Can you imagine modern life without standards?

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It's always a challenge to explain what standards (and testing and certification) are to a general audience. This was a half day introduction given in Bogota, Colombia, to a mixed audience. The most popular bit was when then had to analyze what standards were associated with a chocolate bar!

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Can you imagine modern life without standards?

  1. 1. Como Imaginar La Vida Sin Normas Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 1
  2. 2. What colour is this? 10 Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 2
  3. 3. What colour is this? Black Bottle Leaf Bamboo Forest Forest Willow Light Pale Flat green green green green green green green green green FS FS FS FS FS FS FS FS FS FS 34050 34058 34079 34098 34102 34127 34187 34138 34258 34230 Hu:116 Hu:117 Hu:150 T:XF- T:XF- T:XF- 17 27/61 61*2 + 65*1 P:PCA P:5008 814/83 15 5 10 out of a collection of 43 ‘greens’ Source: www.ipmsstockholm.org/colorcharts/stuff_eng_colorcharts_fs.htm Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 3
  4. 4. Federal Standard 595B Colors Used in Government Procurement Current collection (January 1994) includes 611 colours. Revision (2008) will include 650 colours. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 4
  5. 5. Pantone Color Matching System 1114 colours Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 5
  6. 6. Another green! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 6
  7. 7. Colour matching Why is is important to be able to identify colour precisely? ● Describe/specify something ● Provide/sell something ● Repair something ● Replace something ● Coordinate something ● Repeat something Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 7
  8. 8. Natural Needs … You’re a man, and you’re in a hurry … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 8
  9. 9. Natural Needs in China … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 9
  10. 10. Natural Needs … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 10
  11. 11. Avoiding confusion ISO 22727:2007, Graphical symbols – Creation and design of public information symbols – Requirements Derived from the signage systems developed for the major Olympic events of the 1960s and 1970s Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 11
  12. 12. ISO 7010:2003, Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs - Safety signs used in workplaces and public areas Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 12
  13. 13. Not always obvious! ? ? Fuel Level Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 13
  14. 14. Ooops! Too hot Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 14
  15. 15. Care labelling Vital, but also Modern Day hieroglyphics! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 15
  16. 16. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 16
  17. 17. So, what are “Standards”? Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 17
  18. 18. Various definitions of “Standard” … ● Something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example ● An established reference (“norm”) against which other things can be evaluated – the ‘usual way’ to do something ● A set of guidelines, usually drafted by experts in a particular field of technology, that are issued for general use by national and international standards organisations Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 18
  19. 19. … for example … ● Standard of living ● Standard of behaviour ● Standard of care ● Standard of hygiene ● Standard of performance ● Design standard ● Technical Standards Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 19
  20. 20. (Technical) Standard Detailed definition* q establish requirements, guidelines and/or characteristics for products, processes, and services q are intended for shared & repeated use (something for single-use might better be called a ‘Specification’) q are [typically] publicly available documents q are developed by specialist group [typically] within a recognized standards development body q [typically] represent the broad consensus of stakeholder interests q are identified by a unique reference q are subject to review in order to keep it up-to-date *Based on definition in ISO Guide 2 Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 20
  21. 21. (Technical) Standards can describe … q requirements for a product (e.g. a car tyre, an electric plug) q processes (e.g. quality management, Good Agricultural Practices) q services (e.g. tourism) q how to test a property (e.g. colourfastness, tensile strength) q classification systems (e.g. levels of security) q a ‘dictionary’ of terms (a “Vocabulary”) q “Good practice” (guidelines for installing something) … etc Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 21
  22. 22. Standards have been around for a long time Ancient civilizations achieved standardization of weights and measures (legal metrology) written language the calendar building construction road engineering The responsibility of providers of hazardous and non-safe buildings and goods was recognized by ancient laws Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 22
  23. 23. Ancient ‘weights and measures’ (measurement standards) (Pompeii c.79 AD!) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 23
  24. 24. Official Measurement of Colombian Gold Scales used to check bags of coins were within tolerance Official 12,5 kg weight Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 24
  25. 25. ¡Hola! привет! Zdravo! Salut! やあ! Merhaba! 喂! What did γεια! Hej! you say? Why can’t they just all say ‘Hello’ Eh? Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 25
  26. 26. International standards are essential The spoken word There are approximately 7000 living spoken languages The most frequent (by number of countries) are English, Spanish, and French Each has the (standarization) support of a linguistic society English - Queens English Society Spanish - Real Academia Española French - Académie Française Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 26
  27. 27. Inter- Inter-language translation English Espagñol You understand me today because standardized rules of grammar, syntax, and semantics permit translation (conversion) between English and Spanish Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 27
