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Khiet assignment

  1. 1. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103A. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter explains: (1) research background (2) Problem statement (3) Research Objectives and theScope of the Research.1.1 Research background. After the Foreign Investment Law has been promulgated in Vietnam, Taiwan was one of the earliestforeign investors in Vietnam. Since Vietnam and Taiwan signed four agreements: Protection Taiwan investors inVietnam, Prevention of double taxation, Agriculture and Fishing cooperation, Research development and laborin 1993, Taiwan’s FDI in Vietnam has impressive increased. According to annual report 2011 of the Ministry of Planning and Investment, Taiwan invested thelargest capital, occupying about 25% of foreign investments in Vietnam: Total registered Charter capital No Country No. of projects capital (USD) (USD) 1 Taiwan 2,180 23,164,997,783 9,857,400,908 2 Singapore 918 22,918,990,637 6,582,042,849 3 Korea 2,771 22,808,101,241 7,943,378,957 4 Japan 1,532 21,273,910,957 6,052,381,623 5 Malaysia 382 18,785,400,902 3,996,783,540 British Virgin 6 494 14,797,956,400 4,656,241,700 Islands 7 USA 577 13,246,728,812 3,201,928,056 8 Hong Kong 634 8,444,334,699 2,983,878,592 9 Cayman Islands 52 7,432,182,851 1,474,385,118 10 Thailand 245 5,875,608,378 2,542,145,906 Table 1.1: Vietnam’s FDI investors (Source: Vietnams FDI figures, June 23, 2011)1.2 Problem statement. According to Buller, Kohls, & Anderson, 1991, p.767, in the situation of increasing number ofmultinational organizations, companies are becoming more interdependent and must learn to work cooperativelyfor their mutual benefits. When foreign invested companies operate their business in Vietnam, they are facing with manydifficulties. It should be the difference in social structure, religion, language, education system, political issues.To Taiwanese companies, there are a lot of cross culture management issues come out which they need to knowhow overcome to achieve the top position among the foreign investors in Vietnam so far. Recently, through out the public media, a lot strikes have reported in foreign invested companies,especially in industrial zones where many textile, garment and footwear enterprises located. The main reasonsare the violations of labor salary, bonuses, social insurance between employers and employees. The root reasonis management style of Taiwanese owners. 1
  2. 2. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 How to handle such issues and manage the business efficiently have been important topics to be analysisand discussed not only for Taiwanese academic business professors and also for Vietnamese authority.Enterprises owners almost understand that they don’t know the local management situation well. Therefore, whois the bridge to connect the two sides: the foreign owners and local employees? Most of Taiwanese companies invested in Vietnam, they are using the middle managers who areVietnamese in their organization to minimize misunderstanding. Besides that, employees are usually paid highersalary than other foreign invested companies, particularly in garment, food processing, footwear fields. Lastly, the cultural factor is also impact on business model of Taiwanese investors. The different culturalbetween Viet ethnic and Chinese ethnic are the gaps must be filled.1.3 Research Objectives and the Scope of the Research1.3.1 Research Objectives. The reason led to research is aimed to high light the appropriate management styles of Taiwanesecompanies which achieve successful business in Vietnam so far. It is very important to evaluate whichmanagement style is appropriate when doing business in cross culture environment. Besides more employments for Vietnamese employees created, Taiwanese invested companies alsogenerate conflict between Taiwanese employers and Vietnamese employees. The main reasons are the lack ofprofessional knowledge, skill, and attitudes of the local workers. Most of local workers come from the countryside of Vietnam with a low education, and not ready to live in major city like Ho Chi Minh City. AlthoughVietnam and Taiwan are the ASEAN countries, there are many differences regarding culture, custom habitswhich cause to misunderstand. To overcome these barriers, Taiwanese invested companies found the solution: they train localemployees with management skills and assign them as middle managers in the company. By this way, themiddle managers play important role the business operation. They are the local person, so that they understandwhat local employees want exactly. With the management skills, they can understand what the meaning of themessage from the owners. They take a role like a bridge to connect two opposite sides or fill the gaps. With outmiddle managers, it could not be said that all the businesses were effective completely. To understand how successful Taiwanese invested companies in Vietnam, it is necessary to undertake aresearch on the current management styles at these companies. Regarding to effectiveness of performance of management styles, there are different approaches have tobe applied. According to Quang, T. & Vuong, N. T. (2002). Management Styles and OrganizationalEffectiveness in Vietnam, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 10(2), 36-55, middlemanagers are chose as the subject of their study on the management styles and organizational effectiveness inVietnam. Steve McKenna, (1998) "Cross-cultural attitudes towards leadership dimensions", Leadership &Organization Development Journal, Vol. 19 Iss: 2, pp.106 – 112, said that a manager should know how the 2
  3. 3. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103followers think about the management board. There are many problems with this overly simplistic approach, oneof which is the transferability of the definitions of competencies across cultures. In this paper, 138 middlemanagers were studied from a North American telecommunications corporation. They were asked to commenton the various dimensions of the overall competence “leadership”, as it was defined by the corporation’s humanresource development group. It was found that there was little broad cross-cultural agreement on thesedimensions among the managers surveyed which points to the difficulty, and indeed, validity, of attempts todevelop generic, global management competencies. When selecting the most appropriate management style for doing business effectively in Vietnam,Taiwanese invested companies need to get the feedback form local employers on current management style.Middle managers who are local people can reflect reliable information to the upper managers. Based on theinformation, the upper manager and the owner can make proper decisions to achieve the company mission andvision.1.3.2 The Scope of the Research. In accordance with the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI), most Taiwanese invested companiesin Vietnam are small and medium sized company. There are about 2000 projects in Vietnam in which more than85% located in the South of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City is dynamic and modern city. The city authority has redcarpet policies to invite foreign investors. The surround cities like Dong Nai, Binh Duong having goodinfrastructures for transportation. The goods can be produced there and transport to every where in nation wideand to international port for export as well. With the advantages, major Taiwanese invested companies arelocated on these cities. Thus, the number of local employers and the local middle managers are large enough.And this population with its information, figures can reflect whole picture about the successful Taiwanesemanagement in doing business in Vietnam. The sample size formula below is used to make sure the selected population is properly and reliable. Z 2 * ( P ) * (1 − P ) SS= c2 Where: Z = Z value (e.g. 1.96 for 95% confidence level)p = percentage picking a choice, expressed as decimal(.5 used for sample size needed)c = confidence interval, expressed as decimal(e.g., .04 = ±4) There are some studies on Taiwanese management style in Vietnam before. However, they mostly focuson Taiwanese owners who be known as rich investors. Other researches studied on violent Vietnamese law tolocal employers when Taiwanese running their business. E.g. sexual harassment with female employees, 3
