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What is SQAM (standards, quality, accreditation, and metrolog) (1 of 2)
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What is SQAM (standards, quality, accreditation, and metrolog) (1 of 2)

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The first of two talks given to the Council of the Swaziland Standards Authority (SWASA), to introduce what standards etc. are, and to give some practical examples of what they are and how they apply ...

The first of two talks given to the Council of the Swaziland Standards Authority (SWASA), to introduce what standards etc. are, and to give some practical examples of what they are and how they apply to modern life.

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  • Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM), an intergovernmental conference of official delegates of member nations and the supreme authority for all actions; Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM), consisting of selected scientists and metrologists, which prepares and executes the decisions of the CGPM and is responsible for the supervision of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), a permanent laboratory and world center of scientific metrology, the activities of which include the establishment of the basic standards and scales of the principal physical quantities and maintenance of the international prototype standards.
  • Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM), an intergovernmental conference of official delegates of member nations and the supreme authority for all actions; Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM), consisting of selected scientists and metrologists, which prepares and executes the decisions of the CGPM and is responsible for the supervision of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), a permanent laboratory and world center of scientific metrology, the activities of which include the establishment of the basic standards and scales of the principal physical quantities and maintenance of the international prototype standards.

What is SQAM (standards, quality, accreditation, and metrolog) (1 of 2) What is SQAM (standards, quality, accreditation, and metrolog) (1 of 2) Presentation Transcript

    • Kaixo Basque
    Mingalarba Burmese Hello English Baas salamu alaay kum Bengali
  • International standards are essential The spoken word On Earth there are approximately 7000 living spoken languages Each has the (standarization) support of a linguistic society English - Queens English Society Spanish - Real Academia Española French - Académie Française The most frequent (by number of countries) are English, Spanish, and French
  • ISO 693 – Language codes Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ISO_639-1_codes ssw - ssw ss sisSwati mya bur mya my Burmese bul - bul bg Bulgarian ben - ben bn Bengali eus baq eus eu Basque
  • Are you writing this all down? ISO 216 on paper sizes The ISO paper size concept With the ISO paper size system, all sheet sizes have a width to height ratio of the square root of two (1:1.4142) Economy of production interworking
  • International standards are essential The written word There are over 100 writing systems used globally, but … .. the combination of Latin alphabet plus Hindu-Arabic numerals has become the standard for international communication
  • ISO 8859-1 : Latin 1 character set Source: http://htmlhelp.com/reference/charset/
  • It’s all green! 10 out of a collection of 43 ‘greens’ Source: www.ipmsstockholm.org/colorcharts/stuff_eng_colorcharts_fs.htm           P:500815   P:PCA814/835               T:XF-61*2 + 65*1   T:XF-27/61 T:XF-17           Hu:150 Hu:117   Hu:116     FS 34230 FS 34258 FS 34138 FS 34187 FS 34127 FS 34102 FS 34098 FS 34079 FS 34058 FS 34050 Flat green Pale green Light green Willow green Forest green Forest green Bamboo Leaf green Bottle green Black green
  • Federal Standard 595B Colors Used in Government Procurement Current collection (January 1994) includes 611 colours. Revision (2008) will include 650 colours.
  • Colour matching Why is is important to be able to identify colour precisely?
    • Describe/specify something
    • Provide/sell something
    • Repair something
    • Replace something
    • Coordinate something
    • Repeat something
  • SWASA Council A Driving Force behind Swaziland National Standards
  • Today’s Goals
    • To inform you
    • To be informed by you
    • To show you how SWASA will inform
    • To show you where you can assist SWASA
    • To interest and amuse you
    • To inspire you
  • SWASA Council: Terms of Reference (1) Overall function as described in the Standards Act
    • Administers, manages, and controls the affairs of SWASA
  • SWASA Council: Terms of Reference (2)
    • Establishing guidelines for the drafting, issuing or amendment of standards
    • Establishing certification marks and register and protect them under the Trade Marks Act 1981
    • Establishing licensing (certification) schemes to manage the use of its certification marks
    • Maintaining consultative systems with national, regional, and international standards bodies and similar bodies
    • Making recommendations to the Minister regarding the identification of potential mandatory standards
    • Ensuring that it is practicable to apply a proposed mandatory standard
    Functions relating to standards and certification explicitly identified in the Standards Act include:
  • SWASA Council: Terms of Reference (3) Additional functions as envisaged by Director
    • Approval of establishment of new fields of technical work (not individual projects)
    • Approval of the constitution and operations of the [proposed] SWASA Standards Advisory Committee
    • Confirmation that the final texts of proposed standards have followed the due process of SWASA
    • Assist the Director in the promotion and preservation of the good name of SWASA
    • Assist the Director in the promotion of the principles and details of standards & standardization and associated activities (SQAM) inside and outside Swaziland
  • SWASA Council: Terms of Reference (3) Additional functions as envisaged by Director
    • Approval of establishment of new areas of technical work (not individual projects)
    • Approval of the constitution and operations of the proposed SWASA Standards Advisory Committee
    • Confirmation that the final texts of proposed standards have followed the due process of SWASA
    • Assist the Director in the promotion and preservation of the good name of SWASA
    • Assist the Director in the promotion of the principles and details of standards & standardization and associated activities (SQAM) inside and outside Swaziland
  • Selling Standardisation Convincing people they need something they’ve never even heard of
  • Door To Door
  • Six things you need to be a good salesman
    • Know (and understand) what it is that you are selling
    • Know who your clients are
    • Have convincing arguments to sell your product
    • Have proof that they need your product
    • Have endorsement by important people
    • Package the product appropriately
  • Could you sell one of these? Traditional Modern
  • What is it? What does it do?
  • Know your merchandise
    • What about now?
    Could you sell this?
  • Various names, same system …
    • SQAM – Standards, Quality, Accreditation, Metrology
    • NQI – National Quality Infrastructure
    • SMTQ – Standards, Metrology, Testing, Quality
  • What it is …
  • SQAM ?  ? ? SADCAS
    • Something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example
    • An established reference (“norm”) against which other things can be evaluated – the ‘usual way’ to do something
    • A set of guidelines , usually drafted by experts in a particular field of technology, that are issued for general use by national and international standards organisations
    Various definitions of “Standard” …
    • Standard of living
    • Standard of behaviour
    • Standard of care
    • Standard of hygiene
    • Standard of performance
    • Design standard
    • Technical Standards
    … for example …
  • (Technical) Standard Detailed definition*
    • establish requirements, guidelines and/or characteristics for products, processes, and services
    • are intended for shared & repeated use ( something for single-use might better be called a ‘Specification’ )
    • are [ typically ] publicly available documents
    • are developed by specialist group [ typically ] within a recognized standards development body
    • [ typically ] represent the broad consensus of stakeholder interests
    • are identified by a unique reference
    • are subject to review in order to keep it up-to-date
    *Based on definition in ISO Guide 2
  • (Technical) Standards can describe …
    • requirements for a product (e.g. a car tyre, an electric plug)
    • processes (e.g. quality management, Good Agricultural Practices)
    • services (e.g. tourism)
    • how to test a property (e.g. colourfastness, tensile strength)
    • classification systems (e.g. levels of security)
    • a ‘ dictionary ’ of terms (a “Vocabulary”)
    • “ Good practice ” (guidelines for installing something)
    • … etc
  •  
  • What standards do YOU have in YOUR pockets?
  •  
  • Credit cards/Bank cards/ID cards ISO 9564-1, Banking - Personal Identification Number (PIN) management and security , Part 1: Basic principles and requirements for online PIN handling in ATM and Point-of-Sale (POS) systems Interchangeability, interoperability, security Security, compatibility, system design ISO/IEC 7810 Identification cards -- Physical characteristics
  • Money & Machines The correct operation of vending machines, ticket machines, and many other machines is also dependent upon coin size and weights being standardized (or at least within certain limits)‏ interworking
  • We need relevant examples
    • It’s not so difficult to find examples or to illustrate them, but it is important to find relevant examples
    • SWASA staff are looking for such examples
    • Your input and ideas are welcome
  • What it isn’t Busting 5 myths
  •  Good Not sure  Bad Not everybody sees standards the same way ?
