Designing in Context                                                       Thomas Grill                                   ...
● Overview          • ICT&S Center - University of Salzburg          • Context          • Contextual Design● - ICT&S - Con...
● ICT&S Center● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design   3 / 43
● ICT&S Center● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design                                          Context ...                ...
Mattias SahlénThe Context Is Everythinghttp://www.behance.net/mattiassahlen
"For me context is the key from that comes the understanding                       of everything."                    http...
1       Context what?                ·               !           Origin: 1375–1425; late Middle English < Latin contextus ...
1          Context definition           Context is any information that can be used to           characterize the situatio...
Literary    Design                   Leisure              Context     Context                  Context  Work              ...
Rachel Hinman - The mobile frontier (to appear in 2012)http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/mobile-design/                     ...
Literary    User Context               Design Context              Context                                Environ-        ...
Literary    User Context                 Design Context            Context                                  Environ-      ...
1       Modelling context          •A traditional way to “describe” context          • Usually focus on “interactive syste...
1       Schmidt et al. 1999● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design   13 / 43
1          Schmidt et al. 1999Albrecht Schmidt, Michael Beigl, and Hans-Werner Gellersen. There is more to context than lo...
1       Abowd & Mynatt 2000          • The    5 Ws of Context          • Who – the user and other people in the environmen...
1        Tarasevich 2003                Location, Orientation (of                objects)                Physical properti...
1           Bradley & Dunlop 2005Nicholas A. Bradley and Mark D. Dunlop. Toward a multidisciplinary model of context to su...
1       Grill & Tscheligi 2011                    Situational Context                 Situational Context                 ...
1       Designing the mobile context ...           NFL Mobile Commercial● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design      19 / 43
2             Contextual Design                   Design is a specification of an object, manifested by                   ...
Engineering      Applied                                              Design                                              ...
%==6>*-,"$ goals?$ -)$ %$ >%4/-=3*%4$ environment?$ 3,-)2$ %$ ,#/$ 0$ primitive                 components?$,%/-,0+-)2$%$,...
2       Context(ual) Design?                                                                  Interpretation             •...
2       Contextual Design                                          Contextual inquiry          • The Concextual Design    ...
2       User research methodologies          • Getting to know the user          • Who interacts                          ...
2       When to Use Which          User Experience Research MethodsChristian Rohrer - http://www.useit.com/alertbox/user-r...
2       User research methodologies          • Common         user research methodologies               ! Interviews, Focu...
2       User research methodologies          • Ethnographies                                         going into the field ...
2       User research methodologies          • Ethnography                                                       going int...
2       Contextual Inquiry          •A  contextual inquiry interview is usually structured as an            approximately ...
2       When to use which          User Experience Research MethodsChristian Rohrer - http://www.useit.com/alertbox/user-r...
2       Usability vs. User Experience          • Usability               !   The ease of use of a particular tool or desig...
2              Usability vs. User Experiencehttp://userexperienceproject.blogspot.com/2007/04/user-experience-wheel.html● ...
2       User Experience          • Different      facets of UX               ! Values are what we want to achieve         ...
2 User Experience is…         a multi-disciplinary process         of design         -   Information Architecture         ...
2       In practice ... PreDesign               • When  to analyse context? Phase                   • What does the contex...
2       Designing the product          • De-contextualized             design               ! Only refers to the functiona...
2       Functionality          • Meeting the user’s needs          • Defines the “utility” of a product          • Needs t...
2       Attachment                                          http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbttOR-SrRQ● - ICT&S - Context ...
2       Emotions      • Describes        how the user           ! Addresses a product           ! Is attached to a product...
2        How to regard this?   Plan – Planning is critical to the success of all projects, and   this is also true of proj...
