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Art Embraces Change at this years Music Festivals and the will be there to Broadcast and reports on the Technological and Digital revolution shaping up the creation, distribution and marketing of an artists vision.

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  1. 1. THE WIRELESS COWBOY.TVJULY 2011 broadcasting, blogging and instructing 247365 ISSUE 2 aMusic Industry Report on : * March 2013 Festivals Bonnaroo, Manchester TN * April 2013 Broadcasters SummerFest, Milwaukee WI * May 2013 Producers Lollapalooza, Chicago IL * June 2013 Marketerss Carnival, Rio De Janeiro Brazil * July 2013 Managers Coachella, Indio CA * March 2014 Technology Sasquatch, Quincy WA * April 2014 Agents ElectricDaisy, Las Vegas NV * May 2014 Publicists SummerFest, Milwaukee WI * June 2014 Unions Outside Lands, San Francisco CA * July 2014 Royalties EVERYWHERERick MarquezNews@TheWirelessCowboy.TV561-290-4915 West Palm Beach305-280-1608 Miami / Dade954-271-6457 Broward
  2. 2. NOVEMBER 12, 2010 ALEJANDRO ISSUE I2 The Music Business Series
  3. 3. NOVEMBER 12, 2010 ALEJANDRO ISSUE IThe Music Business Series 3
  4. 4. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2WHAT DOES A CONCERT PROMOTER DO? Today’s Concert Promoter is a master of manytrades. A concert promoter must be a true businessprofessional in order to succeed. Having an ear formusic is helpful but one must have a good businesshead as well. Sales, Marketing and Accounting skillsare a must since a promoter must be able to balancethe needs of the Artist and their fans and with thereality of the economics of the concert event and thepromoters time and effort. There are many factorsassociated in running a successful concert event andtour that is demographically viable based onpopulation densities, musical genre, touring seasonand current/past competition. In deciding to makethe investment a promoter must research the rightvenue and audience size, schedule and book theshows, set pricing and print tickets, create, purchaseand analyze media promotions through mediaoutlets. Illustration 1: Picture by D. FajardoIn order to do so repeatedly and profitably the promoter MUST always has to be a step ahead of theevent and have properly selected a campaign that has a strong message, a GREAT Value Propositionthat is FRESH and Innovative, A Media Schedule that creates buss and reinforces the call to ACTIONand a fulfillment team that can satisfy the purchasing and merchandising needs of every audiencemember. To do so the promoter must be savvy and energetic in maximizing the artists Demo CD, their Website, a Press Kit with clipping, bios, tour dates that can be easily and generously provided to local media outlets at ever stop at least 8 weeks ahead of the show and periodically until the actual event is in town. Given the traditional metrics associated with general advertising and marketing campaign a prospective buyer views a message at least 7 times before they make a purchase. Enough impressions with the right frequency and Reach, Targeted to the right consumer that Willing, Ready an Able to PAY a ticket price will make for a predictable sales figure that can easily cover expenses and leave enough profit to divide among the stake holders on contract a profitable show for all. Illustration 2: Picture By T. Wonch4 The Music Business Series
  5. 5. ISSUE 2 JULY 2011WHO ARE THE STAKE HOLDERS IN THE MUSIC INDUSTRY?Since there are so many pieces to the equation it is IMPERATIVE that a promoter always have acontract to keep everyone on the same page and in agreement with all aspects involved in the eventsmutual success. Think of all the different factors we will discuss in the next few pages and use them asa guide to ensure that all the stake holders above are on board and ready to give it their best shottowards the success and profit of very event that is promoted. DO NOT leave anything to chance or good will.The Music Business Series 5