  28. 28. International standards are essential The written word There are over 100 writing systems used globally, but … .. the combination of Latin alphabet plus Hindu-Arabic numerals has become the standard for international communication Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 28
  29. 29. Are you writing this all down? ISO 216 on paper sizes The ISO paper size concept With the ISO paper size system, all sheet sizes have a width to height ratio of the square root of two (1:1.4142) Economy of production interworking Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 29
  30. 30. The man who changed Time Pope Gregory XIII : established the Gregorian Calendar in 1582. Now adopted (standardized) worldwide as the annual calendar Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 30
  31. 31. So, which is the real date? Es extraño. Es De veras? Cómo es el mismo día de posible? Esto es mi cumpleaños! igual al mio también! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 31
  32. 32. Date and Time – Fundamental standards ISO 8601, Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times has established the international standard date notation is YYYY- MM - DD 2 October 1931 February 10, 1931 1902, October 31 2002, October 31 Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 32
  33. 33. Who cares? Two scenarios …. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 33
  34. 34. #1 You’re a businessman. You’re looking for a commercial advantage. So, how much would you pay …. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 34
  35. 35. … for something that is almost guaranteed to … 1. Improve your products or services 2. Attract new customers 3. Increase your competitive edge 4. Inspire added trust in your business 5. Lessen the likelihood of mistakes 6. Reduce your business costs 7. Make your products compatible 8. Comply with regulations 9. Make exporting your goods easier 10. Improve your chances of success Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 35
  36. 36. #2 You’re a private citizen. You’re looking for a good and safe Life. So, how interested are you in …. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 36
  37. 37. … for something that can provide you with … 1. Safer, healthier, more environmentally sound products and services 2. Products with improved quality and reliability 3. Compatibility within and between things you buy 4. Greater consistency in the delivery of services 5. Improved choice and access to goods and services 6. Lower living costs 7. Better information about products or services Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 37
  38. 38. Stakeholders (“interested parties“) of Standardization include … The private sector (manufacturers, traders and retailers, importers and exporters, service providers, industry and trade associations, extractive, agricultural, fisheries, forest and other industries) Professionals and academics (including consultants and staff of technical universities, research institutes and laboratories) Consumers and consumer groups (that means YOU, whatever other stakeholder group you belong to) Governments (different departments and regulatory agencies, publicly-owned industries and utilities) Nations and regions (with different benefits depending on whether developed, or emerging, or developing) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 38
  39. 39. What standards do YOU have in YOUR pockets? Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 39
  40. 40. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 40
  41. 41. Credit cards/Bank cards/ID cards ISO/IEC 7810 Identification cards -- Physical characteristics Interchangeability, interoperability, security ISO 9564-1, Banking - Personal Identification Number (PIN) management and security, Part 1: Basic principles and requirements for online PIN handling in ATM and Point-of-Sale (POS) systems Security, compatibility, system design Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 41
  42. 42. … and much more Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 42
  43. 43. Money q Quality tests (assays) ensure that the fineness or composition of the metal is within the prescribed tolerance q The sizes and weights of coins are checked to ensure they are within tolerance allowed by law regulations quality Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 43
  44. 44. Money & Machines The correct operation of vending machines, ticket machines, and many other machines is also dependent upon coin size and weights being standardized (or at least within certain limits) interworking Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 44
  45. 45. Cigarettes q Standards (limits) associated with cigarettes – e.g. tar and nicotine content are established by regulations and supported by a range of standard test methods e.g. to assess characteristics of mainstream and sidestream smoke q Reduction of fire propogation Health Fire safety Environment Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 45
  46. 46. Lighters q Prior to 2007 in Europe 1,500 - 1,900 injuries and up to 40 deaths per year were due to fire- related accidents caused by children playing with lighters q Child-resistance requirements in the US resulted in a 60% reduction in the number of such accidents q Use of child-resistance mechanisms is mandatory in Europe, US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand Standards exist for the safe operation of Fire safety lighters (e.g. EN 13869:2002) particularly in relation to the safety of children. Personal safety Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 46
  47. 47. Music players Users of personal media players like the iPod use files in formats such as MP3 and MP4 to enjoy their music and videos on the move. The various MPEG standards developed by the the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) - a working group of ISO/IEC - have contributed to the development of an industry worth several hundred billion USD. Compatibility Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 47
  48. 48. Keys BS 3621:2004 Thief resistant lock assemblies. Key egress Interchangeability, security, safety Compliance with such standards is often preferred by insurance companies. There are also standards relevant to modern-day alternatives, e.g. access cards Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 48
  49. 49. Glasses Opticians make use of a wide range of standards to ensure the consistent and correct quality eye-tests and of various types of optics. health quality Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 49
