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  • 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING•SwitchCase and•Looping Statement By:Kristine Sonsing
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS•Programming•Switch Case The If – else Statement If statement (two alternatives) If statement (One-Alternatives) How to save and run your statement Five Programs that is related on switch case program Output•Looping Statement The while Loop The Do… While Loop The For Loop The Foreach Loop Break and continue statement Output
  • 4. ProgrammingWe first define the word “programming”, it is a computer languageprogrammers use to develop applications, scripts, or other set ofinstructions for a computer to execute. programming is instructing a computer to do something for youwith the help of a programming language. The role of a programminglanguage can be described in two ways:Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer to perform TasksConceptual: It is a framework within which we organize our ideas aboutthings and processes.
  • 5. As an individual, I have learned that programming is a verybroad because it composes many scripts, applications andcan be used to run a program that has been part of theprogramming language. A programming language should both providemeans to describe primitive data and procedures andmeans to combine and abstract those into more complexones.
  • 6.  The distinction between data and procedures is not that clear cut. In many programming languages, procedures can be passed as data (to be applied to ``real data) and sometimes processed like ``ordinary data. Conversely ``ordinary data can be turned into procedures by an evaluation mechanism.
  • 7.  If we know how to write a C expression that is equivalent of a question such as “Is resting the value of expression to select a course of action. In C, the statement is the primary selection control structure Me: it’s hard to write c expression. So, I just copy and paste it into internet. A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.
  • 8. At first, programming is confusing because you have so much tounderstand about codes that will enable to run a program.Programming has applications and program development, the bestexample for this is the Internet browser… Programming is a creative process done by programmers toinstruct a computer on how to do a task. Programming languages letyou use them in different ways, e.g adding numbers, etc… or storingdata on disk for later retrieval.
  • 9. You have to consider languages to run or writeyour own program, most demanded language inprogramming is the DEV C++ (a full-featured IntegratedDevelopment Environment (IDE)). C++ is one of the most used programminglanguages in the world. Also known as "C with Classes".New to programming or thinking about it? It might surpriseyou to know that there are many programmers whoprogram just for fun and it can lead to a job.
  • 10. SWITCH CASE - A switch, case, select or inspect statement is a type of selection control mechanism that exists in most imperative programming languages such as Pascal, Ada, C/C++, C#, Java, and so on. It is also included in several other types of languages. Its purpose is to allow the value of a variable or expression to control the flow of program execution via a multiway branch (or "goto", one of several labels).The Main Reason using switch case : - To improve clarity, by reducing otherwise repetitive coding, and (if the heuristics permit) also offering the potential for faster execution through easier compiler optimization in many cases.
  • 11. PROGRAMS THAT IS RELATED TO SWITCH CASE1. The If – else Statement -The if statement allows the programmer to make decisions within a program. - The general format of an if statement is: If (expression) statement -Where expression represents a relational, equality, or logical expression ( conditional expression) .
  • 12. If statement (two alternatives) Form: If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skipped; otherwise, statement is else skipped and statement is executed statement;If statement (One-Alternatives) Form: If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skippedFormat of the if statement- All if statement examples in this text indent statements. The word elseIs typed without indention on a separate line. The format of the if statementmakes its meaning apparent and is used solely to improve program readability;The format makes no difference to the computer
  • 13.  There may be a situation when you need to execute a block of code several number of times. In general statements are executed sequentially: The first statement in a function is executed first, followed by the second, and so on. Programming languages provide various control structures that allow for more complicated execution paths. A loop statement allows us to execute a statement or group of statements multiple times and following is the general from of a loop statement in most of the programming languages:
  • 14. HOW TO SAVE AND RUN YOUR STATEMENTS? 1. Open Dev C++ 2. Click File and choose New 3. Post your Statements 4. after you post your statement 5. Save it .choose file and save or 6. click f9 or you can see it shaped like a square
  • 16. Link: bbrown/c_028.htmThe above program uses a switch statement to validate and select uponthe users input choice, simulating a simple menu of choices.
  • 17. When it compiles and run, this will be it look .The C expression that was type it on Dev C++The words are “enter in two number  24”
  • 18. Link: p_switch_case/index.php Example of Switch Case Statement , you Will see the statement on the link that you see in this slide.
  • 19. After I compile it and run it, the statement is now like this. As youCan see after you answer the 1st question the next question appearAnd after you finish all the question the box will disappear. It means finish.
  • 20. Link: Function and target of Programming language : A computer programming language is a language. used to write computer programs, which involve a computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and possibly control external devices such as printers , disk drives , robots, and so on.
  • 21. When the statement was done this will it be look like.I got this from the URL . The URL was posted on the previous slide
  • 22. You Know?The first programminglanguages predate themodern computer. The19th century saw theinvention of"programmable" looms and player piano scrolls, bothof which implementedexamples ofdomain-specific languages.
  • 23. Did You Know ?All programming languages have some primitive building blocks for thedescription of data and the processes or transformations applied tothem(like the addition of two numbers or the selection of an item from acollection). These primitives are defined by syntactic and semantic ruleswhich describe their structure and meaning respectively.
  • 24. Link:
  • 25.
  • 27. Looping Statements - Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times, or while a specified condition is true.- in PHP, the following looping statements are used: *The while Loop * The Do… While Loop * The For Loop *The Foreach Loop *Break and continue statement
  • 28. THE WHILE LOOPWhile structure is another type of loop statements,where the condition is checked at first, the iterationwill not stop even if the value changes while executingstatements. Form: While(condition) { code to be executed; }
  • 29. THE DO WHILE LOOP Do while statement is same as the while statement , the only difference is that it evaluates the expression at the end. Form: do { code to be executed; } while (condition):
  • 30. THE FOR LOOP The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run. Be for statement takes three expressions inside its parentheses seperated by semi-colons. When the for loop executes, the following occurs: The initializing expression is executed. This expression usually initializes oneor more loop counter, but the syntax allow expression any degree of complexity. The condition expression is evaluated. Of the value of condition is true, the loop statements execute. If the value of condition is false, the for loop terminates.
  • 31. Form: for {initialization; condition: increment ) { code to be executed }
  • 32. THE FOREACH LOOP For Each structure is a loop structure used for arraysForm:foreach(array as value){ code to be executed}Foreach (array as key => value){ code to be executed}
  • 33. THE BREAK STATEMENT Break ends the execution of the for, for each, while, do-while or switch statement.Form:* Break ( optional numeric argument)
  • 34. THE CONTINUE STATEMENT  “Continue” is used to skip the current loop iteration and continue with the next iteration of the loop. But “Break” is to exit from the whole loop. Form: * Break ( optional numeric argument)
  • 35. The for loop
  • 36.
  • 37. Do while loop
  • 38.
  • 39. While loop
  • 40.
  • 41. Break and continue
  • 42.
  • 43. Foreach loop
  • 44.
  • 45.  Slideshare account: sonsing11374541
  • 46. In Partial fulfillment of requirements inFundamental of Programming Submitted to : Prof. Erwin Globio Submitted by: