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Git for Android Developers
 

Git for Android Developers

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Slides for a presentation I gave at AnDevCon

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    Git for Android Developers Git for Android Developers Presentation Transcript

    • Git For the Android Developer Tony Hillerson, AnDevCon Fall 2013 #AnDevCon @tackmobile @thillerson
    • About Me • @thillerson, +thillerson • Developer at Tack Mobile
 (tackmobile.com), @tackmobile • Android, iOS, and Mobile Web • Rails, Node, maybe Elixir (one day) Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Diving Right In Learning by Doing Image © Dennis Barnes
 http://www.flickr.com/photos/dennisbarnes/2817664242
    • git init or git clone changes git add git commit 86650c185 changes git add git commit 6facfd9f3 changes git add git commit b02ef5bf1 ... ∞ Presentation tackmobile.com
    • .gitignore • Can be nested deeply • https://github.com/github/gitignore Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Log - The Project’s History • What got committed? • Commit messages • Content • When? Who? Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Remotes • remote add • clone • fetch • pull • push Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Tagging git tag -a -m"Tagging v1.0" v1.0 c5083fa master fb4f5d9 c5083fa 3f43fa3 • Both “-v1.0” and c5083fa will point to c5083fa • Push this tag with `git push --tags` • Can be cryptologically signed Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Recap of Simple Commands • git init - Creates an empty Git repository • git add - Adds a file to the stage (“stages a file”) • git rm - Removes from version control • git commit - Commits the staged changes to the (local) repository • git log - A view of the history • git tag - Names a commit • .gitignore - tells git to ignore certain files Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Why Source Control? • For the solo developer? • Protection against mistakes • Freedom • • • ... to refactor ... to experiment For the development team? • All of the above, plus: • Parallel development • Merging different code branches Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Preliminaries Getting Git and Getting Set Up
    • What’s a Git? A completely ignorant, childish person with no manners. - http://urbandictionary.com Linus Torvalds http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Torvalds Presentation tackmobile.com
    • What’s a Git? Git is a free & open source, distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. - http://git-scm.com Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Getting Set Up on Mac • Homebrew
 http://mxcl.github.com/homebrew/ • • brew install git MacPorts
 http://www.macports.org/ Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Getting Set Up on Windows • msysgit
 http://code.google.com/p/msysgit/ Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Getting Set Up on Linux • apt, etc - you probably know the drill Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Gooies! • SourceTree (Mac and Windows)
 http://sourcetreeapp.com/ • TortoiseGit (Windows)
 http://code.google.com/p/tortoisegit/ Presentation tackmobile.com
    • IDE Integration • Android Studio
 You’re All Set • Eclipse
 http://www.eclipse.org/egit/ Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Reference • Git
 http://git-scm.com/ • ProGit
 http://progit.org/book/ • Insider Guide to Github
 http://www.pragprog.com/screencasts/vscgithub/insider-guide-to-github Presentation tackmobile.com
    • The Command Line A Short Sermon Presentation tackmobile.com
    • The Guts of Git The Little Bits that Make Git Different
    • What’s With all the Characters? • SHA1 Hash e.g.
 86650c185eda50c9f9d58e2fbdf8b7113e5dee54 • Uniquely identifies a commit • Secure - very unlikely that someone can tamper with content in a repository Presentation tackmobile.com
    • SHA-1 Hash Keys “ ... to have a probability of a SHA1-hash collision rise to 1/2, you need about 10^24 objects ... - Scott Chacon in Pro Git (paraphrased) Presentation tackmobile.com
    • In Git There Are Only... • Blobs • Trees • Commits Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Blobs • The contents of your files are stored as binary files in .git/objects • Git is efficient. It only stores the same content once. • Identified by a SHA-1 • Show blob contents with e.g.
 `git show c7fb9f5` Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Trees • Trees give structure to blobs • Trees are also stored in .git/objects • Identified by SHA-1 • View a tree with ls-tree, e.g.
 `git ls-tree HEAD` Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Commits • Identified by a SHA-1 • Points to one tree • Has a required message • May have one (or more) parent commit(s) • Show the reachable commits from a commit
 `git rev-list HEAD` Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Refs • Point to commits • .git/refs/heads - the latest commits in local branches • HEAD - the latest commit on the current branch Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Blobs Are Content b84ed8ed 579a3b1 Presentation e8d5cf6 tackmobile.com
    • Trees Give Structure 9899d2c com/yourcompany/androidapp b84ed8ed 579a3b1 FooFragment.java e8d5cf6 BarView.java 3ffb35b Presentation MainActivity.java /anotherpackage trees can point to other trees tackmobile.com
    • Commits Point to Trees d414c3e 9899d2c com/yourcompany/androidapp “Fixed bug # 42” b84ed8ed 579a3b1 FooFragment.java e8d5cf6 BarView.java 3ffb35b Presentation MainActivity.java /anotherpackage tackmobile.com
    • Commits Have Parents 090c953 4 “Updated the main activity” d414c3e 3 “Fixed bug #42” 4493671 2 “Typed awesome code” c1d1f60 1 “Initial commit” Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Refs Point to Commits HEAD 090c953 4 “Updated the main activity” d414c3e 3 “Fixed bug #42” 4493671 2 “Typed awesome code” c1d1f60 1 “Initial commit” Presentation tackmobile.com
    • And That’s All You Need To Know About Git Presentation tackmobile.com
    • And That’s All You Need To Know About Git (Mostly) Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Day to Day Git “What would you say you *do* here?”
    • Semantic Commits Make Commits Mean Something Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Semantic Commits • Git’s not just a big truck • Commits should each mean something Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Interactive Add - Building Semantic Commits • `git add` simply adds to the stage • `git commit -a` will commit all changes to tracked files (add and commit) • `git add -i` -- a command line tool to interactively add changes • Individual commits shouldn’t leave things broken • Try to commit some useful feature or bug fix all together Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Interactive Add - SourceTree Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Branching Like Hitting Save Before You Fight the Level Boss Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Branching • New branch: git checkout -b <name> • A branch is a named ref • merging • rebasing Presentation tackmobile.com
    • How To Think About Branching • Mainline • What do you want “master” to mean? • Topic Branches • Branching examples Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Topic Branches • Branching is about controlling feature sets • Make a new branch for a story • Make a new branch for a bug fix • Make a new branch to spike something Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Team Branching Strategies • What do you want “master” to mean? • Keep master deployable? • • one strategy for web software Use “master” as an integration branch? • Each developer uses topic branches and integrates to master • Make a branch for releases Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Branching git checkout -b add_login_activity master fb4f5d9 c5083fa add_login_activity 9aa8827 Presentation fe594ce ccb6f5e tackmobile.com
    • Branching: Merging git checkout master git merge add_login_activity master fb4f5d9 c5083fa 9aa8827 3f43fa3 fe594ce ccb6f5e add_login_activity 9aa8827 Presentation fe594ce ccb6f5e tackmobile.com
    • Branching: Rebasing master fb4f5d9 c5083fa 3f43fa3 add_login_activity before 9aa8827 fe594ce ccb6f5e master fb4f5d9 c5083fa 3f43fa3 add_login_activity after `git rebase master` Presentation 9aa8827 fe594ce ccb6f5e tackmobile.com
    • Branching: Rebasing • Better than merging in some ways... • Don’t use if you’ve pushed your branch to a remote • Can override with `git push -force` • … but don’t Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Pull --rebase • Also available: `git pull --rebase` • Helpful for avoiding merge commits • May cause problems if git can’t automatically merge • Presentation `git reset HEAD` and start over with normal `git pull` tackmobile.com
    • Git Stash Like a Little Repo In Your Repo Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git stash • remember: git help stash • Stash away changes in a safe place • A Workflow:
 Stash -> Fix & Commit -> Pop Stash Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Cherry Pick I’ll Take One Of Those... And One Of Those... Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Cherry Pick • When you need a commit’s changes • But not its history Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Cherry-pick git cherry-pick fe594ce A new commit with the changes from fe594ce master fb4f5d9 c5083fa 3f43fa3 add_login_activity 9aa8827 Presentation fe594ce ccb6f5e tackmobile.com
    • Whoops! Lots Of Ways To Fix It Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git checkout • `git checkout [filename]`
 =
 remove unstaged changes Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git revert • Commits the reverse of a commit • The previous commit is still there • != svn revert Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git commit --amend • Oops! I misspelled something in the commit message • Oops! I did `git commit -a` and forgot to `git add` a file • Oops! I just committed a bug • USE ONLY BEFORE YOU SHARE CHANGES Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Interactive Rebase - Fixing History • git rebase -i [commit] • A list of all commits in the current order • Reorder • Fix a certain commit • Squash commits together • Delete commits • DON’T USE AFTER YOU’VE PUSHED Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git reset • `git reset [filename]` = opposite of `git add [filename]` • `git reset HEAD` = same as above - acts on all tracked changes • `git reset HEAD^` (also ^^, or ~1, ~42, etc.) = rollback commits to working tree • All examples of “mixed” reset Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git reset --soft [commit] 1. Moves HEAD to [commit] 2. Puts the “popped” contents on the index Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git reset [commit] (“mixed” - default) 1. Moves HEAD to [commit] 2. Puts the “popped” contents on the index 3. Moves the index’s changes to the working tree 4. Clears the index Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git reset --hard [commit] (DESTRUCTIVE!!!) 1. Moves HEAD to [commit] 2. Puts the “popped” contents on the index 3. Moves the index’s changes to the working tree 4. Clears the index 5. Makes the working copy look like the index Presentation tackmobile.com
    • git reset use cases • Back that last commit up (git reset HEAD^) • Don’t forget `commit --amend` • Oops, didn’t mean to commit that file • I meant that commit to be on a different branch! Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow A Popular Branching Model Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow • Conventions to follow • Tools to help you follow conventions • http://nvie.com/posts/a-successful-gitbranching-model/ Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow Conventions: Master Branch • The master branch is what is publicly available now • You don’t commit directly to master Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow Conventions: Develop Branch • A branch called “develop” is what will become the next version • Day to day work happens on develop • “Integration branch” Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow Conventions: Feature Branches • Long running development go on feature branches: “feature/foo” • Long running: “more than one commit” • Can be pushed to the server and shared • Branch from develop Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow Conventions: Hotfixes • OMG Problems in Production, create a hotfix: “hotfix/foo” • Branch from master (not develop) Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow Conventions: Releases • When a release is almost ready on develop, create a release branch: “release/2.0.4” • Branch from develop • Develop continues on for the next release • Small changes to release go on release branch Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Branch Lifecycle • Features • • • Start from develop Finished and merged to develop Releases • Start from develop • Finished and merged to master and develop Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow in Action: Features master develop feature/somefeature Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Git Flow in Action: Releases master release/v1.0 develop Presentation tackmobile.com
    • The Take Home • SCM Is Important • No matter what kind of developer you are • Git is fundamentally different from the others • It’s not a database of patches • It’s a history of filesystem snapshots • It gives you freedom to innovate, make mistakes, and collaborate. Presentation tackmobile.com
    • Thank you! Git for the Android Developer • Tony Hillerson • Questions? • We’re Hiring! careers@tackmobile.com • Excellent Team • Awesome Projects • Great Office