Biological foundations of behaviorPresentation Transcript
Biological Foundations of Behavior AP Psychology Mr. Hinder
The Nervous System Complex neural network carrying information throughout the body Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Composed of the brain and spinal cord.
Spinal cord is the primary means for transmitting messages between the brain and the rest of the body.
Divisions of the Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Central Nervous System (CNS)
Made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites.
Branches out from the spinal cord and brain to reach the extremities of the body.
Divisions of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Somatic nervous system Sensory nerves and muscular activity Autonomic nervous system – internal organs Sympathetic nervous system – arouses Parasympathetic nervous system – calms
Central Nervous System Central Nervous System(CNS) Brain Spinal cord Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Thalamus Hypothalamus Limbic system Corpus callosum Cerebrum Cerebellum Pons Medulla
Neuron Structure Brain: Approximately 100 billion neurons Glial Cells: Provide support and nutrition Specialized Cell Structure Cell body Dendrites Axon Myelin sheath
The Neuron Structure
Neural Impulse Resting Potential Stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron Action Potential Ion gates cause depolarization Brief, positive electrical charge: firing All-or-None Principle Once initiated, it cannot be stopped
Resting & Action Potential
Neurons & Synapses Synaptic Transmission Neurochemical communication Action potential (electrical impulse) is converted into a chemical signal Synapses Space between terminal buttons and the receiving neuron’s cell body or dendrites
Neuron & Synapse
Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters either excite or inhibit Acetylcholine Muscle actions, learning, memory Alzheimer’s disease: ↓ Ach levels Nicotine: ↑ Ach levels GABA – inhibitory functions Anxiety: ↓ GABA levels
Neurotransmitters Norepinephrine Stress and mania: ↑ Norepinephrine levels Depression: ↓ Norepinephrine levels Regulates sleep states in conjunction with ACh Dopamine Stimulant drugs: ↑ Dopamine levels Parkinson’s disease: ↓ Dopamine levels
Neurotransmitters Oxytocin Both a hormone and a neurotransmitter Related to onset of lactation in new mothers Related to attachment / emotional bonds Drugs and Neurotransmitters Agonist – mimics or enhances NT effects Antagonist – blocks effects of NT
Brain Structure Forebrain Limbic System – memory and emotion Amygdala Emotional awareness and expression Hippocampus Formation and storage of memories Thalamus Relay station for much sensory information Basal Ganglia Coordination of voluntary movements Hypothalamus Eating, drinking, sexual behaviors Emotion, stress, reward
The Brain: Structure Cerebral Cortex (Four Lobes) Occipital Lobe – Vision Temporal Lobe – Hearing, language processing, memory Frontal Lobe – Intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles Parietal Lobe - Spatial location, attention, motor control
Tour the Brain tour of the brain The working of the brain BBC Brain Structure and Function
Split-Brain Research Corpus Callosum Large bundle of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain Hemispheric Specialization of Function Right hemisphere Spatial perception, visual recognition, emotion Left hemisphere Verbal processing, speech, grammar