  • Myth #1  “ Standards inhibit innovation. They will not permit me to introduce new ideas, or to do things differently” Everything will have to be the same, like the peas in a pod
  • telephony + … messaging (SMS) photography, video internet position location (GPS) personal information management games, etc Dependent on standards but at the heart of innovation
  • Innovation & Standards INNOVATIONS AND STANDARDS FRIENDS OR FOES?
  • Messages
    • Doesn’t block innovation*
    • Needs active participation by stakeholders to ensure relevance
    * Unless you want it to, e.g. because of restrictions relating to interconnection, such as for electrical plugs
  • Myth #1 “ Standards inhibit innovation. They will not permit me to introduce new ideas, or to do things differently”
  • Myth #2  “ Standards are mandatory. I will be forced to use them”
    • National and International (e.g. ISO) standards are typically developed and implemented on a voluntary basis i.e. are not in themsleves intended to be ‘imposed’ on users
    • What typically makes standards ‘mandatory’ are associated regulations . Regulations ARE mandatory, and if the refer to standards then the standards become mandatory “by association”
    Myth #2
  • Myth #2 “ Standards are mandatory. I will be forced to use them”
  • Myth #3 “ Standards will be imposed on me - I won’t have a say in their content ” 
    • It is a requirement of membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that standards-making processes must be available to all stakeholders i.e. that mechanisms must be provided to permit contributions
    • In Swaziland standards users have the opportunity to contribute via SWASA– They should use the opportunity (but they will have to be encouraged and assisted) !
    Myth #3
  • Myth #3 “ Standards will be imposed on me - I won’t have a say in their content ”
  • Myth #4 “ I’m a small company. Standards are only relevant to large, established businesses…” 
    • Quality, efficiency and best practice – which can be improved through applying standards – are just as important to small firms as they are to larger companies .
    • All the potential benefits offered by standards are as relevant to start-ups and early-life businesses as to established firms
    Myth #4
  • Myth #4 “ I’m a small company. Standards are only relevant to large, established businesses…”
  • Myth #5 “ Standards are only applicable to products” 
  • Myth #5
    • First standards were for products
    • In the 1980’s standards for management procedures started to be developed
    • In the 1990’s standards for services started to appear
  • First SNS are systems standards
    • SWASA has already shown that standards are for more than products by progressing several systems standards to imminent publication
    • Quality Management
    • Environmental Management
    • Food Safety
    • Occupational Health and Safety
    • Et al
  • Myth #5 “ Standards are only applicable to products”
  • Who are The Clients?
  • Stakeholders (“interested parties“) of Standardization include …
    • The private sector (manufacturers, traders and retailers, importers and exporters, service providers, industry and trade associations, extractive, agricultural, fisheries, forest and other industries)
    • Professionals and academics (including consultants and staff of technical universities, research institutes and laboratories)
    • Consumers and consumer groups (that means YOU , whatever other stakeholder group you belong to)
    • Governments (different departments and regulatory agencies, publicly-owned industries and utilities)
    • Nations and regions (with different benefits depending on whether developed, or emerging, or developing)
  • Why should they want standards?
