EU’s own reform and leadership inpivotal in this process of change. However, it tomorrow’s the countries of the region themselves whichhave made it happen and it is only throughtheir continuous effort that EU accession can beachieved. Yannis Valinakis is Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Greece.The Western Balkans’ path towards Europeanintegration is a story of mutual commitment.For its part, the EU should keep its promises,renewed in Thessaloniki. We need to export‘Europe’, not ‘euro-scepticism’. The WesternBalkan countries should not interpret the recentdevelopments in the Union as a message toslow down the pace of reforms. On the contrary,today it is even more imperative to demonstratetheir willingness join the European family, andintensify their efforts. 169 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 158. René van der Linden The Council of Europe and the EU Partners for a Stable Europe By René van der Linden This year we celebrate would have been quite different and, quite the 50th anniversary of possibly, Europe would be more integrated than the European flag. This it is today. blue flag with the 12 gold stars is known by This contribution aims to recall what the Council most people in Europe, of Europe stands for, discuss current relationsand to some extent also beyond, as the flag between the two institutions and presentof the European Union. Only very few people proposals for increased synergy between them.know that it is actually the flag of the 46 nationCouncil of Europe, designed by one of its own The Council of Europe: an overviewstaff members, Arsène Heitz, and which in 1986was adopted, with the full consent of the Council Because the Council of Europe is not nearlyof Europe, by the then European Community, as well-known as the European Union, let menow the European Union. The same holds true briefly recall some of its more salient features.for the European Union’s anthem, Beethoven’sOde to Joy (although it is far less known). Already during World War Two, before the defeat of Hitler’s armies, Winston Churchill hadThe story of the flag is indicative of how argued publicly for the creation of a Council oflittle the public knows about the Council of Europe, which he saw as a means to preventEurope. Often, even in serious newspapers further wars in Europe. His vision, shared byand magazines, “Europe” is equated with the other great Statesmen, such as Adenauer and di“European Union”. The fact that the European Gasperi, led to the Council of Europe’s creationUnion has only 25 Member States and that at in 1949.least 21 other States, which are members ofthe Council of Europe are excluded by this For many years afterwards the Council of Europedefinition, seems to escape many. Unfortunately, remained an exclusively western Europeanit seems to escape many policy-makers too. organisation. However, following the fall of theYet Europe is much wider than the European Berlin Wall it became the first, and only, trulyUnion. For it to be stable and prosperous, I am pan-European organisation. Today, it unites overconvinced that this wider Europe not only needs 800 million Europeans, stretches from Icelandthe European Union, important as it is, but also to the Baring Straits and from the North Cape tothe Council of Europe. Two different, but highly the southern Caucasus.complementary institutions, created out of thesame vision, both born out of the ashes of the The Council of Europe’s core activitiesSecond World War. concentrate on human rights, democracy and the rule of law. This is complemented by policies andIt was within the Council of Europe’s action on legal cooperation, local and regionalParliamentary Assembly that proposals to create democracy, social cohesion, the protection ofa European Community of Coal and Steel, ethnic minorities, public health and consumerthe predecessor of the European Union, were protection, education, culture and culturalfirst made. Had certain Member States taken a heritage, youth and sport, and the environment.different position at the time, European history In the 50 years of its existence, it has established 171 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 159. The Council of Europe and the EU - Partners for a Stable Europe some 200 international conventions, replacing Moreover, PACE brings together politicians no less than 25,000 bilateral agreements. of every creed and culture in Europe and is thereby able to act as an important forum for Already in 1949 the Organisation’s Founding intercultural and inter-religious dialogue. Fathers had the foresight to create two statutory organs; a traditional intergovernmental In addition to the aforementioned organs, the Committee of Ministers and a Parliamentary European Court of Human Rights has acquired Assembly, referred to at the time as a Consultative enormous importance. Through its legally Assembly. There can be no doubt that many of binding judgements, which are the result of cases the Council’s main achievements, such as, for brought forward by individual citizens against instance, the European Convention