  4. 4. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103militaristic disciplines such as fine and money deduction or unbelievable working conditions: workers allow goto toilet 3 times in a working shift. There is not any study on the contribution of Vietnamese middle managers who contribute their part insuccess business of Taiwanese invested companies in Vietnam. Therefore, the purposes of the study are: • To acknowledge the contribution of Vietnamese middle managers towards the current Taiwanese management style at Taiwanese-invested companies. • Suggestions for improvement of the management style based on the exploration. The research objectives of this study are: • The Vietnamese middle manager comments on the supervision dimension of Taiwanese management style. • Vietnamese middle manager comments on the decision making dimension of Taiwanese management style. • To find out relationship between demographic factors and satisfaction of Vietnamese middle managers towards the four dimensions. • The current Taiwanese management style and suggestions to improve. The research questions of this study were: • How do Vietnamese middle managers comments on the supervision dimension of Taiwanese management style? • What are Vietnamese middle manager comments on the decision making dimension of Taiwanese management style? • Is there any relationship between demographic factors and satisfaction of Vietnamese middle managers towards the four dimensions? • What are suggestions for improvement of Taiwanese management style?1.3.3 Definition of terms. There are several terms defined in this section: Taiwanese-invested companies, management style, cross-culture management, middle management.(1) Taiwanese-invested companies According to the Vietnam Investment Law issued 2007, the term of foreign invested companies aredefined in two cases: • Enterprises with 100% foreign capital, or • Vietnamese enterprises are stock held, franchised by foreign investors 4
  5. 5. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Thus, Taiwanese invested companies in this research are the companies have 100% Taiwanese investedcapital or other cooperation with Taiwanese.(2) Management style Management styles are characteristic ways of making decisions and relating to subordinates.Management styles can be categorized into two main contrasting styles, autocratic and permissive. Managementstyles are also divided in the main categories of autocratic, paternalistic, and democratic. (Robert Tannenbaumand Warren H. Schmidt (1958, 1973)).(3) Cross-cultural management Cross-culture management techniques help managers contend with the challenges and opportunities ofmanaging employees in a culturally diverse organizational environment. Increasing globalization has createdmore awareness of the need for managers to be sensitive to the cultural aspects of decision-making. (By Corr S.Pondent, eHow Contributor , last updated September 02, 2011)(4) Middle manager Middle management is the intermediate management of a hierarchical organization, being subordinate tothe senior management but above the lowest levels of operational staff. Operational supervisors may beconsidered middle management or may be categorized as non-management staff, depending upon the policy ofthe particular organization. Middle management may be reduced in organizations as a result of reorganization. Such changes includedownsizing, outsourcing. The changes may be made in order to reduce costs, as middle management iscommonly paid more than junior staff, or the changes may be made to make the organization flatter —empowering the employees and making the organization more innovative and flexible. (Peter Aucoin (1989),Middle Managers, Institute of Public Administration of Canada, p. 191)B. Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVEIW This part review published research related to the management style and how it impact to operatingbusiness.2.1 Definition and classification of management style According to Steve Martin, Author of Instant Profits: Making Your Business Pay, a management stylemost often describes the way a manager tends to made decisions. In the quest to put labels on people, researchersand management theorists have created a spectrum of management style types. There are several named styles,but here are the four most classic types: - The authoritarian (or autocratic) style is all power focusing the manager, and all interactions within thegroup move towards the manager. The manager alone exercises decision making and authority for determiningpolicy, procedures for achieving goals, work tasks and relationships, control of rewards or punishments.-Paternalistic: autocratic but sometimes considers others in decisions. 5
  6. 6. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 - The democratic style is where the focus of power is more with the group as a whole and there is greaterinteraction within the group. The leadership functions are shared with members of the groups and the manager ismore part of a team. The group members have greater say in decision making, determination of policy,implementation of systems and procedures. - A laissez fair (genuine) style is where the manager observes that members of the group are workingwell on their own. The manager consciously makes a decision to pass focus of power to members, to allow themfreedom of action “to do as they think best”, and not to interfere: but is readily available if help is needed. Thereis often confusion over this style of leadership behavior. The word “genuine” is emphasized because this is to becontrasted with the manager who could not care, who deliberately keeps away from the trouble spots and doesnot want to get involved. The manager just lets members of the groups get on with the work in hand. Membersare left to face decisions which rightly belong with the manager. This is more a non style of leadership it couldperhaps be labeled as abdication Figure 2.1 Management style (Jones, G. R., George, J.M., & Hill, C. W.(2000).Contemporarymanagement. The advantage of contemplating ones own management style is for both personal improvement anddevelopment. While most managers have one dominant style, it is actually likely that professional managers willemploy multiple styles in various circumstances as they impact the ultimate management obligation of ensuringorganizational success. The Principles of Scientific Management is a monograph published by Frederick Winslow Taylor in1911 described what the best system of management in then current use, the system of "initiative and incentive."In this system, management gives incentives for better work, and workers give their best effort. The form ofpayment is practically the whole system, in contrast to scientific management. Taylors scientific managementconsisted of four principles: 6
  7. 7. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 • First, they develop a science for each element of a mans work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method. • Second, they scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could. • Third, they heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. • Fourth, there is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management takes over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men. Another concept is how management style calculated. Culpan and Kucukemiroglu (1993) developedmanagement style in six dimensions: Figure 2.2 Six dimensions in management style (Source: A Comparison of U.S. & JapaneseManagement Styles and Unit Effectiveness. Management International Review 33(1), 27-42). Moreover, there are many other different definitions and classifications of management styles. Most ofthem are similar meaning with above ones. For example, organizational development was mentioned byGrzeskowiak (2005), human interaction and relationships were mentioned by Grzeskowiak (2005), Khandwalla(1995).2.2 Characteristics of certain management styles. In some situations, the employees or followers tend to set their target lower than the managersexpectation because of failure scare and facing with poor performance in the eyes of their managers (Roslund,1989). In some cases, subordinates often want to set low targets because of the fear of failure and they are notoften encouraged to enhance targets (Roslund, 1989). There is a connection between this style and the style ofmanagement by exception where delegation plays as a main role (Rohlander, 1998; Brown, 1998). To avoid this tendency, Nelson (1994) believed that employees get more responsibility when they areassigned to involve in decision making 7
  8. 8. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Motivation skill is also important art in management. To normal task, managers can set target toemployees and give them the rights to decide how they can achieve. The managers take role as supervisor andsupport them when necessary (Burns, 1968). Communication in an organization is very important. Lack of information will lead to poor businessperformance. In an organization, the management must to set up a communication process to make sure they getinformation any time for monitoring or making decision. The lack of information in communication is describedas Parsley (2006): • Managers do not see communication as part of their day job. • Managers have not developed their communication skills. • Communication channels are absent, inappropriate, or over-subscribed. • Communication around corporate citizenship is disjointed. Currently, most managers make decisions with relevant information. Communication systems helpmanagers to increase efficiency operation. As a result, the productivity rises (Gregory, 2005). Figure 2.3: The communication process and possible source of “noise” Understanding the characteristics of certain management styles will help to understand the dimensionsof management style. And the relationship and attitude of the employees towards managers can be exposed.2.3 Cross-culture management issues involving management styles. Cross cultural management mainly focuses on the behavior of people from different culture workingtogether as a group or an organization (Adler, 1983). Most of cross-cultural management study aims at dealingwith the issue of organizational behavior, such as leadership style, motivational approaches, strategy,organizational structure (Morden, 1995; Elenkov, 1998). 8
  9. 9. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 As to the cultural concept, culture is a complex issue in some fields such as sociology, anthropology andnow become a hot topic in management. Several contributions are voted in this area by some authors, such asHofstede (1997), Hall (1976, refered by Richardson and Smith, 2007), Golbe (2004). It is no exaggeration to saythat Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture theory are a dominant theory. Although a lot of people oppugnHofstede’s theory and his data are out of time (Holden, 2002, p20), however, the data of dimensions of nationalculture is not an absolute value but relative values. At least, Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture theorystill are a famous and popular theory, which is engaged by a large number of researches. Project GLOBE is arecent study, in which culture is linked to behavior in organization (Shore and Cross, 2005). Globe proposalsnine cultural dimensions, some of these are similar to Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture (Shore andCross, 2005). However, Globe’s theory is still a new theory without sufficient test; therefore it will not beconsidered in this study. Hall’s high context-communication and low context communication can perfectly servefor the cross-cultural communication study and conflict-resolution studies (Kim, Pan and Park, 1998). Because of the globalization and the rapid development of economics, multinational firms are more andmore prevalent. Intercultural communication presents a new challenge to managers. Culture, as Hofstede (1997,p. 4) states, is the “software of mind” that can influence people’s patterns of thinking and behaving. Several researchers have contributed their studies in cross-cultural communication area (Mary, 1993;Bennett 1998; Yum, 1988; Ybema & Byun, 2009). In “Cross-cultural communication for managers”, Mary(1993) applies a multiple insights to managerial communications. In order to make communication effectively,Mary (1993) recommends managers to think about seven issues before communication. This study is designedonly in a managerial context. In Bennett (1998)’s “Intercultural Communication: A Current Perspective”, heanswers the question “How do people understand one another when they do not share a common culturalexperience?” The question is answered from several aspects such as levels of culture, interculturalcommunication processes and cultural adaptation (Bennett, 1998). However, the focus of this study is too wide,which does not stand on a managerial context but on a social context. In addition, Yum (1988, p 78) researches“the impact of Confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in East Asia”. He arguesthat the discussions of most communicational studies stay on the surface of the problem and do not go deeply toexplore the source of problem. Thus, in his study, Yum (1988, p 78) “goes beyond these limitations and exploresthe philosophical roots of the communication patterns in East Asian countries”. But the focus of his study is onsocial contexts. Also, Yum (1988) only discusses the impact of Confucianism. Confucianism can in parts beregarded as a culture, but not in its entirety. In addition, Ybema & Byun (2009) “explore issues of culture andidentity In Japanese-Dutch relations in two different contexts: Japanese firms in the Netherlands and Dutch firmsin Japan”. From three aspects: communication, the superior-subordinate relationship and decision making, theyillustrate that in different organizational environment, cultural difference influence people’s identity take. Oncertain extent, Ybema & Byun’s (2009) study is similar with this study, for instance, engaging a comparisonbetween the people from different culture. However, their study pays more attention to power and identity talks 9