  50. 50. Even in your most intimate moments … Mechnical contraceptives, in particular ISO 4074 the male condom, has received much standards attention in recent times, coinciding with the joint issues of concerns about health risks associated with sexually transmitted diseases and also with a growing tendency for families to be planned (and sometimes regulated) health responsible relationships Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 50
  51. 51. Standards are good for you. Really! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 51
  52. 52. Busting 5 myths Good Not everybody sees standards Bad the same way ? Not sure Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 52
  53. 53. Myth #1 “Standards inhibit innovation. They will not permit me to introduce new ideas, or to do things differently” Everything will have to be the same, like the peas in a pod Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 53
  54. 54. Dependent on standards but at the heart of innovation telephony + … messaging (SMS) photography, video internet position location (GPS) personal information management games, etc Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 54
  55. 55. Myth #1 “Standards inhibit innovation. They will not permit me to introduce new ideas, or to do things differently” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 55
  56. 56. Innovation & Standards ¿ INNOVACION Y NORMAS ? ¿ AMIGOS O ENIMIGOS ? Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 56
  57. 57. Myth #2 “Standards are mandatory. I will be forced to use them” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 57
  58. 58. Myth #2 National and International (e.g. ISO) standards are typically developed and implemented on a voluntary basis i.e. are not in themsleves intended to be ‘imposed’ on users What typically makes standards ‘mandatory’ are associated regulations. Regulations ARE mandatory, and if the refer to standards then the standards become mandatory “by association” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 58
  59. 59. Myth #2 “Standards are mandatory. I will be forced to use them” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 59
  60. 60. Myth #3 “Standards will be imposed on me - I won’t have a say in their content” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 60
  61. 61. Myth #3 It is a requirement of membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that standards- making processes must be available to all stakeholders i.e. that mechanisms must be provided to permit contributions In Colombia standards users have the opportunity to contribute – They should use it! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 61
  62. 62. Myth #3 “Standards will be imposed on me - I won’t have a say in their content” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 62
  63. 63. Myth #4 “I’m a small company. Standards are only relevant to large, established businesses…” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 63
  64. 64. Myth #4 Quality, efficiency and best practice – which can be improved through applying standards – are just as important to small firms as they are to larger companies. All the potential benefits offered by standards are as relevant to start-ups and early-life businesses as to established firms Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 64
  65. 65. Myth #4 “I’m a small company. Standards are only relevant to large, established businesses…” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 65
  66. 66. Myth #5 “Standards are only applicable to products” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 66
  67. 67. Myth #5 q First standards were for products q In the 1980’s standards for management procedures started to be developed q In the 1990’s standards for services started to appear Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 67
  68. 68. Myth #5 “Standards are only applicable to products” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 68
  69. 69. Standards are good for me? Prove it! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 69
  70. 70. Freight Containers Unloading a timber ship: 1970 - 108 men X five days = 540 man-days 2006 – 8 men X 1 day = 8 man-days 98,5 % reduction in man-days Providing to ISO a royalty-free license, Mc Lean allowed use of his patented designs in the creation of an international standard Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 70
  71. 71. Benefits of standards for … Industry Small and Medium Enterprises Regulators and financiers Developing Countries Consumers Everybody Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 71
  72. 72. International standards are essential Benefits … of standards for industry contractual agreements simplified technical barriers to trade reduced create global markets with the fewest differences in requirements from nation to nation significantly lower transaction and production costs greater choice of markets and suppliers increased competition amongst suppliers; dependence on single supplier reduced increased confidence in quality of products and services support innovation improved interdepartmental communication Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 72
  73. 73. International standards are essential Benefits … of standards for for Small and Medium Enterprises reduce the risk of mistakes reduce the time, effort and money to invest in R&D help assessment of their processes provide a reliable benchmark against which performance can be judged and demonstrated help retain existing clients enterprise becomes accessible to potential customers requiring compliance with standards aid to maximising compatibility with products or services offered by others a way of ensuring business meets regulatory obligations provide information necessary for trading in new markets Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 73
  74. 74. Benefits … of standards for Regulators and Financiers support technical regulations while avoiding unnecessary barriers to trade ensure equity in trade provide the technological and scientific bases underpinning health, safety and environmental legislation when used in association with regulations contribute to safety reflect ‘state-of-the-art’, so use a means to demonstrate ‘due-care’ and assist in liability management guide those seeking financial assistance for procurements (e.g. via World Bank) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 74