  6. 6. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2IS THE INDUSTRY COLLAPSING OR EXPANDING?The MAJOR promoters “Live Nation” and “AEG” are certainly expanding. For them, business is alwaysevolving expanding vertically and horizontally in terms of business lines and contracting in terms oftickets pricing and sales.. However , for the entire nation and for that matter the world, the economichardships of a tough recession and a slow recovery have amounted to a decrease in both ticket sellsand events of around 12-15 percent.By all accounts the industry has been expanding for the global conglomerates who OWN, Manage andbook for their own venues either nationally or internationally. Even so International ticket sales haveplummeted an estimated 30%. Older artists are able to command higher priced tickets for front rowseat but they are also feeling the pinch. A multi-tiered ticketing approach to deal with the almost 40%of unsold tickets in the industry has become the norm, as well as ticket price reductions, and expandedsponsorship revenue streams with merchandising, new media and even recording activities added inorder to attain greater value. Because promoters are competing with the large conglomerates they arefinding themselves acting like music companies promoting not only the events but any un-signed un-distributed record/cd for the artist on tour. There are also digital bundles with ticketing companiesand websites, website-TV stuff that gets world wide attention, Traditional radio specials and TV(promotions), posters and handbills are important since some major record companies do not serviceregional areas anymore. There are many independent producers, labels, distributors and promotersnow that can access the internet marketplace like MySpace , YouTube, iTunes and big box retailerslike Wal-Mart.Will this trend continue? I think it will. Today, consumers have many more options for entertainmentthat are either FREE or at least significantly lower priced than the average $50-70 dollar concertticket. Regional markets can be a good source of activity for independent artists and promoters andmore importantly consumers dont want to pay a CONVENIENCE fee for printing tickets at home, so Ithink, unless the industry makes some adjustments in their business models the downward spiral willaccelerate and continue. Could it reach a 50% drop? I doubt it, but concert promoters need to addressthese issues sooner rather than later6 The Music Business Series
  7. 7. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2WHAT ARE THE MAIN CITIES THIS ACTIVITY IS TAKING PLACE IN?Nationally concert promotion lends itself to be most profitable at large metropolitan cities with highpopulation densities and middle to upper class populations and high disposable incomes. Specificallythe top cities for promoters this year have been... Illustration 4: By Rick Marquez from Pollstar Star Concert Review as of April 5, 2010 The Music Business Series 7
  8. 8. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2WHO ARE THE MAIN “PLAYERS” IN THE FIELD TODAY?TOP USA Promoters Tickets Sold Top Tours, Festivals, Concerts • Live Nation 9,667,229 Jay-Z, Eagles, Eric Clapton, Billy Joel, Lady GaGa • AEG followed 5,609,498 CHER, Bon Jovi, Taylor Swift, Santana • JAM Productions 596,455 Phish, Tool, Daughtry, Harry Connick Jr. • Feld Entertainment 806,509 Ringling Circus, Disney On Ice, Monster-jam • Broadway Across America 570,164 Earth Wind & Fire, New Kids on the Block • C3 Productions 537,648 Gypsy Kings, Adam Lambert, Chicago • Beaver Productions 510,338 Michael Buble, James Taylor and Caole King • Bowery Presents 443,948 Allman Brothers ,John Meyer, Phish, Passion Pit • Outback Concerts 410,322 Jeff FoxWorthy, Chevelle • Tate Entertainment 306,875 Jeff Durham, LatinoLogues, Sexaholix • Icon Entertainment 301,917 Margarett Cho, Gabriel Iglesias, Tim Allen • MSG Entertainment 284,100 Mary J, Rockets, Christmas Show, George Lopez • Harrahs Entertainment 261,883 CHER, Vinny Favorito, Sexy GirlsX TOP INTERNATIONAL Promoters Tickets Sold Top Tours, Festivals, Concerts Country • MLK 1,443,651 Germany • T4F 1,299,759 CirqueDuSolei, RobertoCarlos South Africa • OCESA 998,759 McCartney, Metalica, ColdPlay Mexico • CHUGG 885,666 John Meyer, Rundgreen, McGraw Australia • 3A Entertainment 812,279 Clapton, Windwood, Crosby Still Nash UK • MCD Productions 508,111 Octopussy, SimplyRed, Propaganda Ireland • Barley Arts Promotions 234,640 KISS, AcDc Italy • Lupa Promotions 131,299 LadyGaga, BonJovi, Sting, Cirque DuSolei Croatia • Planet Events 105,886 Juanes, Shakira, Iglesias, Sanz, Bisbal Spain • Show Business & Entertainment 68,0000 Fabulosos Cadilacs, REM, RBD, Mana Colombia • DG Medios & Espectaculos 42,0000 Camila, Roxette, Stone Temple Pilot ChileTOP South Florida Promoters Tickets Sold Top Tours, Festivals, Concerts City • Bank Atlantic Center BonJovi,James Taylor, Sunrise • Dreyfoos Hall Yes, Peter Frampton West Palm Beach • Broward Center Au Rene Center Turandot, Dave Koz, Diana krall Ft-Lauderdale • Parker Playhouse Jay Black, The King Singers Ft-Lauderdale • Fillmore Theater Gilberto Santarosa, Willy Chirino Miami • Seminole Casino Aventura, Godsmack, Shakira Hollywood • Revolution Ft-Lauderdale • Bicentennial Park ULTRA 93K Miami • Cruzan Amphitheater Brooks Dunn, Bambozie West Palm Beach8 The Music Business Series