  10. 10. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103while other culture dimensions such as individualism, masculine, and Confucianism or long-term orientation(Hofstede, 1980) have not discussed in the study. Thus it is interesting to look into different culture dimensions’influence on the communication in multinational firms. By contrasting the differences of management style, staffbehaviors and communication system between different cultures the barriers of cross cultural communication inmulti-nation firms will be found. To improve the cross-cultural management issues, it is necessary not only changes from the currentmanagement style by senior managers but the participant of employees too. The employees need to be trainedwith content related to specific cross-culture issues represented in the organization in order to minimize theeffect of local habits, values, and mores on company operations and individual career development (Masterson& Murphy, 1986) as well as to minimize cross-cultural misunderstandings and conflict (Shuter, 1985). McKenna (1998), in the study on the competencies across cultures of management behavior, middlemanagers from different cultural and institutional contexts were required to comment on the various dimensionsof the overall competence "leadership"; then, to identify the key behaviors of these dimensions; and finally, tosuggest ways to improve their leadership potential. Some points were worthy of attention in the findings: 1. To the evaluation of performance dimension: Managers should establish standards to evaluate performance, and the managers can make decision without discussion. This dimension was argued important to the evaluation of performance which based on communication and discussion in the organization. Managers were suggested to discuss the performance of subordinates as possible as he can in order to improve it. 2. To the coaching dimension: Coaching was regarded involving interdependence and mutually supporting working relationships that allow employees greater control over their work by Western managers while, was regarded more similar to paternalism and essentially a dependent relationship by the Asian managers. It seems that Chinese people prefer “a style in which the leader maintains a harmonious, considerate relationship and defines clear cut tasks for each member of the group”. 3. To the delegation dimension: Japanese mostly let the decision-making authority was delegated via employee relations system, quality control circles and other forms of employee involvement. In contrast, Asian managers thought that taking decision-making responsibilities was the managers job and it would be "too risky" if such authority were delegated. On the other hand, Chinese leaders tend to adopt an authoritarian pattern of leadership, making all the important decisions and assigning tasks to subordinates. In certain parts of Asia, using “power” seems more popular than delegation. 4. To the developing organizational talent dimension: British and Americans managers considered developing others as fully as they can was part of a leader’s job. Asian managers considered concentrated on establishing systems and structures to organize and support people working. In addition, some British and American have focused on measuring responsibility in the development of others. It also argued that leaders should encourage others to develop their ability but not being so closely involved with the development. 5. To the developing performance goals dimension: Asian managers, establishing performance goals was regarded as their duty while the Western managers want to leave that task for the employees for the own 10
  11. 11. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 decision-making. Nowadays, globalization is tendency in every country. Besides of the advantages of this tendency, thereare some disadvantages occurred. Thus the managerial behavior in cross culture is very important. Theappropriate leadership style in certain situation is the key factor led to successful business. In each country, theways of leader ship carry out are different. For example, the way uses in Europe country successfully might notuse in Asia country effectively. Moreover, other terms in management theory such as performance appraisal,decision making method, coaching are also key elements involving cross cultural management issues.2.4 Taiwanese management style and its situation in Vietnam. Previously, there are many studies on Taiwanese management style in general, but there are few studieson Taiwanese management style in Vietnam. As has already been stated, managers tend towards the authoritarian, giving instructions to subordinateswhich they expect to be obeyed. It would be unusual for an employee to openly question the decision of themanager. However, there may have been a great deal of behind the scenes consensus building undertaken priorto an instruction being given. The manager expects to be consulted prior to any actions being taken and,therefore, little initiative is expected or shown lower down the chain. Decisions taken during a meeting, at whichthe senior manager is not present, should be viewed with some suspicion. The manager expects to be shown therespect due to his (rarely her) position and this will mean that, from a Western perspective, an undue amount ofdeference may be shown. Respect is given for position held, but age is also worthy of respect. It is difficult,therefore, for older Taiwanese to accept being managed by younger expatriate managers. Equally, a youngerwestern manager on a trade mission is likely to be less well received than a visibly older colleague. According to Chan and Wang (2003), Taiwanese investors often employed with a disciplinarian style,harsh working conditions. Taiwanese managers were regarded to be very harsh in their treatment of theirsubordinates (Curtis & Lu, 2004). The research by Curtin University in conjunction with the Eastern ConsultingGroup (Singapore) pointed out that Taiwanese managers were criticized for not passing on managementinformation to lower staff, viewed as being extremely hierarchical, felt to generally have a great deal ofautocratic power. The research also mentioned that the Taiwanese management style was sometime viewed asparticipatory, requiring teamwork and the ability to accept responsibility. Hempel and Chang (2002) conducted in-depth interviews with 20 Taiwanese managers to examine thereconciliation of traditional Chinese management with High-tech Taiwan. The interview outcomes showedsome of the perception of management styles in Taiwan. For example, some managers thought that Taiwaneseculture is changing; therefore, it was becoming more difficult to maintain the authoritarianism/paternalismmanagement style (the one has been regarded as the Chinese traditional management style). Another idea wasthat certain managers do not want to be democratic, but not too autocratic. 11