  75. 75. Benefits … of standards for Developing Countries source of up-to-date technical information establishment of national standards as possible basis of regulations selection of technologies and equipment adapting products for export competitiveness of producers safeguarding national interests for imports retaining access to export markets Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 75
  76. 76. Benefits … of standards for Consumers safer, healthier, more environmentally sound products and services products with improved quality and reliability compatibility within and between products greater consistency in the delivery of services improved choice and access to goods and services lower costs better product or service information Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 76
  77. 77. Benefits … of standards for Everybody optimized solution to repetitive technical problems protect safety, health and property from hazards due to fire, explosion, chemicals, radiation, electricity ensures interchangeability and interoperability basis for procurement and assessment of quality improvement guidance to organizations (Quality management systems, Environmental management systems) common terminology facilitating communication contribution to sustainability Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 77
  78. 78. Benefits … of participating in the process of standardization greater opportunity to influence content early (insider) knowledge provides a competitive edge good forum for trends identification conversely, insights obtained can lead to less risk of investing in inappropriate technology environment facilitates co-operation, particularly at the same position in the value chain networking opportunities, supports dissemination of ideas sharing of research through standards development beneficial to costs and speed of development savings made through early application of standards in anticipation of adoption in regulations Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 78
  79. 79. Standards contribute to ... avoiding unecessary security variety protection of the usability environment compatibility product protection interchangeability mutual understanding health economic performance safety trade Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 79
  80. 80. “Make exporting your goods easier” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 80
  81. 81. Two basic sorts of barriers to trade ... Tariffs and quotas, and similar Non-tariff barriers to trade Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 81
  82. 82. Trade documents A typical ‘Non-Tariff’ barrier to trade ... Invoice Order Quotation Consignment Document Despatch Notice International Consignment Note Certificate of Origin Export Customs Declarations Shipping Instructions Non-negotiable Sea Waybill IMMTA Non-negotiable Transport document IMMTA Negotiable Transport document Forwarding Instructions Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 82
  83. 83. Non- Non-tariff barriers affecting market access Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 83
  84. 84. Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) - Standards Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 84
  85. 85. (Potential) Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) (1) Technical regulations and voluntary standards that set out specific characteristics of a product Size, shape, design Functions Performance Labelling Packaging Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 85
  86. 86. Even something as ‘simple’ as a label blocks trade Labeling practices have grown more complex in recent years and traders and governments have voiced concerns about potentially negative implications for market access Example: Clothes labeling is covered by ISO 3758:2005 Textiles -- Care labeling code using symbols ISO 3758 is not acceptable in USA under the provisions of the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) Care Labeling Rule Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 86
  87. 87. (Potential) Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) (2) Technical procedures which confirm that products fulfil the requirements laid down in regulations and standards: Claims of conformity Conformity assessment Conformity assessment components such as testing, certification and accreditation Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 87
  88. 88. Help with understanding, using, and developing standards for Micro- and SMEs (MPYMEs) Micro- PROGRAMA NOREXPORT Acceso a los Mercados y a la Integración Regional Andina a través de la Normalización Técnica www.norexport.org Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 88
  89. 89. Kinds of standards Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 89
  90. 90. A standard for all needs, with or without limits Most limits Product standard (no options) Interchange standard Design standard Product standard (with options) Method of test (no options) Performance specification Method of test (with options) Classification system Vocabulary of terms Guide to specification Code of practice Guidance Recommendations Reports Results of R&D and other studies Fewest limits Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 90
  91. 91. Interchange standard Used in 53 countries safety, operation (out of 193) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 91
  92. 92. Test methods A high proportion (at least 10%) of published standards describe methods to determine (test) the properties of materials or designs, e.g. the various properties of a safe children’s pushchair e.g. Stability Performance of integrated safety harnesses Resistance to flammability Trapping hazards (fingers) Resistance to impacts Safety of paint and treatments (toxicity) Ability to clean Protection from sun Labelling Instructions for use Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 92
  93. 93. Products need Product Standards Typical elements of a product standard In one or more standards/parts of standards Separate elements Terminology Guidelines on Performance requirements conformity assessment Design requirements Guidelines on Marking/labelling requirements quality management Methods of test Installation or usage guidelines Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 93
  94. 94. One of my favourite products … Even the chocolate bar in your pocket needs standards … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 94
  95. 95. … and it’s your turn to do some work and prove it! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 95
  96. 96. Outside … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 96
