Principles of Sustainable Transport: Shreya Gadepalli, Sr. Programme Director, ITDP

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Building Livable Cities : a multi city investigation on ideas that can make Indian cities livable. See: www.theurbanvision.com/blc

Principles of Sustainable Transport: Christopher Kost ,ITDP Principles of Sustainable Transport: Shreya Gadepalli, Sr. Programme Director,
ITDP

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  • Overview of Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone in Pudong New Area, Shanghai (projected, w/SWFC image)
  • What is Bus Rapid Transit? There is no one definition or one right answer, as many cities have developed many variations on the theme of better bus services. In general, though, Bus Rapid Transit is high-quality, customer-orientated transit that delivers fast, comfortable and low-cost urban mobility. It is not business as usual. Bus Rapid Transit typically involves busway corridors on segregated lanes and modernised bus technology.
  • What is Bus Rapid Transit? There is no one definition or one right answer, as many cities have developed many variations on the theme of better bus services. In general, though, Bus Rapid Transit is high-quality, customer-orientated transit that delivers fast, comfortable and low-cost urban mobility. It is not business as usual. Bus Rapid Transit typically involves busway corridors on segregated lanes and modernised bus technology.
  • New bus designs are transforming how we view buses. These high-quality, buses that resemble rail cars are going into new Bus Rapid Transit systems in North America and Europe. Such designs have generated a new slogan amongst city officials: “Think rail, but use buses”.
  • Thus, for the same amount of investment, a Bus Rapid Transit system will serve as much as 100 times the area as a rail-based system. In other words, a city that has enough funding for 1 kilometer of metro might be able to construct 100 kilometers of Bus Rapid Transit.
  • Principles of Sustainable Transport: Shreya Gadepalli, Sr. Programme Director, ITDP

