Biological foundations of behavior

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Biological foundations of behavior

  1. 1. Biological Foundations of Behavior AP Psychology Mr. Hinder
  2. 2. The Nervous System • Complex neural network carrying information throughout the body Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  3. 3. Divisions of the Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Composed of the brain and spinal cord. • Spinal cord is the primary means for transmitting messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Central Nervous System
  4. 4. Divisions of the Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites. • Branches out from the spinal cord and brain to reach the extremities of the body. Peripheral Nervous System
  5. 5. Divisions of the Nervous System • Central nervous system (CNS) • Brain and spinal cord • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) • Somatic nervous system • Sensory nerves and muscular activity • Autonomic nervous system – internal organs • Sympathetic nervous system – arouses • Parasympathetic nervous system – calms
  6. 6. Central Nervous System Brain Spinal cord Central Nervous System (CNS) Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebrum Limbic system Cerebellum Pons Medulla Corpus callosum
  7. 7. Peripheral Nervous System Somatic division • Voluntary muscle activation Sympathetic (generally activates) Parasympathetic (generally inhibits) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic division Autonomic division Autonomic division • Controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; • Basically involuntary
  8. 8. Neuron Structure • Brain: Approximately 100 billion neurons • Glial Cells: Provide support and nutrition • Specialized Cell Structure • Cell body • Dendrites • Axon • Myelin sheath
  9. 9. The Neuron Structure
  10. 10. Neural Impulse • Resting Potential • Stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron • Action Potential • Ion gates cause depolarization • Brief, positive electrical charge: firing • All-or-None Principle • Once initiated, it cannot be stopped
  11. 11. Resting & Action Potential
  12. 12. Neurons & Synapses • Synaptic Transmission • Neurochemical communication • Action potential (electrical impulse) is converted into a chemical signal • Synapses • Space between terminal buttons and the receiving neuron’s cell body or dendrites
  13. 13. Neuron & Synapse
  14. 14. Neurotransmitters • Neurotransmitters either excite or inhibit • Acetylcholine • Muscle actions, learning, memory • Alzheimer’s disease: ↓ Ach levels • Nicotine: ↑ Ach levels • GABA – inhibitory functions • Anxiety: ↓ GABA levels
  15. 15. Neurotransmitters • Norepinephrine • Stress and mania: ↑ Norepinephrine levels • Depression: ↓ Norepinephrine levels • Regulates sleep states in conjunction with ACh • Dopamine • Stimulant drugs: ↑ Dopamine levels • Parkinson’s disease: ↓ Dopamine levels
  16. 16. Neurotransmitters • Oxytocin • Both a hormone and a neurotransmitter • Related to onset of lactation in new mothers • Related to attachment / emotional bonds • Drugs and Neurotransmitters • Agonist – mimics or enhances NT effects • Antagonist – blocks effects of NT
  17. 17. Brain Structure • Hindbrain, Midbrain, and Forebrain • Hindbrain • Medulla – control breathing, regulate reflexes • Cerebellum – movement, coordination • Pons – sleep, arousal
  18. 18. Brain Structure • Midbrain • Reticular Formation • Stereotyped behavior patterns like walking • Brain Stem • Alertness, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure
  19. 19. Brain Structure • Forebrain • Limbic System – memory and emotion • Amygdala • Emotional awareness and expression • Hippocampus • Formation and storage of memories • Thalamus • Relay station for much sensory information • Basal Ganglia • Coordination of voluntary movements • Hypothalamus • Eating, drinking, sexual behaviors • Emotion, stress, reward
  20. 20. The Brain: Structure • Cerebral Cortex (Four Lobes) • Occipital Lobe – Vision • Temporal Lobe – Hearing, language processing, memory • Frontal Lobe – Intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles • Parietal Lobe - Spatial location, attention, motor control
  21. 21. Cerebral Cortex
  22. 22. Tour the Brain • tour of the brain • The working of the brain • BBC Brain Structure and Function
  23. 23. Split-Brain Research • Corpus Callosum • Large bundle of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain • Hemispheric Specialization of Function • Right hemisphere • Spatial perception, visual recognition, emotion • Left hemisphere • Verbal processing, speech, grammar
  24. 24. Can you label the structures?

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