  12. 12. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Chang, Mellahi and Wilkinson (2005) pointed out some of Taiwanese management characteristics aspresented in Table 2-1 below: Table 2-1 Taiwanese characteristics described by Chang, Mellahi and Wilkinson Items Characteristics Recruitment • ‘Recruitment agencies ‘and ‘executive search consultants’ are less commonly used for managerial and professional vacancies • ‘Panel interview’, ‘aptitude tests’, ‘competency-based interviews’ and ‘application forms’ are less commonly used for all levels Training • Low in conducting training needs systematically Pay and benefits • High in egalitarianism and Low in pay differentials between those at Performance Appraisal • Less likely used. • Reluctant to provide feedback. • Emphasis on group performance. Management appointment • Soft criteria such as ‘emphasis on generating participation and Criteria involvement’, ‘a cooperative group action’, ‘loyalty’ Flexible working • Part-time work is less commonly used Organizational • Open-communication methods is less commonly used Participatory management • Quality circles is commonly used and Industrial relations • Less likely to exercise collective bargaining(Source: Chang, Mellahi and Wilkinson, 2005. Transferring HMR strategies and practices across borders. Anempirical study of Taiwanese MNEs in UK) Almost of Taiwanese-invested companies in Vietnam are small and medium-sized enterprises (Cao Son,2006; Tran, 2004). Nearly 90 percent of them located in southern Vietnam in which Ho Chi Minh city, Dong Naiand Binh Duong are the three provinces where attracted lots of Taiwanese investors (see appendix F). Businessareas in which the Taiwanese investors mainly operate are largely various, in both production and servicesectors, such as: food processing, text-tile, footwear, handicraft, stationery, building material, steel-iron,motorbike and automobile parts, mechanical products, electronics products, wood-made products, banking, etc.Taiwanese invested companies locate in the Export Processing Zones (EPZs) or Industrial Parks (IPs). The factor attracts Taiwanese investors is low cost of Vietnamese labor force (EPZA, 2005). Forexample, in textile industry, the average wave for blue collar workers in Vietnam was 0.18 USD per hour,compared with Indonesia 0.23, China 0.34, Hong Kong 3.39, Taiwan 5.0 (Tran, 2004). Low labor cost is a factorto decrease product cost to compete. However, in such countries which employees have paid with low wave, worked in bad workingconditions, strikes occurred to opposite the Taiwanese owners. In Vietnam, after Tet holidays, thousands ofworkers not come back to work. This headache matter make human resource department be put in alert.Recruitment new employees, training for new employees are the reasons to increase operation cost as well as 12
  13. 13. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103production postponed. In addition, many of the strikes have occurred concerned communication problems withTaiwanese managers (Glantz & Nguyen, 2006; Ascoly & Zeldenrust, 2003). In addition, the way Taiwanese managers manage the business organization and behave to Vietnameseemployees also have problems. Were always on guard at work," and The officials yell and swear at us andmistreat workers “one of the worker criticized her bosses. There was a widespread belief that the Taiwanese arethe most abusive managers (Chan & Wang, 2004-2005). It seems that using physical punishments was one of theways that some of Taiwanese managers had used in oversea assignments such as Mainland China (Chan &Wang, 2003). Working regulations at some Taiwanese-invested companies also have problems. Although all thedecisions made and regulations set up aiming not only to remain but raise productivity of performance, however,some of them were regarded severe and illogical to Vietnamese workers. One of the examples was “Time forToilet” in which unless the workers follow the regulation “only go the toilet three times during working” or“have to get a permission card for going toilet” at some manufacturing companies (Wang, 2002; Vinh Tung &Hong Hiep, 2005). One of strategies of Taiwanese invested companies is using local management. In Vietnam, there aremany so called middle managers who are Chinese Vietnamese. The main reason to explain is they can use bothVietnamese language and Mandarin language fluently. It is easy for such middle managers can understand themessage from the top and also from the bottom (Wang & Hsiao, 2002). “Establishing good relations between employees and employers is vital to help businesses minimizeunnecessary labor disputes and thus create better conditions for their development." a Vietnamese official said.As the case of Pouchen in Bien Hoa province, Vietnam, to decrease the number of strikes and improve therelationship between employers and employees, the management holds the training course for employees aboutliving skills, situation handling skills. When the disputes between two sides occur, the employees know how touse rules to protect themselves and how to express the ideas to avoid unexpected strikes (Vietnam EconomicNews, Feb 2009).2.5 Summary of the chapter. Although there are many studies on Taiwanese business and management styles, most of themconcentrated in general, not focus on Vietnam situation. Taiwanese invested companies always rank in top 3 inmore than a decade. Many different dimensions of management style apply in Vietnam and how it becomeseffectively. How does important role of Vietnamese managers in Taiwanese organizations? We also found thatcross culture issues related management styles nowadays. Managerial issues the Taiwanese-invested companies faced in Vietnam mentioned in previous studiesonly related to a few managerial behaviors and policies of the management style such as ways of supervising,salary and bonus, punishments regulation, etc., There were many other different managerial behaviors and 13
  14. 14. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103policies involved management style were not mentioned and studied employed to Taiwanese senior managersand Taiwanese-invested companies in Vietnam. Thus, this research was undertaken to fill that lack.C. Chapter 3 PROPOSED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter includes two parts: (1)Research Methodology and (2)Data Collection/ RequirementGathering Methods3.1 Research Methodology.3.1.1 Research process All the steps of the study was presented in Figure 3-1 below: 14
  15. 15. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103Figure 3.1 Research process flow3.1.2 Research methods. In this research, the survey methodology is the combination of the two communication approaches: • In-depth interview with primary data of attitudes and expectation (Wu (2003)). • Mail survey with primary data of opinions and suggestions. Secondary data were gathered from previous and relevant studies, articles, journals, reports, papers and websites. Subjects of the research were Vietnamese middle managers whose duties related to the managerial tasks in Taiwanese-invested 15
  16. 16. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 companies in southern Vietnam. (Chang, Mellahi and Wilkinson (2005) in their study of Taiwanese Multi-national enterprises in United Kingdom). a/ In-depth interview Conducting in-depth interviews are aimed to explore the perceptions of Vietnamese managersthroughout their comments on the four dimensions of the Taiwanese management style. After getting permissionfrom Taiwanese owners, a short list of ten Vietnamese managers is selected. The participants are invited to jointhe interviews. In the interview, the interviewer introduced the purposes of the research, informed the allowanceto take the interview from their Taiwanese boss or senior managers, and said thank you for the participating bythe interviewee. Then the interviewees were asked to talk as in detail as possible about: • The ways their Taiwanese senior managers manage works and treat Vietnamese subordinates. • The comments on the advantages and disadvantages of Taiwanese managers behavior. To the disadvantage issues, the suggestion of overcoming is welcomed. Some interview techniques are used as closed questions and open questions. Data collected in the in-depth interviews were recorded by tape and hand-writing. b/ Mail survey. The second method is mail survey. An official email with the introduction about the important purposeof research sent to General Manager of the Taiwanese invested companies. In the body of email, the sender asksfor permission and approval from them to make a mail survey. With the highest position in the companies, theGeneral Manager will assign who will conduct the email survey. A questionnaire regarding the issues of themanagement styles, the treatment of employers to employees, the communication among them, the advantagesand disadvantages of current management situation and suggestions from interviewees. In the questionnaires,there is also a bank part which the interviewees can write whatever they want.3.2 Question Design. According to Culpan and Kucukemiroglu (1993), the management style usually displays in 4dimensions below: Supervision style, Decision making, Communication pattern, Paternalistic orientation.Therefore, questionnaires in in-depth interview and mail survey also design to reflect in the four dimensions. 16
  17. 17. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Figure 3.2 Research frame work 3.2.1 In-depth interview question design. The design of questions in in-depth interview is find out what the real situation between Taiwanese employer and local employee. Thus, as per above definition of management dimensions, there are four sub topics regarding to the four dimensions of the management style: Supervision style, Decision-making, Communication, and Paternalistic orientation. After each part, the interviewees were asked for the strong and the weak of the management styles. Their suggestions to improve the situation are also appreciated. 3.2.2 Mail survey question design. The self-administered questionnaire type is used in the mail survey. It was designed with three parts as below: No Name Purpose Part 1 Administrative and Classification questions. To gather general data from the respondents and companies Part 2 Target questions. To determine the satisfaction towards the four dimensions of the current management style Part3 Open questions Gathering any ideas and suggestions contributed to the improvement of the current management style and others comments on the advantages and disadvantages of the characteristics of the current management style. Table 3.1 The self-administered questionnaire type• Part 1: Administrative and Classification questions. 17
  18. 18. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 These multiple choice questions are designed: Q1: The business scope of the company. Q2: The type of the company or form of investment. Q3: The volume of labor of the company. Q4: The time of business operation of the company. Q5: The position title of respondent. Q6: The age, gender, ethnic of the respondent. Q7: The time the respondent works for the company. Q8: The number of employees under directly the respondent’s supervision.• Part 2: Target questions. This part determines the satisfaction regarding the four dimensions of current management styles. Toevaluate the satisfaction level, the 5-point Likert scale ranging is used as below: Neither Strongl Tend Tend agree Strongly y to to nor disagree agree agree disagree disagree Perception of Vietnamese employees [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] towards Taiwanese ownersTable 3.2 Likert 5 point scale(Source: Likert, R. (1932). A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes, Archives of Psychology, No.140). All the items in questionnaires are developed with references as table below: Table 3.3 Items in the questionnaire with references Items Reference Delegating responsibilities and activities Nelson (1994), Rohlander (1998) Executing motivation seeking quality IME (1996), Hickey & Lotto (1998) Setting rewards-punishment regulations Koch (1998), Chan & Wang (2003) Encouraging individuals compete each other IME (1996), McKenna (1998) Supervising by walking around the company Schramm (2005), Adams et al., (n.d.) Making decision through feeling than reason Bruce (1998), Chen (2002) Emphasis on results rather than on process Burns (1968), Blanchard (1987) Questionnaire has four groups of questions: Group number Purposed to explore 18
  19. 19. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Group 1 (Q1-5) Perception towards supervision style dimension with five elements: - Delegation. - Motivation. - Rewards-punishment. - Supervision. Group 2 (Q6-12) Perception towards decision making with seven elements: - Approach of making decision - Emphasis on results vs. processes. - Intension of improvement. - Management standards. - Scheduling. - Setting objective. - Innovation. Group 3 (Q13-17) Perception towards communication system with five elements: - Sharing information. - Training. - Adjustment to changes. - Communication means and information technology application. Group 3 (Q18-20) Perception towards paternalistic orientation with three elements: - Staff development. - Human relations. - Gender equality. Table 3.4 Four groups of questions in a Questionnaire• Part 3: Open questions This part is focused on collection of ideals and suggestions of interviewees to improve the current management situation. Other comments are also appreciated. 3.3 Sampling design There are two types of sampling approach: in-depth interview and mail survey. 3.3.1 Stages to be followed for the selection of a sample. 19
  20. 20. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Figure 3.3: Stages in Selection of a Sample Source: Based on Zikmund (2000) Target population defined was Vietnamese managers in middle level who duties involved in managerialtasks at Taiwanese-invested companies in southern Vietnam. As mentioned in the literature review of thisresearch, nearly 90 percent of about 3,500 Taiwanese companies located in southern Vietnam. Suppose thatthere was one Vietnamese manager working at each of the companies in southern Vietnam, there was a group ofat least 3,000 Vietnamese middle managers made the target population of the research. According to Hair, J., Babin, B., Money, A. H., Samouel, P. (2003), a formula used to calculatesample size in order to meet the specified precision and confidence goals: Sample size = [(degree of confidence required X variability)/(desired precision)]2 20
  21. 21. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 In the study, the satisfaction was measured with a 1 to 5 rating scale and the range 4 (5-1 = 4). Theestimated standard deviation (variability) of the rating scale was 1 (4/4 = 1) with the assumption that thedistribution of the responses to the four dimensions was normal. Hence, a confidence interval of plus or minus 2 standard errors (95 percent) was used. Also suppose thatthe precision is specified as 1/3 of a unit on the rating scale. So we have: Sample size = [(2 X 1.0)/(0.33)]2 = 36.7 The result 36.7 was the minimum sample size the study should obtain. In fact, the responses were 52.Therefore, the sample met the specified precision and confidence goals.3.4 Data collection. As above mentions, all in-depth interviews are recorded by writing or tape. All documentaries areprimary data. There is data processing desk which process all the primary data. To mail survey, a temporary mailbox is set up to help the interviewees send back their answer easily and confidently. After finish the survey, there are 52 answered-questionnaires return in total 300 questionnaires sent out.The response rate is 18% lower than