  97. 97. Inside … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 97
  98. 98. All around … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 98
  99. 99. … Lots of them! q Quality and characteristics of ingredients (including general methods of tests and analysis for food products) Fruits and nuts Milk and milk products Cocoa Sugar. Sugar products. Starch Chocolate Edible oils and fats Food additives q Packaging Materials and articles in contact with foodstuffs q Production, handling, storage, etc. Processes in the food industry, including food hygiene and food safety (ISO 22000) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 99
  100. 100. Performance specifications (1) Performance specifications avoid prescriptive methods and focus on the final product or service They do not define a design or its manufacturing process in detail They do define: What is considered an acceptable product/service by defining its characteristics How to determine if the product/service is acceptable E.g. The fabric shall resist fading when tested in accordance with ISO 105-B02:1994 (Textiles -- Tests for colour fastness -- Part B02: Colour fastness to artificial light: Xenon arc fading lamp test) … [Important Note: Partial definition - additional test requirements/conditions will be necessary, together with limits] Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 100
  101. 101. Performance specifications (2) Using performance specifications: Avoids ‘fossilising’ design practices Increases options for innovation Increases access to state-of-the-art solutions Gives incentive to suppliers to explore options for potential improvements Provides potential to optimise service levels whilst at the same time offering better value for money Offers greater flexibility in working practices Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 101
  102. 102. Making standards It’s done in committees … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 102
  103. 103. The national standards body ... q El Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación (ICONTEC) es un organismo multinacional de carácter privado, sin ánimo de lucro q Trabaja para fomentar la normalización, la certificación, la metrología y la gestión de la calidad en Colombia www.icontec.org q 224 technical committees, many being mirrors of groups working at international level Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 103
  104. 104. The principle international standardizing bodies ... International Organization for Standardization - ISO International Electrotechnical Commission - IEC International Telecommunication Union - ITU-T … plus UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 104
  105. 105. Regional standards bodies EASC PASC CEN AIDMO SAARC ARSO ACCSQ COPANT PASC PASC 2005-09-07 Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 105
  106. 106. Standards development typically … Involves Negotiation * As applied in ISO and other bodies, Consultation consensus does not equate to a Compromise requirement for unanimous agreement Prioritisation Is structured, typically project-based Is consensus-based* Includes for open/‘public’ consultation mechanisms Involves meetings, including on-line/virtual meetings Benefits greatly from active participation by stakeholders Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 106
  107. 107. Names of ISO’s project stages … 0. Preliminary stage 1. Proposal stage 2. Preparatory stage 3. Committee stage 4. Enquiry stage 5. Approval stage 6. Publication stage Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 107
  108. 108. Justification and need Increase of stability & consensus through Increase of stability & consensus through Increase of stability & consensus through project Increase of stability & consensus through project Stage 0 Preliminary Stage Stage 1 Proposal stage (submission and review of project proposal) Stages 2/3 Preparatory & Committee Stages (working and committee drafts) Stage 4 Enquiry Stage (‘DIS vote’) Resolution of feedback from enquiry stage Stage 5 Approval Stage (‘FDIS vote’) Stage 6 Publication (followed by periodic reviews) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 108
  109. 109. Consensus building Increase of stability & consensus through Increase of stability & consensus through Increase of stability & consensus through project Increase of stability & consensus through project Stage 0 Preliminary Stage Stage 1 Proposal stage (submission and review of project proposal) Stages 2/3 Preparatory & Committee Stages (working and committee drafts) Stage 4 Enquiry Stage (‘DIS vote’) Resolution of feedback from enquiry stage Stage 5 Approval Stage (‘FDIS vote’) Stage 6 Publication (followed by periodic reviews) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 109
  110. 110. External Review, and Reconciliation of feedback Increase of stability & consensus through Increase of stability & consensus through Increase of stability & consensus through project Increase of stability & consensus through project Stage 0 Preliminary Stage Stage 1 Proposal stage (submission and review of project proposal) Stages 2/3 Preparatory & Committee Stages (working and committee drafts) Stage 4 Enquiry Stage (‘DIS vote’) Resolution of feedback from enquiry stage Stage 5 Approval Stage (‘FDIS vote’) Stage 6 Publication (followed by periodic reviews) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 110
  111. 111. Typical project stages Preliminary preparations prior to launching of project Formal review of proposal for new project [with vote] Development of internal consensus amongst experts [with vote] Stages Stages may be Submission of envisaged publication for external review [with vote] may be repeated repeated Resolution of feedback from external review Submission of envisaged final text for external approval [with vote] Finalization and publication (followed by maintenance) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 111
  112. 112. Finalisation & Approval Increase of stability & consensus through Increase of stability & consensus through Increase of stability & consensus through project Increase of stability & consensus through project Stage 0 Preliminary Stage Stage 1 Proposal stage (submission and review of project proposal) Stages 2/3 Preparatory & Committee Stages (working and committee drafts) Stage 4 Enquiry Stage (‘DIS vote’) Resolution of feedback from enquiry stage Stage 5 Approval Stage (‘FDIS vote’) Stage 6 Publication (followed by periodic reviews) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 112
  113. 113. ‘Best Case’ (Minimum) Project stages Stage 0 Stage 1 Proposal stage (submisson and review of project proposal) Stages 2/3 Stage 4 Enquiry Stage (‘DIS vote’) (100% appoval) Resolution of editorial feedback from enquiry stage Stage 5 Stage 6 Publication Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 113
  114. 114. Keeping it relevant – Systematic reviews Every deliverable published by ISO or jointly with IEC is reviewed by the technical committee or subcommittee responsible The timing of a systematic review is normally based either on the year of publication or, where a document has already been confirmed, on the year in which it was last confirmed Similar systems have been established by most national standards bodies Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 114
  115. 115. Standards development always … “.. Benefits greatly from active participation by stakeholders” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 115
  116. 116. Contributing International standards body Companies & Individuals Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 116
  117. 117. Contributing ISO International standards body Regional standards body International trade organisation ICONTEC National standards body National trade organisation Companies & Individuals Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 117
  118. 118. New standards Don’t re-invent the wheel A standard may already exist! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 118
  119. 119. Sources of new standards International standards body Regional standards body International trade organisation National standards body National trade organisation Companies & Individuals Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 119
  120. 120. Supporting the standard … “Conformity Assessment” Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 120
  121. 121. Conformity Claim “It meets the standard” Claims of conformity need to be checked and verified, and potentially confirmed through formal proceses Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 121
  122. 122. Conformity Assessment (CA) is … Checking whether products, services, materials, processes, systems and personnel meet the requirements of standards, regulations, or other specifications Includes Testing Inspection Certification Accreditation Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 122
  123. 123. Why use CA? 1. Provide purchasers with confidence in the suppliers, products, or services that they use 2. Help business to be competative 3. Facilitate trade 4. Create market advantage 5. Provide a visible link between standards and the market Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 123
  124. 124. First party (“Do-It-Yourself”) assessment (“Do-It- … is when conformity assessment (checking) is carried out by the supplier organization itself. In other words, it is a self-assessment Known as a Supplier's Declaration of Conformity (SDoC) ISO/IEC 17050 – 1 and 2:2004 Manufacturer, DIRECT PATH Consumers, Supplier, Users Organization Confidence in the company brand Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 124
  125. 125. Why choose Supplier's Declaration of Conformity ? q Avoids the costs of third-party assessment q An option where a supplier it enjoys a sufficiently high market reputation for it to dispense with independent confirmation of conformity Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 125
  126. 126. Supplier's Declaration of Conformity: Issues q SDoC does not exempt the supplier from its responsibility to meet relevant regulations q May not be appropriate in all cases, particularly where the health, safety or environmental risks of the product concerned are higher q Generally need to be accompanied by effective post- market surveillance q May not be a suitable option for developing countries Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 126
  127. 127. Third party (“Independent”) assessment … is when conformity assessment (checking) is carried out by a body that is independent of both supplier and customer organizations May be carried out on behalf of an organization for its own needs, E.g. ISO 9000 certification; or May be carried out in order to provide an independent (thus ‘neutral’) assessment of a product, service, etc May be voluntary or prescribed as a contractual requirement Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 127
  128. 128. Why choose ‘Third party assessment’ q Supplier may choose it as a way of differentiating its product or service from others on the market q Customer may require it as a part of a contractual agreement q Government regulations may require it e.g. of the protection of the consumer, public health, safety, environment etc. Note! A requirement to carry out third party assessment could constitute a Technical Barrier to Trade Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 128
  129. 129. Certification & Marking (in USA certification is known as “Registration”) Third party (a Conformity Assessment Body – CAB)(Registrar in USA) gives written assurance that a product (including services), process, personnel, organization or system conforms to specific requirements Written assurance is typically in the form of a Certificate of Conformity identifying which products or services comply with the requirements specified in standards and/or regulations A Certificate of Conformity may entitle the marking of products or their packaging with a mark of conformity (“certification mark”) identifying that the product complies with requirements. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 129
  130. 130. Examples of Certificates of Conformity Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 130
  131. 131. ICONTEC Certification Marks (of conformity) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 131
  132. 132. Some electrical safety marks … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 132
  133. 133. Some electrical safety marks … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 133
  134. 134. Accreditation Checking-The- Checking-The-Checkers … is when an authoritative body gives formal recognition that a body (e.g. a Conformity Assessment Body) or person is competent to carry out specific tasks E.g. accreditation of testing laboratories, inspection bodies and product certification bodies "Accreditation" and "certification" are completely different Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 134