on Human their Governments, the European Court of Rights, and indeed over one third of all its Human Rights makes an invaluable contribution Conventions, originated in the Parliamentary to a common legal space in Europe. Assembly (PACE). The Assembly can therefore quite rightly be considered the engine of the Other important institutions of the Organisation Organisation. include the: Whereas the Committee of Ministers brings • Congress of Local and Regional Authorities; together 46 Ministers - replaced by their • Commissioner for Human Rights; Deputies, i.e. Ambassadors in Strasbourg - the • European Committee for the Prevention Parliamentary Assembly is composed of 630 of Torture and Inhuman and Degrading parliamentarians, which are nominated by Treatment; and their National Parliaments. They have therefore • European Commission through Democracy a national and a European mandate. They and Law, also known as the “Venice are able to inject an essential international Commission”. dimension to national debates. The size of these delegations varies between 2 and 18 and they Nearly 400 NGOs have been granted participatory must always not only include members of both status within the Council of Europe and make the governing majority and the opposition, important contributions to its work. They are a but also both men and women. Its pluralistic key pillar of the Council of Europe’s policy. composition is therefore markedly different from that of the Committee of Ministers and this The Council of Europe’s headquarters are in has often enabled progress to be made in areas Strasbourg, and the whole Organisation has a where governments alone would have remained staff of about 2,000 with an annual budget of deadlocked. around €180 million. The PACE also acts as a school of democracy. Current Council of Europe – European Many European leaders obtained their Union cooperation international training here. Closer cooperation between the Council of It has also been a pioneer in parliamentary Europe and the EU with a view to avoiding diplomacy: effectively complementing the work duplication is a priority. I underlined this in my of government officials. inaugural speech as in-coming President of the PACE. An example of this is the Round-Table on Chechnya and the work in the Caucasus. It has The legal basis for relations between the recently resolved issues between Greece and European Union and the Council of Europe is Turkey, and Slovakia and Ukraine. found in Article 303 of the EC Treaty, which stipulates that: “The Community shall establish172 European View
  • 160. René van der Lindenall appropriate forms of cooperation with The recent enlargement of the Europeanthe Council of Europe.” This cooperation is Union has been accompanied by increasedfurther developed with regard to the European competencies for the Union. In the absenceCommission, by two exchanges of letters, dating of an appropriate legal basis, there has been afrom 1987 and 1996, as well as the 2001 Joint de facto appropriation of competencies by theDeclaration on cooperation and partnership European Commission.between the Council of Europe and theEuropean Commission. Having started my career in the Commission secretariat and having been involved as a DeputyAt the highest political level, cooperation is Minister and parliamentarian for very manydiscussed at the so-called quadripartite meetings, years in EU matters, most recently as memberwhich bring together the Secretary General and of the Convention, I can say that I know boththe Chairman-in-Office of the Committee of organisations well and have always stronglyMinisters of the Council of Europe, as well as the supported the independence of the EuropeanPresidency of the EU Council and the President Commission. However, the above-mentioned(or Commissioner for External Relations) of the initiatives have led me to take a more criticalEuropean Commission. These meetings are held attitude. In particular, it would seem essentialonce or twice a year. The PACE has repeatedly that the European Commission does not try tourged that they include a parliamentary duplicate work that is already being carried out,dimension. A joint initiative with the European and carried out most effectively, by the CouncilParliament to obtain this is currently underway. of Europe. An example of this tendency is the proposal, unfortunately rather rapidly endorsedThere are regular contacts between certain by the Council, to transform the Vienna basedcommittees of the PACE and of the European EU Observatory on Racism and Intolerance intoParliament. In October 2005, after an an EU Human Rights Agency. The proposalsinterruption of several years, a meeting between currently on the table still carry a real risk ofthe Presidential Committee of PACE and the duplication, and thereby weakening of humanConference of Presidents of the European rights standards in Europe.Parliament was held. Joint sessions of PACE andthe European Parliament took place in 2002 and The European Union’s enlargement is based2003. on the so-called Copenhagen Criteria. Upon close examination, it