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Middle ages 2010

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    Middle ages 2010 Middle ages 2010 Presentation Transcript

    • Middle Ages
    • The Middle Ages
      What is it………
      The period in European history between the downfall of Rome and the Renaissance.**
      Divisions of….
      Early Middle Ages
      High Middle Ages
      Late Middle Ages
    • The Middle Ages
      The Fall of Rome
      External Threats
      Northern Germanic Tribes
      Invaded Roman Empire in 5th century**
      Mongols
      Internal Threats
      Growth and expansion ended
      The “Bad” emperors
      Social Divide
      Results from the fall of Rome
      Loss of Centralized Authority
      Power Void
      Dominance of Germanic culture or blending of
      Loss of “institutions”
      Decline of Learning
      Ultimately a new form of government focused upon 1 factor (security)
    • Who fills void of Roman Empire
      Kings
      Rise to power
      In 496 Clovis will rise to King**
      511 Clovis unites the Franks into one kingdom
      The “Church”
      Provide for the loss of many “institutions”
      Education
      Writing
      History
      Some Security
    • Organization of the Church
      Monasteries
      Essentially religious communities**
      Monasteries enable the “Church” to adapt to the rural population shift of Middle Ages
      Allowed the “church” to reach the people
      Men devoted to religious life were monks; women were nuns**
      Branch office
      Monks
      In 520 popular monk named Benedict appears
      Benedict writes a set of very strict laws for his monasteries
      Manual labor and prayer
      731 Venerable Bede writes history of England
    • “Church” organization
      Organization
      Parishes: local Christian communities
      Bishop: head of a parish
      Diocese: area of authority of a bishop
      Popes: eventual leaders of Roman Catholic Church
      Early Popes
      Gregory I
      Becomes Pope in 590**
      Also served as leader of the city of Rome (later called the Papal States)
      Increased power of Pope
      Worked to convert Germanic Europe to Christianity
      G. Chant
    • The Franks
      The Kings of Franks
      Charles Martel
      Defeats muslims at Battle of Tours 732
      Pepin
      Mayor of the Palace (eventually took the throne)
      Died 768
      Charlemagne
      Charles the Great (son of Pepin)
      Charlemagne
      768-814
      Created the Carolingian Empire
      Not until Napoleon
      800 coronation; Emperor of the Romans
      Symbolized unification of Roman, Germanic, & Christian Elements
      Death in 814 will start the decline of Carolingian Empire
    • Invaders of Europe (800-1000)
      Muslims
      Southern coast
      Magyars
      Settled plains of Hungary
      Vikings
      Northmen (Norsemen)
      Destroyed towns and churches
      Given land named Normandy
    • Rise of Feudalism
      Feudalism: new political and social system
      Vassal: served lord in military capacity
      Fief: grant of land made to a vassal
      Feudal Contract: determined relationship between lord and vassal
    • Rise of European Kingdoms
      England
      Angles & Saxons
      Oct. 14, 1066
      Battle of Hastings
      William of Normandy; crowned King of England
      Henry II (1154-1189)
      Thomas Becket
      King John
      1215 Magna Carta (beginning of limited power)
      France
      Capetian Kings
      Little more than Paris
      Philip II Augustus
      1180-1223
      Growth of French Monarchy
      Philip IV (Philip the Fair)
      1285-1314
      By 1300 France the largest & best governed monarchy in Europe
    • Rise of European Kingdoms
      Holy Roman Empire
      Otto I
      962 crowned emperor of the Romans
      Frederick I
      “Italy the center of a holy empire”
      Frederick II
      Goal: Strong centralized government in Italy
    • Time periods of the Middle Ages
      Early
      500-900
      True “Dark” Ages
      Fall of institutions
      High
      1000-1200
      Late
      1300-1500
    • High Middle Ages
      Primary Themes
      Peak of feudal institutions
      Peak of “Church” influence
      Revival of Trade, Cities, Learning
    • Peak of “Church” Influence
      Age of Faith
      Increase of intolerance
      The Crusades
      Urban II encourages military campaigns to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
      Urban’s challenge well received (religious zeal, class of warriors, economics)
      False Crusade
      1096 the Peasant Crusaders
      Peter the Hermit
      Walter the Penniless
      Early Crusades
      First 1097
      Second 1147
      Third 1189
      Fourth 1202
    • Economic Impact of Crusades
    • High Middle Ages
      Rise of Universities
      First Universities
      Bolgna (1158); then Paris, Oxford
      After university could go on to law, medicine or theology
      Scholasticism: philosophical and theological system which tried to reconcile faith and reason; harmonize Christian teachings with the works of Greek philosophers
    • Late Middle Ages
      Decline of Feudal institutions
      Hundred Years’ War
      New Monarchies
      Rise of money economy & commercial capitalism in High Middle Ages
      Decline of “Church” influence
      Great Schism 1378-1417
      Disease
      Black Death
      1347-1353
      European population of 75 million; possibly 38 million die
    • For the Test
      Pages 283-308; 320-322; 329-340