  135. 135. Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRA) … is when the parties involved agree to recognize something the other party has done, for example to accept the results of each other's testing, inspection, certification or accreditation Cross-border MRA MRA between or endorsed by governments - can be critical in increasing the confidence of both private and public sector purchasers and so aid exports by avoiding repeated conformity assessment controls and associated costs Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 135
  136. 136. Standards and regulations. The perfect marriage … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 136
  137. 137. Standards and Regulations Working Together Globally many examples of standards and regulations working together. Examples from Europe include Safety of toys, bicycles, etc Construction codes Safety of machinery Medical devices Personal protective equipment Automotive safety and performance Measuring instruments Child transport devices (cots, pushchairs, car seats, etc) Noise emission Food safety Energy efficiency of household equipment Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 137
  138. 138. (Technical) Regulations v. Standards Technical regulation Document which lays down product characteristics or their related processes and production methods with which compliance is mandatory Standard Document approved by a recognized body that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for products or related processes and production methods, with which compliance is voluntary Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 138
  139. 139. Standards and Technical Regulations Voluntary standards can be used as a basis for regulations: Incorporating standards (the actual text or sections of the actual text) into legislation Incorporating references to standards into legislation (often using the clause « as amended from time to time ») Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 139
  140. 140. (Technical) Regulations v. Standards When a … Technical regulation … calls up a Standard Standard … it becomes mandatory Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 140
  141. 141. Child transport devices - Focus is safety Stability Performance of integrated safety harnesses Resistance to flammability Trapping hazards (fingers) Resistance to impacts Safety of paint and treatments (toxicity) Ability to clean Protection from sun Labelling Instructions for use Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 141
  142. 142. You thought they were clean … A hand touches a plate … … and one day later Unwashed Washed Washed (soap & water) (antiseptic) On each cm2 of your hand there are around 1500 bacteria. Standards on food safety management contribute to avoiding food contamination and issues such as food poisoning http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/pubcd/B693.htm Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 142
  143. 143. FOOD SAFETY - ISO 22000 Food safety management systems -- Requirements for any organization in the food chain Failures in food supply chain can be dangerous and costly. Approximately 65% of ISO’s food standards (673 to date) deal with analysis and test methods. ISO ISO 22000 specifies standards for food safety management systems to complement regulatory requirements Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 143
  144. 144. News Flash 4 November 2008 “… women have a significantly greater diversity of microbes on their palms than men ... ” University of Colorado at Boulder (2008, November 4). Women Have More Diverse Hand Bacteria Than Men. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 4, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com- /releases/2008/11/081103192310.htm Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 144
  145. 145. Quality – Maybe the only standard you had heard about before today? ISO 9001 and it’s standards relations are now associated with many services and also products (sometimes on ways that are not appropriate) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 145
  146. 146. A quick test … Which is the correct answer? When a claim of compliance with the ‘quality standard’ ISO 9001 is associated with a product it indicates that … 1. The product has been designed and/or manufactured to a high standard 2. The manufacturing company manages its processes well 3. Both Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 146
  147. 147. What ISO 9001 certification is NOT q Certification to ISO 9001 is not intended to certify or otherwise indicate that a product or products meet any particular requirements i.e. it is not an indication of the quality of a product q Product certification is different and involves validation against completely different standards Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 147
  148. 148. To feel confident about the quality of a product you need at least two things … Product Quality Certificate + Management Certificate Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 148
  149. 149. What ISO 9001 certification IS q ISO 9001 specifies an approach to quality management and describes what an organization should do to manage its processes, or activities q It is a generic standard, which means that the same standard can be applied to any organization, large or small, whatever its product or service, in any sector of activity, and whether it is a business enterprise, a public administration, or a government department Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 149
  150. 150. Standards for Responsible Business Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 150
  151. 151. Examples of standards for responsible business ISO 9001 Quality management ISO 14001 Environmental management ISO 26000 Social responsibility SA 8000 Social responsibility OHSAS 18001 Work place safety Investors in People standard Personal growth of employees Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 151
  152. 152. Sustainable Development “Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”* It demands the positive interaction of three elements: Economic growth Social equity Environmental integrity * Source: World Commission on Environment and Development Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 152
  153. 153. Economic growth Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 153
  154. 154. Social equity Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 154
