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Factm malaria 4

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notes of malaria for students of tropical medicine, and those working towards the FACTM part 1 exam

notes of malaria for students of tropical medicine, and those working towards the FACTM part 1 exam

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  • 1. Malaria 4 Clinical Entomology FACTM Pt 1 Tim Inglis Division of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, WA
  • 2. Malaria series
    • Malaria 1 Clinical Tropical Medicine
    • Malaria 2 Clinical Parasitology
    • Malaria 3 Public Health, Travel & Expedition Medicine
    • Malaria 4 Clinical Entomology
  • 3.
    • Study materials
    • Medical Entomology for Students.
    • M Service. 4 th edn. CUP, 2008.
    • ISBN 13: 9780521709286
    • Recommended bookshelf
    • FACTM study notes
    • Specialist review articles
    • Self-assessment questions
    • Blog http://micrognome.priobe.net
    • Web www.priobe.net
    • FACTM http://lifeinthefastlane.com/exams/actm-fellowship/
  • 4. Summary
    • Anopheles
      • Mosquito – 30 important spp, of around 475
      • Definitive host – Plasmodium spp sporogony
      • Life cycle: multiple stages, fastest in tropics, susceptible to environmental change, opportunities for disease control
      • Other diseases : filariasis, some arbovirus infections
      • The Anopheles mosquito is a self-propagating, self-propelled syringe
      • armed to the teeth with malaria parasites.
  • 5. Life cycle MOSQUITO HUMAN
  • 6. Anopheles adult proboscis palp antenna eye scutum scutellum halter THORAX HEAD ABDOMEN FORE-LEG WING MID-LEG HIND-LEG femur tibia claw tarsus
  • 7. Anopheles features adult: biting angle egg: air floats larva: palmate hairs, no siphon pupa: spines adult wing: wing scales adult head: long palps
  • 8. Anopheles biting behaviour
    • Sporozoite rate
      • maximum = 1-5%
      • circa 5-10 per bite
    • Dusk to dawn ( crepuscular, nocturnal )
    • Human or other animal ( anthropophagic, zoophagic )
    • Inside or outside ( endophagic, exophagic )
    • Resting outdoors or indoors ( exophilic, endophilic )
  • 9. Anopheles breeding
    • A mplification in stages :
      • Egg
      • Larval instars
      • Pupa,
      • adult
    • Eggs intolerant of desiccation
    • Clean water, generally permanent, only small amounts needed
    • Larvae sensitive to shadow & movement
    • Faster breeding at higher temperatures
  • 10. Anopheles species
    • Australia: An farauti, An koliensis, An punctulatus
    • Southeast Asia : An aconitus, An anthropophagus, An balabacensis, An campestris, An culicifacies, An dirus, An donaldi, An flavirostris, An fluviatilis, An letifer, An leucosphyrus, An maculatus, An mimicus, An nigerimus, An sinensis, An sundiacus
  • 11. Control measures
    • Personal: behaviour, clothing, repellent, bed nets
    • Public health :
      • Larval control
        • Drainage
        • Petroleum oil, Paris Green
        • Pyriproxifen
        • Bacillus thuringiensis
        • Mosquito fish
      • Adult control
        • Residual house spray: DDT, organophosphorus insecticides
        • Nets: ITNs, LLINs
  • 12. Emerging issues
    • C hanging distribution
    • Insecticide resistance
    • Wetlands
    • Climate change
    • Use of DDT
    • DDT alternatives
  • 13. Malaria series
    • Malaria 1 Clinical Tropical Medicine
    • Malaria 2 Clinical Parasitology
    • Malaria 3 Public Health, Travel & Expedition Medicine
    • Malaria 4 Clinical Entomology
      • The Anopheles mosquito is a self-propagating, self-propelled syringe
      • armed to the teeth with malaria parasites.