is evident that theseAt the intergovernmental level, there is regular criteria are virtually identical and clearly baseddialogue between European Commission on accession criteria to the Council of Europe.officials and the secretariat of the Council of Commission reports on candidate countries,Europe, including an annual meeting of senior such as on Turkey, are based on Council ofofficials. Europe texts and reports. However, more often than not, they fail to quote the source. Indeed,Since 1993, joint programmes of assistance and a rather incoherent approach can be observedcooperation aimed at helping Central and Eastern in Commission documents concerning non-European States which have recently joined the EU members which are Member States of theCouncil of Europe, have been developed. They Council of Europe.are financed jointly, with the Council of Europetaking responsibility for implementation. Thus To overcome these difficulties, and followingthe important contribution the Council of Europe much insistence, notably from the Parliamentaryis making to help some of the new EU Member Assembly, the European Commission finallyStates to achieve the acquis communautaire appointed a permanent representative to thecannot be underestimated. Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers, with the title of Ambassador. Although not resident, 173 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 161. The Council of Europe and the EU - Partners for a Stable Europe he participates in all meetings of the Ministers’ Political decision-makers should be made more Deputies and subsidiary groups. Unfortunately, aware of this. At the level of National Parliaments the Council of Europe’s representative in however, this issue is fortunately attracting more Brussels does not enjoy any of these privileges. attention. COSAC (the Committee of Chairmen It would seem logical that Council of Europe of European Affairs Committees of the EU representatives be invited to the meetings of Member States) is, for instance, considering the COREPER when agenda items concern the question of the EU Human Rights Agency and Council of Europe activities. the risks of duplication with the work of the Council of Europe. The Council of Europe’s Conventions aim to create a common European legal space. 41 of The Warsaw Summit these Conventions are open to the European Community, but the latter has only signed 11 and On 16 and 17 May 2005, the Council of Europe ratified 9 of these. Only 8 of these conventions organised its Third Summit of Heads of State have entered into force. and Government. The choice of Warsaw as its venue was highly symbolic. In institutional As a member of the European Convention, terms the Summit coincided with Poland’s I strongly pleaded for the inclusion in the rotating Chairmanship of the Council of Europe’s Constitutional Treaty of a clause concerning Committee of Ministers. However, it would have accession of the European Union to the European been difficult to think of a better place than Convention on Human Rights, a long-standing Warsaw to organise the first ever Summit of the wish of both the Parliamentary Assembly and whole of Europe. This city became a symbol of the European Parliament. Regrettably, the the horrors of World War Two and witnessed the negative results of the referenda on the Treaty birth of the Solidarity movement, the success of in France and the Netherlands have delayed that which ultimately resulted in the fall of the Berlin prospect. Wall and the reunification of Europe. The dates of the Summit were equally historic: 60 years The EU Neighbourhood Policy directly concerns after the end of the Second World War, 30 years several Member States of the Council of Europe. after the Helsinki Final Act, 25 years after the It would therefore seem essential that the founding of “Solidarity” and 15 years after the Council of Europe’s expertise, mechanisms, and fall of the Berlin Wall. instruments should be appropriately used by the Union. A report on the subject was adopted The event brought together almost the entire by the PACE in October 2005. continent. Only Belarus, where people continue to suffer under the autocratic regime of President In conclusion, it is fair to say that the current Lukashenko, remains outside the European relationship between the 46 member Council of family. As host, Polish President Kwasniewski Europe and the 25 member European Union does stated at the opening: “never before has Europe not do justice to the added value the Council of been so strong, so safe, so close to being united.” Europe has to offer. Transparency is a one-way The Heads of State and Government adopted street, where the Council of Europe’s expertise the “Warsaw Declaration”, which confirmed the is not used to its full advantage; opportunities Council of Europe’s leading role in developing to accede to instruments and to benefit from democracy, defending human rights and considerable know-how are not seized. Its advancing the rule of law on the continent. PACE and its Court are unique instruments for They also adopted an Action Plan, which developing and promoting our values. identifies ways and means of accomplishing these objectives.174 European View