  155. 155. Environmental integrity Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 155
  156. 156. Stories of how some Very Important Standards were born … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 156
  157. 157. The world-wide railway gauge world- Why 1.435m ? (56.5 inches) 1.435m Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 157
  158. 158. From Romans to Railways (1) Roman In Europe the roads Romans built an extensive network of roads to help them move around their Empire Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 158
  159. 159. From Romans to Railways (2) The Imperial standard for the width of Roman war chariots used in battle 1.435m … … was the width of the two 1.435m war-horses needed to pull it Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 159
  160. 160. From Romans to Railways (3) The Roman roads of England (and elsewhere) developed ruts caused by their use by the Roman chariots and other carts. The ruts were the width of a Roman chariot’s axle, so it made practical sense to adopt that width as the basis for cart design and construction in the UK. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 160
  161. 161. From Romans to Railways (4) Cart makers continued making wheel axles for all kinds of horse-drawn transport using the width of a Roman chariot as the standardized dimension Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 161
  162. 162. From Romans to Railways (5) When horse-power was replaced by steam-power axle- makers continued to make axles for steam trains according to the size standardized for horse-drawn carriage use Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 162
  163. 163. From Romans to Railways (6) As British workers built railways all around the world the British railway dimensions became an international standard … 1.435m .. which is why railways the world over have a 2000 year-old width (gauge) of 1.435 m … … based on horse rears Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 163
  164. 164. Measuring things : How big/heavy/fast/hot is it? Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 164
  165. 165. Natural origins for sizes: Inch 2. Inch (1324) equal to three barleycorns (from the middle of the ear, full and round) laid end to end 1. Ynche (1150 equal (King Edward II of AD) equal to the England) width of an average man's thumb at the base of the nail (King David I of Scotland) 3. International Inch (1958 AD) is equal to 25.4 millimetres Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 165
  166. 166. Other “unscientific” measurements Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 166
  167. 167. International standards are essential Scientific measurement - SI Units Crucial to the advancement of science and commerce The Système International d'Unités (International System of Units) Established in 1791 during the Frenchç metre (m) Revolution kilogram (kg) Has seven base units, and many second (s) derived units, formed by combining ampere (A) base units kelvin (K) candela (cd) mole (mol) Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 167
  168. 168. Inch – still used to describe the size of … 1. Computer displays 2. Diameters of pipes 3. Bicycle and automobile tyres and rims 4. Vinyl gramophone records 5. Pizzas 6. Clothes 7. Diameter of cigars Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 168
  169. 169. International standards are essential Selling oil in ‘barrels’ There was a problem with user confidence with oil being sold in different sized containers Adopted the more-or-less standardized whisky barrel as a standard measure Standardized in 1872 as 42 US Gallons Reference to US Gallon is vital because … USA gallon (8 USA pints) = 3.7854 Litres UK gallon (8 UK pints ) = 4.5461 Litres = 32 litres difference between barrels based on the two measures! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 169
  170. 170. International standards are essential The Eurobottle (of wine) … (From serving/trading aid to measure to standard) 17c - Measures existed (broc, sétier, pot, pichet, etc.) but varied between towns 1616 – Swiss government attempted to impose standards 1791 – Metric system introduced in France 1801 – First Swiss uniform system of measures 1822 – Swiss Pot was standardized as 1.35 l 1836 – Swiss Pot revised to 1.5 l with Demi-pot of 0.75 l Eurobottle of 0.75 l adopted worldwide Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 170
  171. 171. Epilogue: Not every standard is a success! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 171
  172. 172. The failure of the “International” electrical plug Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Italy, Maldives, Syria, Tunisia, Uruguay 9 Countries i.e. 184 countries use something else! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 172
  173. 173. The World of Electrical Plugs! 13 incompatible versions! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 173
  174. 174. Electrical adaptors – the translators of the electrical world! In this example of variety if the ‘loser’ in the world ‘standard’ the winners are the makers of adaptors! Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 174
  175. 175. International standards are essential So, now you see how our Modern Life depends on standards to function … Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 175
  176. 176. International standards are essential Every minute of every day, in the home and office, Modern Day Life is in every way supported by standards … illumination & ventilation systems in this room windows keeping the heat in (& the weather out) mobile phones in your pockets (ITU) computers you use safety of electrical systems and outlets (IEC) paper you write on (and the pen you write with) transport systems you used to get you here quality and safety of the food you eat hygeine of the restaurants you eat in sizing and labelling systems of the shoes and clothes you wear …. Etc. etc Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 176
  177. 177. Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 177
  178. 178. Finding out more ICONTEC Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación www.icontec.org ISO International Organization for Standardization www.iso.org IEC International Electrotechnical Commission www.iec.ch NOREXPORT Andean project on use of standards by SME to support exports www.norexport.org Calidad, un estilo de vida. ICONTEC comprometido con latinoamérica y el mundo Andrew Williams, TGMB © 2008 178

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