2       Evaluation● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design   42 / 43
● Questions?                                          Thank you!● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design            43 / 43
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Designing in Context

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An introduction to Contextual Design and different perspectives of Context

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Designing in Context

  1. 1. Designing in Context Thomas Grill mailto:thomas.grill@sbg.ac.at 10.11.2011Human Computer Interaction & Usability Unit http://icts.sbg.ac.at
  2. 2. ● Overview • ICT&S Center - University of Salzburg • Context • Contextual Design● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 2 / 43
  3. 3. ● ICT&S Center● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 3 / 43
  4. 4. ● ICT&S Center● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design Context ... 3 / 43
  5. 5. Mattias SahlénThe Context Is Everythinghttp://www.behance.net/mattiassahlen
  6. 6. "For me context is the key from that comes the understanding of everything." http://www.kennethnoland.com
  7. 7. 1 Context what? · ! Origin: 1375–1425; late Middle English < Latin contextus a joining together, scheme, structure, equivalent to contex(ere) to join by weaving (con- con- + texere to plait, weave) + -tus suffix of v.action; compare texthttp://dictionary.reference.com/browse/context● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 6 / 43
  8. 8. 1 Context definition Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and application themselves. What is it when we are talking about context ...Anind!K. Dey, Gregory!D. Abowd, Peter!J. Brown, Nigel Davies, Mark Smith, and Pete Steggles. Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness. InHUC ’99: Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing, pages 304–307, London, UK, 1999. Springer-Verlag.● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 7 / 43
  9. 9. Literary Design Leisure Context Context Context Work Author’s Context Context Device Context User Social ContextContext Historical Virtual Emotional Application Context Reality Context Context Context Mobile Context Information Task Situational Context Context ContextCultural Environ- LearningContext Behavioral mental Context Context Context
  10. 10. Rachel Hinman - The mobile frontier (to appear in 2012)http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/mobile-design/ Mobile Context - The Chapter that Nearly Killed Me
  11. 11. Literary User Context Design Context Context Environ- Author’s Work mental Context Virtual Context ContextEmotional Reality Context Context Historical Mobile Context Application Social Context ContextContext Situational Context Information Cultural Leisure Task Context Context Context Context Behavioral Learning Device Context Context Context
  12. 12. Literary User Context Design Context Context Environ- Author’s Work mental Context Virtual Context ContextEmotional Reality Context Context Historical Mobile Context Social ContextContext Situational Application Context Context Cultural Leisure Task Context Information Context Context Device Context Behavioral Learning Context Context Context
  13. 13. 1 Modelling context •A traditional way to “describe” context • Usually focus on “interactive systems” • Themost of the models model such an interactive system where relevant context are regarded● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 12 / 43
  14. 14. 1 Schmidt et al. 1999● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 13 / 43
  15. 15. 1 Schmidt et al. 1999Albrecht Schmidt, Michael Beigl, and Hans-Werner Gellersen. There is more to context than location. Computers and Graphics, 23(6):893–901, 1999.● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 14 / 43
  16. 16. 1 Abowd & Mynatt 2000 • The 5 Ws of Context • Who – the user and other people in the environment • What – human activity perception and interpretation • Where – location and the perceived path of the user • When – time as an index and elapsed time • Why – reason a person is doing somethingGregory!D. Abowd and Elizabeth!D. Mynatt. Charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 7(1):29–58, 2000.● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 15 / 43
  17. 17. 1 Tarasevich 2003 Location, Orientation (of objects) Physical properties Brightness and noise levels Availability and quality (of devices and communications)Location, Orientation Tasks & GoalsPersonal properties Events in the environmentMental statePhysical healthExpectations Peter Tarasewich. Towards a comprehensive model of context for mobile and wireless computing. In Proc. of AMCIS 2003, pages 114–124, 2003.● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 16 / 43
  18. 18. 1 Bradley & Dunlop 2005Nicholas A. Bradley and Mark D. Dunlop. Toward a multidisciplinary model of context to support context-aware computing. Hum.-Comput. Interact., 20(4):403– 446, 2005.● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 17 / 43
  19. 19. 1 Grill & Tscheligi 2011 Situational Context Situational Context User Context/Personal Knowledge Context Experiences UX Emotions user part of environmental, Intention physical context Goals sense & perceive Intrinsic sense & perceive Factors Extrinsic Extrinsic Factors Factors cognitive social context process information context interacts with person webservice GUI User Interface mobile ubicomp device Application Context sense System implements WWW environmental, physical context sense Data- base interpret interpret Temporal information context functionality / features social context Context future tn+1 tn past● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 18 / 43