  • 162. René van der LindenIt is significant to note that many of the At my initiative, however, at the Summit, Headsconsiderations of the Declaration, as well as of State and Government agreed to ask Mr Jean-the elements of the Action Plan, resulted in Claude Juncker, Prime Minister of Luxembourgproposals made by the Parliamentary Assembly, to prepare, in a personal capacity, a report onwhich had also launched the idea of holding a the relationship between the Council of EuropeThird Summit.1 and the European Union. Although not formally related to the aforementioned MemorandumAn important part of the Summit’s deliberations of Understanding, this report, knowing theconcerned the question of European architecture, extraordinary capability of its author, will noi.e. the relations between the various European doubt chart a realistic political roadmap fororganisations. cooperation between the organisations in the future.The Summit managed to secure and improvepractical cooperation between the Council of The Parliamentary Assembly will certainly makeEurope and the OSCE and endorsed a Joint a substantial contribution to this report. SomeDeclaration of the two organisations on this issue. preliminary proposals are set out below.More fundamental, and of particular importanceto this contribution, were the discussions on Given that the EU wants to strengthen itsthe relationship between the Council of Europe relations with National Parliaments, this couldand the European Union. Here it must be stated very usefully be done via the PACE.from the outset that an opportunity was missedin Warsaw for resolving once and for all the Proposalsquestion of the relative competence of the twoorganisations. In its proposals for the Summit, Building on the increased awareness of the needthe Parliamentary Assembly had clearly argued for more synergy, the following proposal wouldthat the Summit should invite the European seem to merit consideration by the 25 MemberUnion to: States of the European Union, all of which are, of course, also members of the Council of Europe.• consider the Council of Europe as the key Standards and policies developed by the 25 with forum for developing and implementing its their partners within the “46” remain valid and neighbourhood policy; important for them as EU members too.• accede to all Council of Europe conventions open to it in order to promote the creation It would be important that the Commission of a Single European Area; representative to the Committee of Ministers• make systematic and acknowledged use becomes resident in Strasbourg, enabling him or of the expertise of the Council of Europe’s her to attend all meetings. Access should also be mechanisms and instruments. granted to the Council of Europe representative in Brussels where agenda items warrant this.Unfortunately, it did not prove possible toreach agreement on these proposals and the New impetus should be provided for EU accessionSummit decided that cooperation between the to existing Council of Europe instruments,Council of Europe and the European Union notably the European Convention on Humanshould be elaborated in a “Memorandum of Rights, as well as for the acknowledged use ofUnderstanding”. In an appendix to the Action Council of Europe expertise.Plan, guidelines were agreed.1 175 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 163. The Council of Europe and the EU - Partners for a Stable Europe PACE and the European Parliament should set Politicians have a clear responsibility to seize the example by increased cross references to opportunities. Improving cooperation between each others’ work. In particular: the European Union and the Council of Europe is just such an opportunity. • involve each other’s rapporteurs and committee chairpersons in discussions on We should not miss it. issues of common interest; • organise joint committee hearings, seminars and colloquies; • organise joint fact-finding missions; René van der Linden is the President of the • set up joint assistance programmes; Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of • organise regular meetings of their bureaux; Europe. • invite their respective Presidents to address the other body at regular intervals. Moreover, the European Parliament could make increased use of PACE monitoring reports. A parliamentary dimension should be included in the quadripartite meetings. This would inject fresh thinking and enable increased action in National Parliaments, as well as in the European Parliament, to ensure follow-up to decisions taken concerning co-operation between the two institutions. It will also add credibility to the exercise. The European Union would benefit greatly from making use of the Council of Europe as a forum for its cooperation with European non-member states. The EU would gain by also using its potential as a forum for intercultural and inter- religious dialogue, as well as for dialogue with civil society. The standard-setting role of the Council of Europe, also for EU Member States in fields of the Council of Europe’s competence, should be recognised, acknowledged and implemented. Delays have occurred, and are perhaps inevitable in such an ambitious project as the European construction - which on a global level remains unprecedented. In this context, I am convinced that the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty by the French, as well as by my compatriots, was a historical mistake: a missed opportunity.176 European View