  9. 9. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2WHY ARE THEIR BUSINESS UNIQUE AND SUCCESSFUL?The Top promoters, Live Nation and AEG give artists a One Stop shopping experience thats bothVertical in function and Horizontal in REACH. Not only are they able to provide both Venue andPromotion but they can do that across the nation and even globally with their many properties. For anartist or band the appeal of this approach is obvious and translates into the Biggest acts dealingexclusively with these top tier and deriving the largest events in ticket sales and gross profit.Consolidation has accelerated this process over the last decade.So if you are a Global Promoter then you have enough scale to secure headline acts and hire small andnimble dedicated promoters who can ensure maximizing sales, penetrating marketing campaigns andmemorable experiences for both the artists and the fans. But what if you are a mid-sizevenue/promoter in the business who can deliver quality promotions in your own or third party facilitiesthen you can focus on niche alternative markets through single promotions or through multi-city/multi-venue block bookings either on your own or with the larger promoters.If you are a small Local and Regional promoter the best way to produce or present an artist is tomaximize every show by targeting the full potential of the market and the venue, so that your intentionis to account for every seat, every ticket, every marketing opportunity and merchandising sale as tominimize costs for everyone including the artists and increase profit. Focusing on both exclusivevenues and the artists position in those markets and developing a network of alliances with otheragents, promoters, labels and marketers as well as venues and artists will help expand each audienceand give you greater access throughout the region.The successful promoter will be in constant migration from Small to Large depending on his tenure andthe number of artists he/she is promoting. The best approach to take is to Act locally but thinkGlobally since there’s a gap between the artist who is being promoted through a national touringplatform and the artist who is being secured solely for a single date in the local market. The promotersmust adapt the national touring platform to a regional one and vise-versa. Offering multi-city and multi-venues to artists who aren’t on a national tour and promoting National up and coming Artists throughindividual dates in their region.This flexible approach allows the promoter to capture a string of artists and dates that can support andsynergize each other creating unique cross marketing, sales and merchandising opportunities in anyvenue space, including Arenas, Centers, Theaters, Casinos, Hotels, Cruise Ships, Parks, Festivals,Amphitheaters, Clubs, Bars, and even Schools. These venues have seen the bigger acts migrate to theONE Stop shops and have had to open their doors with lower price points and more localized acts. Thiscan certainly be a source of sustainable incomes rather than million dollars jackpots. IE Music Festivalthat Headline National Acts with smaller local ones. “Most business plans have a 2-5 year forecast upon which they base their projected success. This is backed by a suggested initial investment of 2 years of Operating Costs with the assumption of break even during that same period at best. Only in the 3rd - 5th years are you expected to see profitability. REMIND all your TEAM to this HARSH Reality.” Rick Marquez, Student, FAU UniversityThe Music Business Series 9