  20. 20. 1 Designing the mobile context ... NFL Mobile Commercial● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 19 / 43
  21. 21. 2 Contextual Design Design is a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraintsRalph, P. and Wand, Y. (2009). A proposal for a formal definition of the design concept. In Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J., and Robinson, W., editors, Design RequirementsWorkshop (LNBIP 14), pp. 103-136. Springer-Verlag, p. 109.● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 20 / 43
  22. 22. Engineering Applied Design Arts Web Instructional Design Design Game Design Process Graphic UI Design Design Design Interaction Design Product Interior Design Archi- Design tectureIndustrial Experience Design Design Fashion Service Universal Design Design Design
  23. 23. %==6>*-,"$ goals?$ -)$ %$ >%4/-=3*%4$ environment?$ 3,-)2$ %$ ,#/$ 0$ primitive components?$,%/-,0+-)2$%$,#/$0$requirement,?$,3&@#=/$/$constraintsA$ 2 (verb, transitive) /$ =4#%/#$ %$ .#,-2)?$ -)$ %)$ #)(-4)6#)/$ 51"#4#$ /"#$ .#7 Design & Context ,-2)#4$>#4%/#,: Context Fig. 1.$B)=#>/3%*$C.#*$0$D#,-2)$5%,$%$)3): B),-.#4-)2$.#,-2)$%,$%$>4=#,,$5.#>-=/#.$-)$8-234#$<:?$/"#$3/=6#$-,$/"#$,>#=-0-=%/-)$Ralph, P. and Wand, Y. (2009). A proposal for a formal definition of the design concept. In Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J., and Robinson, W., editors, Design RequirementsWorkshop (LNBIP 14), pp. 103-136. Springer-Verlag, p. 109.0$/"#$.#,-2)$&@#=/;$!"#$2%*,?$#)(-4)6#)/?$>4-6-/-(#,?$4#E3-4#6#)/,$%).$=),/4%-)/,$%4#? ● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 22 / 43-)$ >4-)=->*#?$ /"#$ -)>3/,$ /$ /"#$ .#,-2)$ >4=#,,A$ "1#(#4?$ 0/#)$ F)1*#.2#$ 0$ /"#,#$ 6%+$
  24. 24. 2 Context(ual) Design? Interpretation • Designing for Context ! Designer investigates context Design Context from outside Context of use User Research • Designing in Context ! Designer residing in Context ! Ethnographic approach Context of use • Designing Context Design Context ! Context is the design artifact● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 23 / 43
  25. 25. 2 Contextual Design Contextual inquiry • The Concextual Design Process Interpretation session Data consolidation Visioning & Storyboarding Product and System Requirementshere starts the user interface design Paper Mockup Interviews Interaction, Visual, Industrial Design● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 24 / 43
  26. 26. 2 User research methodologies • Getting to know the user • Who interacts ts • In his particular, relevant environment g is lo ho The goal of user research is to generates yc s an p ist by log understanding of the people who use our products! ne cio do so a lly or U su● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 25 / 43
  27. 27. 2 When to Use Which User Experience Research MethodsChristian Rohrer - http://www.useit.com/alertbox/user-research-methods.html● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 26 / 43
  28. 28. 2 User research methodologies • Common user research methodologies ! Interviews, Focus Groups, Workshops ! Card Sorting ! Contextual inquiry ! Shadowing (similar to contextual inquiry but evaluator only observes) ! Visual Anthropology (Foto Diary) ! Cultural Probing ! Questionnaires, Surveys, Panels (Similar to an online survey that is given to a specific set of people, who have been recruited for the purposes of research) ! Analytics (Measuring key metrics about what users are doing) ! Diary Methods ! Experience Sampling Method ! ...● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 27 / 43
  29. 29. 2 User research methodologies • Ethnographies going into the field ! Participants are observed in their natural environment (most typically in their homes, offices, or where ever they use the product) ! Provides a deep understanding of their lifestyles, cultures, process, and work‐ arounds as a basis for better understanding their needs and problems ! Best if done early in the development process to help ! inform features and functionality● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 28 / 43
  30. 30. 2 User research methodologies • Ethnography going into the field ! Moving into the context ! Get to know the end-users ! Getting first-hand information !Ethnography is the practice of immersing oneself in the world or culture that one is studying. This means you go into the field to observe their rituals and behaviour in their “natural setting”. residing in the office • Vs. “armchair anthropologists” ! Doing literature research only • Too general ! Interrogating mostly unspecific user-groups • Not necessarily representative • e.g. colleagues http://www.clipartoday.com/_thumbs/018/people/business/mandesk8-07_tnb.png● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 29 / 43
  31. 31. 2 Contextual Inquiry •A contextual inquiry interview is usually structured as an approximately two-hour, one-on-one interaction in which the researcher watches the user do their normal activities and discusses what they see with the user. • Contextual inquiry defines four principles to guide the interaction: ■ Context—Interviews are conducted in the userʼs actual workplace. The researcher watches users do their own work tasks and discusses any artifacts they generate or use with them. In addition, the researcher gathers detailed re-tellings of specific past events when they are relevant to the project focus. ■ Partnership—User and researcher collaborate to understand the userʼs work. The interview alternates between observing the user as they work and discussing what the user did and why. ■ Interpretation—The researcher shares their interpretations and insights with the user during the interview. The user may expand or correct the researcherʼs understanding. ■ Focus—The researcher steers the interaction towards topics which are relevant to the teamʼs scope.● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 30 / 43