  •  Benefits of standards for …
    • Industry
    • Small and Medium Enterprises
    • Regulators and financiers
    • Consumers
    • Developing Countries
    • Everybody
  • Businessmen (Private Sector) whether big or small are looking for a commercial advantage. They are interested in …. Stakeholder Groups #1 & 2
  • … something that is almost guaranteed to …
    • Improve their products or services
    • Attract new customers
    • Increase their competitive edge
    • Inspire added trust in their business
    • Lessen the likelihood of mistakes
    • Reduce business costs
    • Make t h e i r products compatible
    • Comply with regulations
    • Make exporting t h e i r goods easier
    • Improve t h e i r chances of success
    • contractual agreements simplified
    • technical barriers to trade reduced
    • create global markets with the fewest differences in requirements from nation to nation
    • significantly lower transaction and production costs
    • greater choice of markets and suppliers
    • increased competition amongst suppliers; dependence on single supplier reduced
    • increased confidence in quality of products and services
    • support innovation
    • improved interdepartmental communication
    International standards are essential Benefits … of standards for industry 
    • reduce the risk of mistakes
    • reduce the time, effort and money to invest in R&D
    • help assessment of their processes
    • provide a reliable benchmark against which performance can be judged and demonstrated
    • help retain existing clients
    • enterprise becomes accessible to potential customers requiring compliance with standards
    • aid to maximising compatibility with products or services offered by others
    • a way of ensuring business meets regulatory obligations
    • provide information necessary for trading in new markets
    International standards are essential Benefits … of standards for Small and Medium Enterprises 
  • National systems of governance and regulators need support for their functions …. Stakeholder Group #3
    • support technical regulations while avoiding unnecessary barriers to trade ensure equity in trade
    • provide the technological and scientific bases underpinning health, safety and environmental legislation
    • when used in association with regulations contribute to safety
    • reflect ‘state-of-the-art’, so use a means to demonstrate ‘due-care’ and assist in liability management
    • guide those seeking financial assistance for procurements (e.g. via World Bank)
     Benefits … of standards for Regulators and Financiers
  • Private citizens (“consumers”) are looking for a good and safe Life. They want …. Stakeholder Group #4
    • safer, healthier, more environmentally sound products and services
    • products with improved quality and reliability
    • compatibility within and between products
    • greater consistency in the delivery of services
    • improved choice and access to goods and services
    • lower costs
    • better product or service information
     Benefits … of standards for Consumers
  • Developing countries need help & shortcuts …. Stakeholder Group #5
    • source of up-to-date technical information
    • establishment of national standards as possible basis of regulations
    • selection of technologies and equipment
    • adapting products for export
    • competitiveness of producers
    • safeguarding national interests for imports
    • retaining access to export markets
     Benefits … of standards for Developing Countries
  • There are many other ways standards help us all … Stakeholder Group #6
    • optimized solution to repetitive technical problems
    • protect safety, health and property from hazards due to fire, explosion, chemicals, radiation, electricity
    • ensures interchangeability and interoperability
    • basis for procurement and assessment of quality
    • improvement guidance to organizations ( Quality management systems, Environmental management systems)
    • common terminology facilitating communication
    • contribution to sustainability
    Benefits … of standards for Everybody 
  • “ Being There” also brings benefits …
    • greater opportunity to influence content
    • early (insider) knowledge provides a competitive edge
    • good forum for trends identification
    • conversely, insights obtained can lead to less risk of investing in inappropriate technology
    • environment facilitates co-operation, particularly at the same position in the value chain
    • networking opportunities, supports dissemination of ideas
    • sharing of research through standards development beneficial to costs and speed of development
    • savings made through early application of standards in anticipation of adoption in regulations
    Benefits … of participating in the process of standardization 
  • Standards (SQAM in general) is a strategic matter, related to the well-being of you, your business, and your country
  • Some Words From Winnie
  • Get organized Get a plan Get a strategy And the message is … ?
  • Best Practice…Next Practice – How to survive, innovate and grow in an ever-changing world www.nssf.info
  • A Strategic Management Tool
    • Standardization is a
      • strategic management tool used by businesses to meet market demands, gather and act on information, and, most importantly, make money
    • Standardization is about:
      • technology, products, and business leadership
      • obtaining a comprehensive view of the market that includes customer demands, government policies, and competitor’s actions
      • acting on that information in an innovative and structured manner
    :
  • Strategic Standardization Planning Model Source : “ Best Practice…Next Practice – How to survive, innovate and grow in an ever-changing world ” - NSSF, BSI, DTI, & CBI Internal analysis Business boundaries Alternatives Evaluation & selection Implementation Monitoring, Control, Evaluation External analysis Business objectives SWOT analysis
  • Global Strategic relationships in standardization National Private Sector ISO Strategy (2005-2010) Swaziland/SWASA Sectors Company Subregional (Harmonized) SADC Regional ARSO
  • UK National Standardization Strategic Framework (NSSF) www.nssf.info
    • Set up in 2003 by UK government as part of its commitment to innovation and technology (initiative now concluded).