  10. 10. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2 MUSIC BUSINESS QUOTES FROM FAMOUS CONCERT PROMOTER INTERVIEWS.WHAT IS THE MAIN JOB OF A PROMOTER? “I get into the office at 9:00 a.m. and check my email and respond if necessary, look at my phone messages and prioritize by who I need to get back with first, read over faxes that might have been sent late in the day or while I was not in the office, call all box offices that are currently selling tickets for my shows for ticket counts, create/revise/edit advertising campaigns for current or future shows, and then return and make all phone calls”. Jim Green, Beaver ProductionsThe main job of a Concert Promoter is to Coordinate all of the different aspects of an event or show.They work with Agents, Artists, Bands and with Venues like Stadiums/Arenas, Theaters and CulturalCenters, Parks, Amphitheaters and Music Festivals, as well as with Hotels, Casinos, Cruise Ships andof-course, Clubs, Bars and even University Campuses, to arrange for a show to take place. Promotersare in charge of making sure the BUZZ is spread about the show and they work through the mediaoutlets and street teams to get this accomplished. A Promoter also arranges for the many theincidentals, like Riders, Back-lines and Rentals for the Artist. In a nutshell, it is the promoters job tomake sure things go off without a hitch.WHAT IS THE PAY LIKE? “I would hate to be starting a new business as a concert promoter if I was a new person, if I wasn’t extremely well capitalized, and had a great new game plan. For all intents and purposes, we have gotten out of the one-nighter business as a concert promoter , the margins are too slim. The risk/reward ratio is completely out of whack” Bill Silva, President Bill Silva PresentMany Promoters can find it very hard to make enough money to leave their "day jobs." Promoters maketheir money from the ticket sales and merchandising sales generated by the show. Promoters caneither have two kind of deals with artists. 1 st Pay the band a set fee, no matter how many people buytickets, then any money left after costs is the promoters to keep. The Promoter can Split the TicketSales using a Door-Split deal. They take a percentage of the proceeds from the show after recoupingtheir costs, giving the remaining money to the artists. The pay for promoters can vary depending onseveral additional factors, including the deals made with the Agents/Venues and any the otherexpenses discussed below. Regardless of deals and percentages a promoter can easily lose money ona show and often does. This is why you sometimes here about artists canceling shows for absurdreasons. They are basically doing so for lack of ticket sales since playing to an empty house does moredamage than good they rather refund the sold tickets and take their looses to the next event. This iswhy Making Money as a Promoter requires lots of careful Planning, Patience and a good source ofInvestment Capital of Time, Money and Talent.WHAT EXPENSES DOES A PROMOTER HAVE?: In 1969, more than a month before the three-day Woodstock Music & Art Fair at Max Yasgurs 600-acre farm near Bethel, New York, Cooley and 16 partners hosted the Atlanta International Pop Festival on July 4-5 at the Atlanta International Raceway that drew over 120,000 people. I think that we had a $200,000 budget. Back then, that was huge money. Every one of the 17 partners put up money until it hurt. I put up everything I had.” Alex Cooley, president of Alex Cooley Presents A promoter will encounter many expenses like Venue Booking Fees (likely one of the largest)10 The Music Business Series
  11. 11. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2venues may have free space ( Bar& Clubs ) on off-nights, while larger theaters and centers maydiscount for “block booking” or exclusivity. You may have Travel expenses and lodging for both artistand performer as well as equipment rentals for extra gear necessary for the type of show to beperformed. There may be a need for a Sound Engineer If the venue or artist does not have an in-houseengineer and additional Security and Insurance costs associated with the venue contract. AdvertisingExpenses will vary per market, season and venue but include media buys for ads in web, tv, radio andprint. Printing costs for posters, tickets and merchandising not provided by the artist or label. Last butnot least is the artist themselves. Paying the Artist can be done as a GUARANTEE FEE( FLAT FEE ) or aDOOR-SPLIT ( Share of Ticket Sales ). A Guarantee works well if the Promoter or Artist is well seasonedand