    1. 1. A HUMAN DIMENSION IN CITY PLANNING Shreya Gadepalli INSTITUTE FOR TRANSPORT AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY
    2. 2. CLIMATE CHANGE WHO IS IT A THREAT TO? EARTH?
    3. 3. WHAT DOES BEING HUMAN MEAN?
    4. 4. BIRDS ARE BORN TO FLY
    5. 5. FISH ARE BORN TO SWIM
    6. 6. MAN ? WHAT DID GOD MAKE MAN FOR?
    7. 7. MAN WAS MADE SO HE COULD WALK! WOMEN TOO!
    8. 8. NASHAA (ADDICTION)
    9. 9. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ADDICTION??? <ul><li>YOU CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT IT. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU CAN’T EVEN THINK OF A WORLD WITHOUT IT. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU ARE OUT OF CONTROL. </li></ul><ul><li>IT CONTROLS YOU </li></ul><ul><li>YOU WILL SPEND ANYTHING TO GET IT. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU DEPRIVE OTHERS (YOUR OWN) OF EVEN BASICS. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU CAN (AND DO) HURT OTHERS. EVEN KILL! </li></ul><ul><li>YOU HURT YOURSELF TOO. </li></ul>
    10. 10. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A WHOLE CITY IS ADDICTED?
    11. 14. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ADDICTION??? <ul><li>YOU CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT IT. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU CAN’T EVEN THINK OF A WORLD WITHOUT IT. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU ARE OUT OF CONTROL. </li></ul><ul><li>IT CONTROLS YOU </li></ul><ul><li>YOU WILL SPEND ANYTHING TO GET IT. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU DEPRIVE OTHERS (YOUR OWN) OF BASICS. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU CAN (AND DO) HURT OTHERS. EVEN KILL! </li></ul><ul><li>YOU HURT YOURSELF TOO. </li></ul>
    12. 15. WE, AS A RACE, HAVE TO GET DE-ADDICTED
    13. 16. Beyond survival needs, there are HAPPINESS NEEDS. We are pedestrians. We need to walk, not in order to survive, but to be happy.
    14. 17. There is much more to walking -than walking! A mode of transport - but with a potential for much more – and the ’much more’ is by far the more interesting part!
    15. 18. You can walk -and walk - and walk....
    16. 19. -but you could just as well ”walk`n-talk”
    17. 20. - or ”walk`n-wink”
    18. 21. -or you can ”stop`n watch”
    19. 22. -or you can ”stop`n-talk”
    20. 23. - or ”stop`n-watch”
    21. 24. and watch `n watch”
    22. 25. -or ” watch`n learn”
    23. 26. You can ” play`n-laugh”
    24. 27. -or ”sit-on-top”
    25. 28. -or you can ”walk`n-waltz`”
    26. 29. -or you can ”stop`n- snooze”
    27. 30. -and whenever you feel like you can even address your fellow citiziens!
    28. 31. A HUMAN DIMENSION IN CITY PLANNING What must be done? KEYWORD IS: RECONQUERING
    29. 32. <ul><li>The traditional city </li></ul><ul><li>The invaded city </li></ul><ul><li>The abandoned city </li></ul><ul><li>The reconqered city </li></ul>Four different types of Cities
    30. 33. The traditional city
    31. 34. Market Meeting Access / Connections Traditional uses of Public Space
    32. 35. The invaded city
    33. 36. The abandoned city
    34. 38. A fully mecanized world!
    35. 39. ” Park n Sweat structure” Atlanta, Georgia 7 stories of Parking + 2 stories of Fitness!
    36. 40. The reconquered city
    37. 41. A HUMAN DIMENSION IN CITY PLANNING What must be done?
    38. 42. All Cities have Traffic Departments and perfect statistics concerning traffic and parking The cars are very visible and everpresent in the planning proces
    39. 44. Do you know of any City department for pedestrians and public life? The people in the City tend to be very invisible and poorly represented in the planning proces
    40. 46. The 20th Century will be remembered as a disastrous one in urban history: We built cities more for cars than for people.
    41. 47. Willingness to put constraints to vehicular traffic Realization of the importance of public life
    42. 49. Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
    43. 52. Modern, desirable, sustainable walking cities require <ul><li>Mixed uses – in all forms </li></ul><ul><li>Active, people-oriented design </li></ul><ul><li>Small blocks & human scale streets </li></ul><ul><li>High density & good public transit access </li></ul>
    44. 59. Buildings do not end at the ground. Any new building must IMPROVE public pedestrian space quality around it. Especially the big ones.
    45. 65. Small-block (250m perimeter) | mixed land use Average distance to shopping ~ 0 km! Average distance to public transport ~ 0.2 km
    46. 67. Usual Practice: First the Buildings -then spaces Then (perhaps) people ” Airplane - planning (from 5.000 meter above the ground ) Brand New Towns???
    47. 69. Large block (1.6km perimeter), exclusive land use Average distance to shopping ~ 2km Average distance to public transport ~ 1km
    48. 71. Universal challenge to Architecture & City Planning: Units are bigger and bigger -but people are still small
    49. 72. Life - Spaces - Buildings -and in this order, Please
    50. 73. Think BIG - but always remember to make people places small
    51. 74. The way we build our cities and organize city life can be a powerful tool for constructing a more egalitarian and integrated society.
    52. 76. Ahmedabad
    53. 77. Ahmedabad Bimal Patel, HCP Design and Project Management
    54. 78. Guangzhou
    55. 79. Guangzhou Urbanus Architecture and Design
    56. 81. Walk the walk! Great cities start with great pedestrian environments. Walking is the most universal form of transport.
    57. 82. Powered by people! Bicycles and other means of people-powered transport, like pedicabs are great for short trips. Building bike lanes and slowing down traffic are key to making it safe.
    58. 83. Get on the bus! Mass transit can move millions of people quickly and comfortably using a fraction of the fuel and street space required by automobiles.
    59. 84. Cruise Control! Some trips will need to be made by cars. By managing private car use and expanding car sharing, cities can minimize problems while creating space for pedestrians, mass and non-motorized transit.
    60. 85. Deliver the goods! Cities need to create incentives to use cleaner, smaller, quieter, slower and safer delivery vehicles.
    61. 86. Mix it up! Lively cities stack retail on the ground floor, with residences and offices above, so the streets are vibrant day and night.
    62. 87. Fill it in! Building on vacant lots and brownfields prevents urban sprawl and makes urban neighborhoods more vibrant.
    63. 88. Get real! A community’s history, natural environment and ethnic traditions all contribute meaningfully to what makes a place unique. Finding these elements and enhancing them is critical to distinguishing one place from another.
    64. 89. Connect the blocks! The more connected the blocks, the shorter the distance between destinations, making walking and biking more appealing.
    65. 90. Make it last! Streets and public spaces, if built with quality materials and are well-designed, well-maintained, and well-managed, can last for decades.
    66. 91. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy is an international not-for-profit organization that is a leader in promoting environmentally sustainable and socially equitable transportation worldwide.
