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Ap psych human development

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Ap psych human development Ap psych human development Presentation Transcript

  • Human Development
    AP Psychology (Mr. Hinder)
  • Development
    The pattern of continuity and change that occurs throughout the lifespan
    Three areas
    Physical processes
    Cognitive processes
    Socioemotional processes
  • Development
    Nature – Biological Inheritance
    Nurture – Environmental Experiences
    Optimal experiences – Individuals take active roles in their own development
    Early Experience versus Later Experience
  • Early vs Later Experiences
    Early
    Some psychologists believe that unless infants experience warm, nurturing care in the first year of life, they will not develop to their full potential
    early experience doctrinerests on the belief that each life is an unbroken trail on which a psychological quality can be traced back to its origin
    later experience: liken development in later years to the ebb and flow of a river.
    Later experience advocates argue that children are responsive to change and that sensitive caregiving is just as important later as it is earlier
  • Cognitive
    Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
    Children actively construct their cognitive world using…
    Schemas – concepts or frameworks that organize information
    Assimilation – incorporate new info into existing schemas
    Accomodation – adjust existing schemas to incorporate new information
  • Piaget
    Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1926, 1977) spent over 50 years exploring how a child’s thought processes develop.
    Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
    Stage
    Age (Years)
    Major Characteristics
    Sensorimotor
    Birth to 2
    • Infant understands world through sensory and motor experiences
    • Achieves object permanence
    • Exhibits emergence of symbolic thought
    Preoperational
    2 to 7
    • Child uses symbolic thinking in the form of words and images to represent objects and experiences
    • Symbolic thinking enables child to engage in pretend play
    • Thinking displays egocentrism, irreversibility, and centration
    Concrete operational
    7 to 12
    • Child can think logically about concrete events
    • Grasps concepts of conservation and serial ordering
    Formal operational
    12 on
    • Adolescent can think more logically, abstractly, and flexibly
    • Can form hypotheses and systematically test them
  • Evaluating Piaget’s Theory
    Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought
    Piaget placed too much emphasis on discrete stages and ignored individual differences
    Culture and environment also influence development
  • Vygotsky’s Theory
    the culture in which we are raised significantly affects our cognitive development
    • Cognitive development occurs as a consequence of social interactions in which children work with others to jointly solve problems.
    • Children’s cognitive abilities increase when they encounter information that falls within their zone of proximal development (ZPD).
    • ZPD is the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own. When children receive information that falls within the ZPD, they can increase understanding or master a new task.
  • Vygotsky’s Theory
    Although the performances of the two children initially working at a task without aid are similar, the second child benefits more from aid and thus has a larger zone of proximal development.
    Performance
    ZPD
    ZPD
    Child A
    Child B
  • Socioemotional
    Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
    Theory emphasizes lifelong development
    Eight psychosocial stages of development
    Each stage represents a developmental task
    Crisis that must be resolved
    Personal competence or weakness
  • Erikson
  • Evaluating Erikson
    Primary focus on case-study research
    Omitted important developmental tasks
    Development is a lifelong challenge
  • Infant Attachment
    The close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver
    Typically develops during first year of life
    May provide important foundation for subsequent development
    Attachment intensifies at 6-7 months
  • Infant Attachment
    Harry Harlow – Infant rhesus monkeys
    What matters? Nourishment or contact
    Choose between two surrogate “mothers”
    Cold wire mother versus warm cloth mother
    Infants preferred cloth mother across situations
    Contact comfort is critical to attachment
    Harlow's Monkeys
    Harlow 2
  • Infant Attachment
    Mary Ainsworth – Strange Situation
    Procedure: Caregivers leave infant alone with stranger, then return
    Secure Attachment: Use caregiver as a base for exploration; happy when caregiver returns
    Insecure Attachment: Does not care if caregiver gone
    Attachment Theory
  • Temperament
    An individual’s behavioral style or characteristic way of responding
    Three clusters of temperament
    Easy
    Difficult: can cry often, irregular routines
    slow-to-warm-up: low activity level
    Another perspective on temperament
    Effortful control, self-regulation, and negative affectivity
  • Parenting Styles