    • Was funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and led jointly by:
      • Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)
      • British Standards Institution (BSI)
      • Confederation of British Industry (CBI)
      • United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS)
  • “Must Read” NSSF publications
    • The Small Business Guide to Making Standards Work
    • Best Practice... Next Practice
    • Standards and Intellectual Property Rights
    • NSSF - Shaping the Future of Standards in the UK
    • White Paper - 'Standardization as a business investment
    • The Empirical Economics of Standards
    • Enabling Lighter Touch Regulation
    • Improving the efficiency of public procurement
    • The Standards Solution for Government
  • Best Practice…Next Practice – How to survive, innovate and grow in an ever-changing world www.nssf.info
  • Standards are good for me? Prove it
  • Unloading a timber ship: 1970 - 108 men X five days = 540 man-days 2006 – 8 men X 1 day = 8 man-days 98,5 % reduction in man-days Providing to ISO a royalty-free license, Mc Lean allowed use of his patented designs in the creation of an international standard Freight Containers 
  • Once again, we need relevant examples
    • There are examples, together with associated data, but it is important to find relevant examples
    • SWASA staff are looking for such examples
    • Your input and ideas are welcome
  • Who else thinks they are something I need?
  • They need more than your word
    • Government level endorsement
    • King’s Office endorsement
    • Major stakeholders e.g. federations of commerce
    • Organizations close to the people e.g. consumer bodies
    • National policies e.g. the new Quality Policy
    • Regional strategic statements e.g. SADC Protocol on Trade
    • “Push” from global initiatives e.g. WTO TBT commitments
  • Package the idea in a way that makes sense
  • Standards for responsible business ISO 9001 Quality management ISO 14001 Environmental management ISO 26000 Social responsibility SA 8000 Social responsibility OHSAS 18001 Work place safety Investors in People standard Personal growth of employees
  • FOOD SAFETY - ISO 22000 Food safety management systems -- Requirements for any organization in the food chain Failures in food supply chain can be dangerous and costly. Approximately 65% of ISO’s food standards (673 to date) deal with analysis and test methods. ISO ISO 22000 specifies standards for food safety management systems to complement regulatory requirements
  • Scare them You thought your hands were clean … On each cm 2 of your hand there are around 1500 bacteria. Standards on food safety management such as ISO 22000 contribute to avoiding food contamination and issues such as food poisoning http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/pubcd/B693.htm … and one day later Unwashed Washed (soap & water) Washed (antiseptic) A hand touches a plate …
  • Associate them with Global Initiatives Sustainable Development
    • “ Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs ”*
    • It demands the positive interaction of three elements:
          • Economic growth
          • Social equity
          • Environmental integrity
    • * Source: World Commission on Environment and Development
  • Economic growth
  • Social equity
  • Environmental integrity
  • The perfect marriage … Standards and (Technical) Regulations
    • Voluntary standards can be used as a basis for mandatory regulations:
      • Incorporating standards (the actual text or sections of the actual text) into legislation
      • Incorporating references to standards into legislation (often using the clause “as amended from time to time”)
    Standards and Technical Regulations To Be Continued
  • Epilogue : Standardization initiatives don’t always succeed!
  • The sad saga of the “International” electrical plug Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Italy, Maldives, Syria, Tunisia, Uruguay 9 Countries i.e. 184 countries use something else!
  • The World of Electrical Plugs! 13 incompatible versions!
  •  
  • In this example of variety if the ‘loser’ in the world ‘standard’ the winners are the makers of adaptors! Electrical adaptors – the translators of the electrical world!
  • SWASA Council: Terms of Reference (3) Additional functions as envisaged by Director
    • Approval of establishment of new areas of technical work (not individual projects)
    • Approval of the constitution and operations of the proposed SWASA Standards Advisory Committee
    • Confirmation that the final texts of proposed standards have followed the due process of SWASA
    • Assist the Director in the promotion and preservation of the good name of SWASA
    • Assist the Director in the promotion of the principles and details of standards & standardization and associated activities (SQAM) inside and outside Swaziland
  • You need to take the message to The People
    • “ Don’t ask what the Country can do for You
    • Ask what you can do for The Country”
    • Winston Churchill
    Don’t Ask …
    • “ Don’t ask what SWASA can do for You
    • Ask what you can do for SWASA ”
    • Lomkhosi Mkhonta
    Do …
  • The Standards Kitchen How are standards made, what are they made of, and who makes them? Coming Next …
  •  
  • Questions?