  • 164. Victor Yushchenko Ukraine Towards the European Project By Victor Yushchenko What does it mean to Civil Law provides two principles for gaining be European? First of all citizenship – jus sanguinis and jus soli. it means to be a citizen Considering them in the light of current – a person enjoying integration processes in Europe, we see two inalienable fundamental major forces shaping the European Union’s rights and freedoms profile – history (inheritance, roots, memory)and who has a relationship with other people and geopolitics (interests, resources, territory).based on duty and mutual respect. So, it is not In trying to give a clear and definite answer tosurprising that one of the first joint documents on the question on Ukraine’s future – European orthe way towards European integration became whatever else – we must demonstrate the role ofthe European Convention on Human Rights and Ukraine in Europe’s history and its place in thethe first supranational institution, the European European integration processes.Court of Human Rights, was mandated to protectcitizens regardless of their age, sex, race, origin Let’s begin with geopolitics. If 50 years agoor religion. geopolitics was a science about balance of power, movement and conflicts between military powers, now it is about the strategicEuropean identity is both a national and management of the movement of capital, goodstransnational concept. Being European is a and services, people and ideas.unique national feeling which is underpinnedby a special independent process of forming an Ukraine has both successes and failures ininstitution of citizenship in each of the European this sphere. 14 years of independence haveUnion Member States. Europe was not built all at passed but the weight of our Soviet heritageonce or according to a single plan. If people were still remains our major problem. The “Easternthe same all over Europe, the Union would have vector” of Ukrainian foreign policy has justemerged long ago. If each national programme started to take shape with a new status of realdid not have to have common fundamental equality rather than cosmetic equality. In Russia,features, the European project would have failed one can see that illusions of restoring Soviet-due to national egoism. However, there may style supranational bodies and a single centrebe other traits of national identity that emerge of decision-making are being abandoned.within societies from time to time as proven by Russia represents a multi-polar world; thereforethe referenda on the EU Constitution in France it ought also to accept a multi-polar system inand the Netherlands - but these are exceptions the post-Soviet space. The successful Europeanthat do not quash the general principle. project has proved that national democracy only benefits from the democratisation (equality) of international relationships.The transnational nature of European identityis manifested in the procedure of mutual Presently, about 40% of Ukraine’s trade is withrecognition by nations of each other’s equality the European Union. Ukraine will enhanceand self-sufficiency, incorporating a common these relations after joining the World Tradeset of rules and uniting efforts in maintaining Organisation and receiving market economydialogue with the wider world. Being European status. The European Union rates first amongmeans making consensus decisions. foreign investors in Ukraine (having made $4.652 177 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
  • 165. Ukraine Towards the European Project billion of direct investments). By promoting space is one of Ukraine’s main goals. This is the legality, electing a new Parliament and forming only way forward for a new Europe. a responsible government, Ukraine is expecting a marked increase in foreign investment. Such An essential element of Europe’s civilised statements were made during the Extraordinary expansion is to continue providing humanitarian Ukraine Round-table 2005. cooperation and remain open to a dialogue of cultures. Open societies, including the European Ukraine is deepening its cooperation with the Union, will remain stable and prosperous EU in both the energy and security spheres. The by keeping their doors open to reasonable Ukrainian government is forging relationships cooperation and beneficial interchange. We with Russia and Turkmenistan in spite of non- are currently urging the EU Member States transparent and unjust schemes of payment not to turn the “neighbourhood” mechanism for energy carriers left by the former regime. into a political “purgatory” where candidates Moreover, Ukraine is actively seeking partners for EU membership will be retained for an to diversify methods of supplying Caspian oil indefinite period. Ukraine is against a “Europe and gas to Europe. We can achieve this goal by of privileges”, Ukraine stands for a “Europe of completing the Odessa-Brody-Gdansk pipeline opportunities”. project and holding negotiations on the creation of a gas-transport consortium to enhance the An important psychological factor will be an transit facility of the Ukrainian gas-transport easing of European Union visa restrictions for system. Ukraine. Having improved living standards in Ukraine, its citizens will be able to find decent Since 1994 Ukraine has been positioning itself jobs in their homeland. Ukrainians will travel to not only as a consumer but also as a contributor Europe to visit, study and to share experiences. to security on the European continent. Ukrainian Initiatives such as “Europe – non-visa space for peacekeepers were present in all the European country members of the Council of Europe” “hot spots” – Bosnia and Herzegovina and are convincing evidence of a driving force for Kosovo - as well as the Persian Gulf and the unifying processes on the continent. Golan Heights. Ukraine proved to be an efficient participant of the Euro-Atlantic integration It is in this context that we view the EU- process: an intensified dialogue with NATO is Ukraine Action Plan. I am convinced that along proof that our country is making substantial with the fulfilment of this Plan, the European contributions to collective security in Europe. Union’s intention to develop another strategy of relationships with Ukraine will change into a However, there are threats which a country political will to give Ukraine the prospective of cannot cope with alone. Ukraine deeply regretted EU membership. the terrorist attacks in Madrid in March 2004, a school hostage siege in Beslan in September Realisation of the Action Plan will result in the 2004 and the 7 July London bombings. We should signature of a new agreement, in the form of a respond to the challenge of terrorism using not European Association Agreement. We will build only forceful but also civilised means, in other cooperation and work hard so that we may, words by exporting high European standards in the near future, apply for EU membership of living, safety and democracy to the regions in accordance with Article 49 of the Treaty of beyond Europe, such as the Black Sea, Caspian the European Union. Ukraine is ready to work Sea area and the Near East. Regional integration its way up to comply with the Copenhagen based on European principles and values, criteria. forming a zone of stability and cooperation from Vitebsk to Baku, harmonising with the EU The so-called jus soli, which indicates that178 European View
  • 166. Victor YushchenkoUkraine territorially belongs to a United Europe, President, I would like to say that my countryis clear and indisputable. However, the jus is ready for such a dialogue. We are ready tosanguinis of Ukraine to be spiritually regarded study the European integration process togetheras a European state should be meticulously with the 25 nations and leaders of the Europeananalysed. It may take elites and nations years to Union.reach mutual understanding.Europe was divided after World War II. Tosome extent, this geopolitical and historical split Victor Yushchenko is President of Ukraine.was a stereotype shared by many politiciansand mainstream Europeans. They have beenendeavouring to overcome this consciousobstacle since the fall of the Berlin Wall fifteenyears ago.The worst stereotype of that time was the divisionof Europeans into those who were susceptibleto market and democratic changes and thosewho failed to accept them. The existence ofsuch stereotypes can be seen in the difficultiesEuropeans faced to ratify the EU Constitutionor negotiate their common budget. One of themore tangible signs of such problems is the riseof radical nationalistic forces in Europe.There was an unsuccessful attempt to classifyUkrainians into territorial, ethnic, and linguisticgroups during the 2004 presidential campaign.Fortunately, the nation proved to be wiser thansome cynical politicians. The Orange Revolutionwas a massive response to this fraudulentelection. The people who battled for dignity,free will and civil rights demonstrated thatEuropean values were an integral part of theirworld view.The European Union is standing on the thresholdof its own Orange Revolution, and I believe itis beginning to understand that history does notobey any directives or commissions. It is createdby a dialogue between sides that tolerate eachother and accept each other’s unique historicalexperience. By fencing itself off from Ukraine,the EU narrows its historical perspective as acommunity of free and developed nations. Thisis why I ask you to be unbiased. I ask you tostart an all-European dialogue to discuss thefuture of our peoples in a United Europe. As 179 Volume 2 - Autumn 2005
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