expected. The reason for low response rate may be the interviewees,Vietnamese managers, were busy with their daily functions in the companies. Other reason is the GeneralManagers who are the first contact in the study did not allow their subordinate to answer the survey. They don’twant some confidential information leak out. Several studies on Vietnamese people issues have also lowfeedback rate and accepted by research analyses. The internal validity and reliability of the data collected and the response rate that you achieved highlydepend on the design of the questions, the structure of the questionnaire and the rigour of ones pilot testing; Avalid questionnaire will enable accurate data to be collected and one that is reliable will ensure that data arecollected consistently. To design questionnaire perfectly, one board of experts who are specialized in business management,human resource, and cultural issues research invited to review and advice. Some revisions made after gettingvaluable contributions. On the other hand, validity of the survey instrument was identified by taking thesquared root of reliability coefficient as it is proved that the maximum validity coefficient (validity index)equals the squared root of reliability coefficient. To measure internal consistency, Cronbachs alpha method is used. The formula for the standardizedCronbachs alpha: 21
  22. 22. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103In which: N is equal to the number of items. c-bar is the average inter-item covariance among the items. v-bar equals the average variance. The value Cronbach’s alpha higher than 0.8 was considered “acceptable” in most social scienceapplication. The value of 0.7 was considered generally as a minimum of Cronbach’s alpha by researchersalthough lower coefficients may be acceptable depending on research objectives (Hair, Babin, Money &Samouel, 2003).3.5 Data Analysis Methods. Data gathered from in-depth interviews were analyzed by data processing experts. To data gathered frommail survey were analyzed by statistical software. In this research, there are four methods use to analyze data. • Descriptive statistics analysis. • Test of reliability. • Independent sample test. • Analysis of variance.3.5.1 Descriptive statistics analysis. Business researchers edit and code data, as explained in the previous topics, in order to provide inputthat will result in tabulated information for answering research questions. With this input, researchersstatistically describe project results. In this context the term analysis is difficult to define, because it refers to avariety of activities and processes. All these form of analyses attempt to portray data so that the results may bestudied and interpreted in a brief and meaningful way. Descriptive analysis refers to the transformation of raw data into a form that will make them easy tounderstand and interpret. Such analysis rearranges, orders, and analyses data to provide descriptive information.As the analysis progresses, researchers generally apply the tools of inferential statistics to assess the statisticalsignificance of various hypotheses about variables of interest in the study. With Likert scale tool, we measure the perception of Vietnam managers from (1): strongly disagree to(5) strongly disagree. The point 3 of this scale, the Vietnamese managers feel agree with Taiwanese managementstyle.3.5.2 Test of reliability. The reliability of a measure indicates the extent to which it is without bias (error free) and ensuresconsistent measurement across time and various items in the instrument. Two dimensions underlie the conceptof reliability. 22
  23. 23. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 • Stability/repeatability. • Internal consistency. For first dimension, the research use Test-retest Reliability to determine reliability coefficient with arepetition of the same scale or measure to the same respondent. If the measure is stable over time, the test,administered under the same conditions each time, should obtain similar result. For the second dimension, the consistency can be tested through Interterm consistency Reliability. Thisis test of the consistency of respondents answers to all the items in a measure. In this case, items constructindependently to measure the same concept, they will be correlated with one another. The test of interitemconsistency reliability is the Cronbachs coefficient alpha (Cronbachs alpha, Cronbach, 1946).3.5.3 Independent sample test. The t-test was used to test whether the means of agreement levels of satisfaction for the measured itemsand measured dimensions between the two independent groups (male group vs. female group and Viet ethnicgroup vs. Hoa ethnic group) were significantly different or not.Hypothesis H10:There was no difference in means between the male group and female group.Hypothesis H11:There was difference in means between the male group and female group.Hypothesis H20:There was no difference in means between the Viet ethnic group and Hoa ethnic group.Hypothesis H21:There was difference in means between the Viet ethnic group and Hoa ethnic group.3.5.4 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). This method examined the effect of every demographic factor (non-metric independent variables) onevery item (metric dependent variables). The result indicates if groups of demographic factors have impacts onitems or not. There were 8 pairs of hypotheses developed for testing as follows: Hypothesis No Result Hypothesis H30 There was no difference in satisfaction means between groups of field of business. Hypothesis H31 There was difference in satisfaction means between groups of field of business. Hypothesis H40 There was no difference in satisfaction means between groups of type of company. Hypothesis H41 There was difference in satisfaction means between groups of type of company. Hypothesis H50 There was no difference in satisfaction means between groups volume of labor. Hypothesis H51 There was difference in satisfaction means between groups of volume of labor. Hypothesis H60 There was no difference in satisfaction means between groups of time of operation. 23
  24. 24. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Hypothesis H61 There was difference in satisfaction means between groups of time of operation. Hypothesis H70 There was no difference in satisfaction means between groups title of position Hypothesis H71 There was difference in satisfaction means between groups of title of position. Hypothesis H80 There was no difference in satisfaction means between groups of age. Hypothesis H81 There was difference in satisfaction means between groups of age. Hypothesis H90 There was no difference in satisfaction means between groups of time of working. Hypothesis H91 There was difference in satisfaction means between groups of time of working. Hypothesis H100 There was no difference in satisfaction means between groups of people supervised. Hypothesis H101 There was difference in satisfaction means between groups of people supervised. Table 3.5 Hypotheses and results3.6 Limitations. The research purposes were related directly to the perception of Vietnamese middle managers towardstheir Taiwanese senior managers. Therefore, in some cases, the employees have tendency to reflect morepositive point of view than negative. To collect accurate results, the interviewee answers have guarantee ofconfident. The low rate of responses is also limitations. All the respondents are working at the time the survey betaking, they have a limited time to response the