confident of success. A Door-Split deal means neither Artist nor Promoter have worry about equityof work versus reward as they will share proportionately in the profits depending on the contractsigned.HOW DOES A PROMOTER MAKE MONEY WITH SO MANY EXPENSES : “In our business 40% of our tickets are unsold, so our job at the end of the day is to fill the building.” Live Nation CEO Michael RapinoPromoters who work with mega stars often sell out huge venues and can take home huge Jack Pots.But rest assured theres very little luck associated with their success. Promoters can easily findthemselves working all day, every day, and getting deeper into debt. If you want to become a promoter,you need a clear understanding of the money involved, and you need to make deals with bands andvenues very carefully. As we said before there are many expenses but You cant get around some ofthem if you want to stay in this for the long haul, you need to cut costs as much as you can. Forinstance, ask the band/label/agent to print posters and send them to you, instead of you taking thatcost on. Dont provide accommodation if the bands show is not going to generate enough money tocover the costs, or if you must, put the band up at your house.Dont provide overly generous riders - a few waters and a few beers is fine. Split the cost of rentingspecial equipment with the band.You can also cut down on some of your expenses by working under a door split deal arrangement,instead of paying the band a set fee. That way, you make all of your money back first, and then theband gets paid if you get paid.Bigger artists will balk at this kind of deal and will want a set fee - paying a set fee is fine, and evenideal, when youre working with a band who you know will sell enough tickets to recoup your costs. Butif the band youre putting on is just building a name for themselves, a door split deal is fair foreveryone.The truth is that many shows lose money, especially shows featuring new bands. As long as you are notwithholding earnings from the band, it is perfectly OK to set up your shows so you lose as little aspossible. Most up and coming bands will recognize that and will work with you. After all, if yousucceed, they succeed. Being fair to both parties - yourself included - is the name of the game. “As vice president of sales and marketing, I increased gross-sponsorships by 300%, securing over $300,000 in corporate sponsorship for the three-day regional event. In addition, I was able to secure a bartered media bank valued in excess of $500,000. Corporate Sponsors included Rolling Rock, Prudential, Continental Airlines, MBNA, Marriott, Isuzu and others.” Andrew Klein. President of Revolution MarketingThe Music Business Series 11
  12. 12. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2HOW MUCH SHOULD THE ARTIST/PERFORMER MAKE? Jerry Weintraub, Elvis Presley Concert PromoterAs you know. there are many different kinds of deals for events, your artists circumstances may bedifferent if they are headlining, or supporting and of course on their established fan base andrepertoire as well as crowd demand. Every Artist would like to have a million dollars paid for theirperformances even before they even play however that is certainly not the norm. At larger shows (bethey larger club shows or shows in even bigger venues), there is usually a set fee for an opening acts,but Supporting bands will see the event as a major promotional opportunity for so they will get a smallset fee, might not get paid at all and can sometimes actually buy into the event or tour ( Pay2Play) .The idea here sometimes is that the promotional benefit of the show is payment enough. Although thishappens artists usually get the advice of an agent or manager. This kind of deal is also best for artiststhat can take advantage of any buzz generated by the main event and there may be some cross sellingopportunities for merchandising. For Medium sized festivals and or events the fees are usually flatsince there are many different artists performing. And Last but not least for the smaller venues andevents There is usually an unwritten norm for opening act fees in most areas ( $50-$100) Small clubsin which the headlining band has a door-split deal, the opening act may not get paid at all. In thesecases the promoter can provide some money for the support band if the show is a big money maker -but this money is just a gesture and may not even be enough to cover your transportation costs.DO PROMOTERS NEED A CONTRACT? “Well, the intent was to educate artists about the pitfalls of their relationships with managers, record companies and other industry entities. But, I know darn well that if an artists who has been shopping for a deal finally gets a recording contract, theyre very likely to sign it, whatever the primary terms, in order to get their recording career off the ground. Now of course if the artist makes it, that early career can come back to haunt them and often does.” Stan Soocher Entertainment AttorneyWhen you are dealing with large sums of money, a contract is always a must. it is a good idea for anyartist and promoter at any stage of development to have a contract that clearly states the metrics of asuccessful show, their responsabilities and of course, how profits will be shared. 10 BASIC PROMOTER CONTRACT POINTS 1. The Venue to be used and the Rental costs. The Date and time of the Show. 2. The Address, Phone, website and contact name. 3. The position of the band on the schedule ( Opening, Headliner, support, etc... ) 4. The Sound Check Times and Lengths for rehearsal & scheduled # of sets, time & length. 5. Back-line and Tech requirements for the Band. 6. Promotional Materials for Local Media, ( Radio, TV, Print and Web) 7. Merchandising Opportunities ( Cds, Posters, T shirts, Hats, Jackets, etc...) 8. Rider Clauses ( Travel and Accommodations, Food Per-Diem ) BUYOUTS in CASH. 9. The DEAL : Flat Fee ( Artist/Promoter) Door-Split ( 80/20, 70/30, 50/50 ) Ticket Price. 10. RECLAIMED Expenses ( Venue Rental , Equipment Rental, Advertising, Ticket printing, etc...)12 The Music Business Series
  13. 13. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2HOW DO YOU BOOK A SHOW? ”It was kind of a blur how many dates I was doing. I had different companies. Concerts/Southern Promotions, and Alex Cooley Presents. There was even a company called Snowdrift Inc.; it was a very dangerous thing to do rock and roll shows back then. The insurance was iffy. I always bought insurance, but it was questionable if they would pay off or not. “ Alex Cooley, Alex Cooley PresentsThere are a few things you will need to have in place before you book an event for your Artist. Theyshould have a finished CD or Demo to give out and a website on which people can get to know thembetter. A Media Kit or a Press Pack, including information about them and press clippings is also agreat BUZZ builder. Were effectively creating a regional platform that will allow us to book artists in venues throughout all of these states. To develop a viable strategy, you have to first analyze how talent is currently entering and being procured in those markets. Adam Friedman., CEO Nederlander Concerts, IncYou should also have an idea of when they should schedule the show so you have enough time tomarket them to the different cities and venues. As a promoter asking for a gig "whenever" isnt a verysmart business decision. Come up with a window of preferred dates and make sure everyone has theircalendar clear for those days. You can book directly with the venue. Sometimes, venues work with aspecific promoter ONLY that may be called a booking agent. If so you may want to consider a differentvenue.HOW DO YOU PROMOTE A SHOW? Jerry Weintraub, Elvis Presley Concert PromoterConcert/gig promotion can be a tough. There are many activities that need completion and often thereis not allot of time depending on how many artists you are promoting. Different kinds of shows requiredifferent kinds of promotion, and as the events get bigger, so does the job. Large and small eventsrequire Media schedules for promotions. These should contain “publication deadlines” so that you havetime to get your campaign materials from the artist or record label ( CDs, bios, photos, posters, pressreleases). A good promoter will have a long list of media contacts that can be contacted to includelocal papers and radio stations. Include information about the artist, location and time for the show aswell as ticket prices. If the artist is available for interviews make this known in the press release. Makethis initial contact as far in advance as you can (at least eight weeks in advance) and stay in constantcontact. You can send mailers and hang posters but remember