    67. 92. ITDP key program areas are Public transit: Investing in modern, attractive public transit systems, specifically bus rapid transit, to provide a higher quality of life in cities Non-Motorized Transport: Making streets safer and more convenient for cyclists and pedestrians, improving the quality of affordable non-motorized vehicles, and promoting bike use Travel Demand Management: Reducing air pollution, congestion, and CO2 emissions by reducing private car use through parking regulations, access management, and road user charging Urban Accessibility: Reinforcing urban centers by encouraging pedestrian-oriented real estate development, urban design, and public space management Sustainable Transportation Investment: Ensuring necessary funding is available for sustainable transport projects.
    68. 93. WE CANNOT DESIGN AN URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM UNLESS WE KNOW WHAT KIND OF A CITY WE WANT. THE VISION OF OUR CITY
    69. 94. CITY VISION VS
    70. 95. While sanitation, education and other challenges improve with economic growth, transport gets worse
    71. 96. What’s the objective of our transport policy? Provide efficient mobility for all. or Minimize traffic jams for the higher income groups.
    72. 97. TRANSPORT COUNTER-INTUITIVE TRUTHS <ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth circles around the sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- More road infrastructure brings about more traffic jams </li></ul></ul></ul>
    73. 98. It does not matter what is done, traffic jams will become worse; unless a radically new model is adopted.
    74. 99. It would take the typical developing country city more than 100 years to have a road infrastructure like that of Houston, Atlanta or Seattle. Yet in those cities time lost in traffic jams increases every year. TRANSPORT
    75. 100. The only solution is public transport, not just for those with lower incomes, but for everybody.
    76. 101. What is Bus Rapid Transit? Bus Rapid Transit is high-quality, customer-orientated transit that delivers fast, comfortable and low-cost urban mobility. It is not business as usual.
    77. 102. Why Bus Rapid Transit? Growing population of cities require better Public transport system High quality passenger service like Metro Cheaper than Rail based Systems Quicker implementation than Rail based systems Similar Capacity as Metro if needed Easily expandable as city grows Flexibility in routing Better passenger access
    78. 103. “ Think rail, use buses!” Metro systems are nice but very expensive BRT takes elements people like about a Metro and gives the same quality of service to passengers at a fraction of the cost
    79. 104. Metro Rail system Bus Rapid Transit system QUITO’S OPTION: Two systems at the same cost
    80. 108. Traffic jams without public transport are relatively useless; so is public transport without traffic jams or some other form of automobile use restriction.
    81. 109. Quality public transport is necessary but not sufficient. Private vehicle use must be restricted.
    82. 110. Cars are wonderful but they don’t function well if we all decide to use them simultaneously at peak hours
    83. 111. STREET USERS/ELEMENTS PRIORITY <ul><li>Pedestrians – All of us can Walk! </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclists – Cycles are a cheap, convenient & clean transport mode </li></ul><ul><li>Trees – They give shade to pedestrians, cyclists and all other street users </li></ul><ul><li>Bus mobility – Buses can give high capacity, fast and efficient transportation to many </li></ul><ul><li>Street Vending – For street user convenience and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Private motor vehicles – For those who can pay for it </li></ul><ul><li>Parking – It is the most useless use of street space. Avoid! </li></ul>
    84. 112. PARKING - MYTH vs REALITY <ul><li>MYTHS </li></ul><ul><li>On-street parking is a public right! Government should provide it. </li></ul><ul><li>Off-street parking will solve on street parking automatically </li></ul><ul><li>REALITY </li></ul><ul><li>Parking is wasteful use of space. On average, private motor vehicles are parked for 98% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>More parking requirement attracts more vehicles to the area and cause more congestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled on-street parking comes at the cost of usable pedestrian facilities. </li></ul>
    85. 113. PARKING POLICY BASICS <ul><li>Parking should be restricted (including off-street) where good public transit is available. Parking may be provided where public transit service is low. </li></ul><ul><li>No minimum off-street parking requirement as per DCR. Builder should assess need and sell parking separately to customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Off-street parking should be privately developed and parking fee should be left for market to decide. </li></ul><ul><li>On-street parking should be avoided and strictly enforced. Steep fine for offenders. </li></ul><ul><li>Any legal on-street parking should be charged at par with market based off-street parking fee in same area. </li></ul>
    86. 114. CONGESTION CHARGE BASICS <ul><li>Charge vehicles based on usage of streets. Streets are like mobile phone networks. </li></ul><ul><li>If street is more congested, then fee is more </li></ul><ul><li>Fee should be steep enough to dissuade trips but not so steep that no one wants to use street </li></ul><ul><li>Earning from congestion charging and parking fee should be used to subsidize public transport and for NMT infrastructure </li></ul>
    87. 115. <ul><li>Restriction during peak hours using license plate number for 40% of the private automobiles. Fuel consumption went down by 10.3%. 93% support the initiative </li></ul><ul><li>20% gasoline surcharge (revenue used for transit infrastructure and road maintenance) </li></ul><ul><li>Car free weekday in February (approved by popular vote) </li></ul><ul><li>Parking restrictions (banned on sidewalks, reduced on curb) </li></ul><ul><li>High parking fee on/off street > $1/hour </li></ul>VEHICLE USAGE RESTRICTION Restriction for private vehicles Morning 6:00 am to 9:00 am Evening 4 pm to 7:00 pm  Monday 7-8-9-0  Tuesday 1-2-3-4 Wednesday 5-6-7-8  Thursday 9-0-1-2  Friday 3-4-5-6 
    88. 116. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy is an international not-for-profit organization that is a leader in promoting environmentally sustainable and socially equitable transportation worldwide.
    89. 117. ITDP key program areas are Public transit: Investing in modern, attractive public transit systems, specifically bus rapid transit, to provide a higher quality of life in cities Non-Motorized Transport: Making streets safer and more convenient for cyclists and pedestrians, improving the quality of affordable non-motorized vehicles, and promoting bike use Travel Demand Management: Reducing air pollution, congestion, and CO2 emissions by reducing private car use through parking regulations, access management, and road user charging Urban Accessibility: Reinforcing urban centers by encouraging pedestrian-oriented real estate development, urban design, and public space management Sustainable Transportation Investment: Ensuring necessary funding is available for sustainable transport projects.

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