questionnaires. Some of respondents return the questionnaireswith poor answer or improperly. Other ones do not return. Hence, the research may not cover all aspects of theresearch issues.D. Chapter 4 RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS, SUGGESTION, IMPLICATION4.1 RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS • Vietnamese middle manager comments on the dimensions Both positive and negative comments on the managerial behaviors and policies regards to fourdimensions supervision style, decision making, communication and paternalistic orientation of Taiwanesemanagement style. The qualitative analysis showed that an unequal proportion of satisfaction level to each of themanagerial behaviors and policies which made the four dimensions. • Vietnamese managers satisfaction. There are the same results of one-sample test coming from 2 groups: sex and ethnic regarding toperception of Vietnamese middle managers toward Taiwanese management. The average point by voting the 5-point Likert scale ranging is valued of 3 point. That means Vietnamese managers satisfied with the currentTaiwanese management styles • Relationship between demographic factors and satisfaction. The result of analysis of variance of company democratic factors and participant democratic factorsshowed that: Satisfaction Result Management dimension Note 24
  25. 25. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Different level Rewards-punishment Different fields of business Different level Supervising Different types of company Different level Schedule activities Different operating time Different level Ideas and innovation Different types of company Different level Motivation Different titles of position Different level Communication Different to different age Different level Information technology Different time duration of working Table 4.1 The result of analysis of variance of company democratic factors and participant democraticfactors4.2 RESEARCH SUGGESTION The Vietnamese middle managers, in most cases, accepted the current management styles at theircompanies. However, unless the Taiwanese high-rank managers really focus on the improvement of theirmanagerial behavior, the situation may cause an ineffective performance. It is very important that only havingsatisfaction with the current working environment, the employees can contribute best of their power, theirenergy. On the way looking for the appropriate management style for the company, it requires lots of energyfrom all members in the organization. There were many suggestions of improvement of the current Taiwanesemanagement style gathered mostly from in-depth interviews. They were summarized as follow: 1. Taiwanese employers/seniors mangers should have more confidence in employees, especially in people who work for the company for long time. The best way was empower or delegate more tasks, duties and responsibilities to Vietnamese subordinates. 2. Salary should increased more (although the salary is increased every year but not much) both volume and frequency, together with the associate bonuses (the employees often compare their current salary with the others colleagues working in other foreign-invested companies in the same geographical area.). 3. Both monetary and non-monetary motivation need to be increased in volume and frequency. In addition, equality should be applied especially in motivation. 4. Cost for dealing business or business transaction should be interested in, especially, to marketing employees in order to create the most satisfactory working mood to employees; (5) Making decision by perception through feeling must be replaced by perception through reasons. 5. The ideas contributed by employees should be regarded quickly, if not, the problem may become worse. On the other hand, Taiwanese employers/seniors mangers should reduce the "me-myself" so the employees will feel relax to contribute ideas. 6. Not only saving in salary, benefit but saving in power, material, stationary should be mentioned. The more employers integrate the Vietnamese customs, the better the relation improved. 7. Taiwanese employers/seniors mangers should increase time of contacting employees in order to understanding what they feel, how they understand to get feedback and have quick adjustment consequently. 8. Gender equality needs to be interested in, especially at working places. 25
  26. 26. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 9. Working environment might need to be improved better (e.g. air-conditions and advanced tele- communication equipments should be equipped more).4.3 RESEARCH IMPLICATION The research findings and results have shown the perception of Vietnamese middle managers towardTaiwanese management style at Taiwanese-invested companies in Vietnam. The final conclusion was that thecurrent Taiwanese management style satisfied Vietnamese employees although the level was not high. There were only twenty items related to managerial behaviors of Taiwanese senior managers andmanagerial policies of Taiwanese-invested companies in southern Vietnam. The later studies can develop morerelated items with more dimensions to study the satisfaction of Vietnamese employees to Taiwanesemanagement style. Even to the four dimensions, more items can also be explored and used for studying. Furthermore, the research findings and results also have shown the difference of satisfaction betweendifferent groups of Vietnamese middle managers categorized on some demographic factors. However, theresearch findings and results only enable the researcher to conclude that statistical differences were existedsomewhere between the groups, not identify where the differences were. Therefore, the later studies, from the present results of this research can develop other intensiveobjectives related to the management styles at Taiwanese-invested companies in Vietnam, focus on analysis ofthese differences to point out where and how the differences were. In addition, the later researches focused on studying ways of improvement of the current Taiwanesemanagement style at Taiwanese-invested companies in Vietnam are also suggested. Such studies are alwaysuseful to the Taiwanese-invested companies, not only in Vietnam but to other investment places. 26
  27. 27. OPEN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA HUTECH OUM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103E. Chapter 5 REFERENCES    7739&volume=19&issue=2&articleid=1410494&show=html  Atkinson, P. (1991). Leadership; Total Quality and Cultural Change. Management Services. 35(6), 16-20.  Babcock. B. (2003). Time for a Walk. Globe and Mail.  Benford, R. J. (1981). Found: The Key to Excellent Performance. Personnel. 58(3), pg. 68-78.  Antoni, D. D. (2004). Leadership and Consensus Management. Retrieved Mar 15, 2006  Chan, A. & Wang, H. Z. (2004-2005). The Impact of the State on Workers’ Conditions - Comparing Taiwanese Factories in China and Vietnam. Pacific Affairs, 77(4).  Chang, J. (2004). The study of Subordinate Acceptance of Supervisor Influence Tactics. Master Thesis. National Sun Yat-Sen University.  Cao Son (2006). The Vietnam economic news online. Retrieved March 31st, 2006 from  Glantz, A. & Nguyen, N (2006). Labour-Vietnam: Wildcat Strikes Pay Off. Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved at  K. Chi (2005). Hơn 250 CN Công ty Year 2000 đình công. Nguoilaodong online. Retrieved Mar 10, 2006 from  Ministry of Planning and Investment. (2005). Tình hình thực hiện Đầu tư nước ngoài. Retrieved Dec 10, 2005 from 27
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