Ap psych human development


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Ap psych human development

  1. 1. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AP Psychology (Mr. Hinder)
  2. 2. Development  The pattern of continuity and change that occurs throughout the lifespan  Three areas  Physical processes  Cognitive processes  Socioemotional processes Physical CognitiveSocioemotional
  3. 3. Development  Nature – Biological Inheritance  Nurture – Environmental Experiences  Optimal experiences – Individuals take active roles in their own development  Early Experience versus Later Experience
  4. 4. Early vs Later Experiences Early  Some psychologists believe that unless infants experience warm, nurturing care in the first year of life, they will not develop to their full potential  early experience doctrine rests on the belief that each life is an unbroken trail on which a psychological quality can be traced back to its origin  later experience: liken development in later years to the ebb and flow of a river.  Later experience advocates argue that children are responsive to change and that sensitive caregiving is just as important later as it is earlier
  5. 5. Cognitive  Jean Piaget (1896-1980)  Children actively construct their cognitive world using…  Schemas – concepts or frameworks that organize information  Assimilation – incorporate new info into existing schemas  Accomodation – adjust existing schemas to incorporate new information
  6. 6. Piaget Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1926, 1977) spent over 50 years exploring how a child’s thought processes develop. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Stage Age (Years) Major Characteristics Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational Birth to 2 2 to 7 7 to 12 12 on • Infant understands world through sensory and motor experiences • Achieves object permanence • Exhibits emergence of symbolic thought • Child uses symbolic thinking in the form of words and images to represent objects and experiences • Symbolic thinking enables child to engage in pretend play • Thinking displays egocentrism, irreversibility, and centration • Child can think logically about concrete events • Grasps concepts of conservation and serial ordering • Adolescent can think more logically, abstractly, and flexibly • Can form hypotheses and systematically test them
  7. 7. Evaluating Piaget’s Theory  Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought  Piaget placed too much emphasis on discrete stages and ignored individual differences  Culture and environment also influence development
  8. 8. Vygotsky’s Theory  the culture in which we are raised significantly affects our cognitive development • Cognitive development occurs as a consequence of social interactions in which children work with others to jointly solve problems. • Children’s cognitive abilities increase when they encounter information that falls within their zone of proximal development (ZPD). • ZPD is the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own. When children receive information that falls within the ZPD, they can increase understanding or master a new task.
  9. 9. Vygotsky’s Theory Although the performances of the two children initially working at a task without aid are similar, the second child benefits more from aid and thus has a larger zone of proximal development. Child A Child B ZPD ZPD Performance
  10. 10. Socioemotional  Erik Erikson (1902-1994)  Theory emphasizes lifelong development  Eight psychosocial stages of development  Each stage represents a developmental task  Crisis that must be resolved  Personal competence or weakness
  11. 11. Erikson
  12. 12. Evaluating Erikson  Primary focus on case-study research  Omitted important developmental tasks  Development is a lifelong challenge
  13. 13. Infant Attachment  The close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver  Typically develops during first year of life  May provide important foundation for subsequent development  Attachment intensifies at 6-7 months
  14. 14. Infant Attachment  Harry Harlow – Infant rhesus monkeys  What matters? Nourishment or contact  Choose between two surrogate “mothers”  Cold wire mother versus warm cloth mother  Infants preferred cloth mother across situations  Contact comfort is critical to attachment  Harlow's Monkeys  Harlow 2
  15. 15. Infant Attachment  Mary Ainsworth – Strange Situation  Procedure: Caregivers leave infant alone with stranger, then return  SecureAttachment: Use caregiver as a base for exploration; happy when caregiver returns  Insecure Attachment: Does not care if caregiver gone  AttachmentTheory
  16. 16. Temperament  An individual’s behavioral style or characteristic way of responding  Three clusters of temperament  Easy  Difficult: can cry often, irregular routines  slow-to-warm-up: low activity level  Another perspective on temperament  Effortful control, self-regulation, and negative affectivity
  17. 17. Parenting Styles