radio, tv, web and print are mosteffective. Send out a emails to your mailing lists, update your Facebook and Linked in Profiles as wellas MySpace, JustinTV, Ustream, YouTube and Google Adwords. Create concert listing in local webdirectories and link to your blogs and websites. You can offer guest passes to journalists in exchangefor a review or preview of the show. Make sure you take full advantage of the audience at the show andpromote any upcoming events and releases, new websites, or any other news your artist may have. “We used to build acts. A good part of my day, every day, was working on ad campaigns for new acts and trying to get them as much exposure as humanly possible, because that was the lifeblood of the business.” Alex Cooley, president of Alex Cooley PresentsThe Music Business Series 13
  14. 14. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2IS THERE ROOM IN THE MARKET TODAY FOR AN INDEPENDENT CONCERT PROMOTER? “It would depend on what part of the pie they want to take. If they are trying to compete with Live Nation or AEG, there’s not a shot. If they are happy carving out a niche for themselves, and work really hard, keep their passion and maintain relationships with artists and managers, I think that someone can survive and have a great niche.“. Louis Messina, The Messina GroupThere are two ways you can get into promoting. You can contact promoters and venues in your area and offer your services and learn the ropes that way,“Well, you know I dont know that its all changed. I think promoters still typically have a region. Even with Live Nation buying up a lot of big promoters, you still have those individual offices overseeing their respective territories, but with people like AEG and Live Nation doing national tours, theres no reason why promoters cant go into any market they want to. Eighty-five per cent of our business is still New England. Joe Fletcher of Joe Fletcher Presents or you can try to get your promoting career off the ground yourself. If you want to work for yourself, start small. Pick a favorite local band and offer to promote a show for them. Book the venue, contact the local media and put up some posters advertising the show. If you do a good job, other bands willfind you, and as you become an established promoter in your area, bands from out of the area will find you as well. “When I first started out I was managing a couple of guys basically after college. I had a couple of friends, singer / songwriters and we all moved out to Los Angeles together from Massachusetts. When I got out there, I realized that I probably was a little bit better at the business side of things than the music side of things. So, they asked me to help them book gigs and do the business for them. I got the first deal for Atlantic Records. But really it was working with those young artists in Los Angeles that I started. “ Joe Fletcher of Joe Fletcher Presents14 The Music Business Series
  15. 15. JULY 2011 ISSUE 2BOOKS Weissman, Dick. Understanding The Music Business. UpperSaddle NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010.WEB SITES Billboard. 10 Nov 2010 <> Caracol 09 Nov 2010 <> Celebrity Access. 10 Nov 2010 <> Colombia Negocios 09 Nov 2010 <> Pollstar USA. 31 Oct. 2010<> “Entertainment Management Online” 5 Nov 2010 <> Heather McDonald "How to Promote a Gig" 31 Oct 2010 <>. “PollStar Concert Hotwire” 5 April 2010 <> “Billboard BoxScore” 11 Nov 2010 <> “Gathering Guide” 11 Nov 2010 <>INTERVIEWS Alex LeBlanc “Alex Cooley Profile/Interview” 9 Nov 2010 <> (Industry Profile;View Profile Archives; Alex Cooley ) Jane Cohen & Bob Grossweiner “Michael Chugg Profile/Interview” 8 Nov 2010 < > (Industry Profile;View Profile Archives; Michael Chugg ) Larry LeBlanc “Louis Messina Profile/Interview” 8 Nov 2010 <> (Industry Profile;View Profile Archives; Louis Messina ) JaneCohen & Bob Grossweiner “Adam Friedman Profile/Interview” 9 Nov 2010 < I> (Industry Profile;View Profile Archives;Adam Freidman ) Larry LeBlanc “ Bill Silva Profile/Interview” 9 Nov 2010 < I> (Industry Profile;View Profile Archives;Bill Silva ) Gary James “Joe Fletcher Interview” 11 Nov 2010 < >(Rock and Roll Interviews;Managers & Executives;Joe Fletcher ) Gary James “Stan Soocher interview” 11 Nov 2010 < >(Rock and Roll Interviews;Managers & Executives;Stan Soocher ) < 2-11-2005 Articles/ElvisThe Music Business Series 15