  32. 32. 2 When to use which User Experience Research MethodsChristian Rohrer - http://www.useit.com/alertbox/user-research-methods.html● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 31 / 43
  33. 33. 2 Usability vs. User Experience • Usability ! The ease of use of a particular tool or designed object to achieve a particular goal • User Experience ! The experience a person has when interacting with an interactive system (i.e. a product or a service)● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 32 / 43
  34. 34. 2 Usability vs. User Experiencehttp://userexperienceproject.blogspot.com/2007/04/user-experience-wheel.html● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 33 / 43
  35. 35. 2 User Experience • Different facets of UX ! Values are what we want to achieve ! Usability is a prerequisite ! Utility / usefulness reflects the matching with the user’s goals ! Findability of your product ! Accessibility ! Desirability reflects the user’s emotions, feelings when interacting with the interactive system● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 34 / 43
  36. 36. 2 User Experience is… a multi-disciplinary process of design - Information Architecture - Interaction Design - Ethnography - Branding - Library Science - Usability● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 35 / 43
  37. 37. 2 In practice ... PreDesign • When to analyse context? Phase • What does the context information contain? • (Why) is the context information relevant to my design? • Who will be participating in the action? Design • How do I use the context information in my design ! Influences the functionality ! Influences the interaction design ! Influences a user’s context relevant to the design object • Social Context • Behavioral Context • User attitudes, experiences● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 36 / 43
  38. 38. 2 Designing the product • De-contextualized design ! Only refers to the functionality ! Is based on functional requirements ! Goal: Design and develop a functional product that works • Contextualized design ! Refers to the complete usage scenario ! Requires in-depth knowledge of the context-of-use ! Requirements elaborated on contextual • Affordances • Specific user properties (needs, behavior, attitudes, etc.) ! Goal: Design and develop a product that meets the needs of the users and is designed for a positive user experience● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 37 / 43
  39. 39. 2 Functionality • Meeting the user’s needs • Defines the “utility” of a product • Needs to meet the user’s needs ! Question: Is it exactly this what I need?● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 38 / 43
  40. 40. 2 Attachment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbttOR-SrRQ● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 39 / 43
  41. 41. 2 Emotions • Describes how the user ! Addresses a product ! Is attached to a product ! Is satisfied with a product • Basic Emotion Scale Noldus FaceReader ! Anger: frustration, irritation, aggression, jealousy, resentful. ! Sadness: despair, misery, defeated gloominess, mournful. ! Disgust: shame, guilt, repulsion, humiliated, blameworthy. ! Fear: anxiety, nervousness, tense, worried, shy. ! Happiness: joy, elation, pride, loving, cheerful. Geneva Emotion Wheel Characters of Premo (Desmet 2003a)● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 40 / 43
  42. 42. 2 How to regard this? Plan – Planning is critical to the success of all projects, and this is also true of projects using UCD. In the Plan phase, the team determines all of the UCD activities and ensures that the necessary resources are available. plan research Research – Before you can design a product, it is imperative function- (user) that you have a clear understanding of the users goals and ality context tasks, the market needs, and related work. Design – In the design phase, you define your system from the users perspective. Initially, this phase takes the form of use cases and an object action model, which describes the tasks that the system will support. From these tasks you Context create UI designs, beginning with rough sketches and ending design with detailed UI design specifications. in/for Adapt – The adapt phase acknowledges that even the best context conceived designs often need to be adapted when development begins coding. This adaptation can occur as a result of unforeseen limitations in the target technology, new requirements, or missing functionality in the initial design. Measure – When the product is released, it is possible to measure its usability quantitatively. These tests measure a products effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. http://www.sapdesignguild.org/resources/ucd_process.asp● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 41 / 43
  43. 43. 2 Evaluation● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 42 / 43
  44. 44. ● Questions? Thank you!● - ICT&S - Context - Contextual Design 43 / 43
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