Vietnam War 7th Period GuyerPresentation Transcript
Andrew Anglin Cody Blackwell Kyle Cowart Drayton Mercure
Throughout this presentation, the causes and effects of the Vietnam War are addressed, including already-strained relations between Vietnam and France, as well as two high-profile controversies occurring in the United States during the eighteen year-long conflict. Afterward, three of the four compilers and a guest “reenact” the infamous Battle of Hamburger Hill.
People’s Republic of Vietnam (North), with troops provided by
The People’s Republic of China
Republic of Vietnam (South), with assistance from
The Republic of Korea
Belligerence: See the rampant Communism?
Assisting South Vietnam
U.S. began supporting southern Vietnamese government and its leader Ngo Dinh Diem under President Eisenhower
Point-of-interest: “The anti–Viet Minh campaign [led by Diem’s government] alienated many peasants, and Diem's increasingly autocratic rule turned much of the urban anticommunist elite against him” (Cosmas 330).
Communism & Terrorism
“ Beginning in 1957, the southern Viet Minh [known by Diem as Viet Cong], with authorization from Hanoi, launched a campaign of political subversion and terrorism, and gradually escalated a guerrilla war against Diem's government” (Cosmas 330)
VC (Viet Cong) also received assistance from Communist-led northern Vietnamese organization NLF (National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam)
Ho Chi Minh—president of North Vietnam, 1945-1969—pushes for independence from France throughout 1945
Viet Minh forces stage a successful coup d'état against colonial government in late August 1945
France never officially agrees to such terms: “In December , war broke out …By 1954 the French had tired of war and sought a settlement at the Geneva Conference. In July an agreement was reached calling for a truce and division of Vietnam into a Communist north and a non-Communist south” (“Ho Chi Minh” 914-915).
U.S. sends military assistance for France which already suffers bitter defeats by the Vietnamese (right) ;becomes fully involved following the assassination of South Vietnamese president Diem
Civil Rights Movement (Singh and Weisbrot 474-477)
December 1955: NAACP secretary Rosa Parks is arrested in Montgomery, Ala., for refusing to yield her bus seat to a white man
January 1957: Dr. Martin Luther King establishes the nonviolent Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
August 28, 1963: Dr. King gives his famous “I Have a Dream” speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial (March on Washington, right)
November 22, 1963: Lyndon Baines Johnson succeeds the presidency following John F. Kennedy’s Houston, Tex., assassination
July 2, 1964: President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, outlawing racial discrimination and segregation in public places
March 7, 1965: Black men, women, and children attempt to march from Selma, Ala., to Montgomery; brutally attacked by state and local authorities
April 4, 1968: Dr. King is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee
April 11, 1968: Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1968, outlawing any and all discrimination not previously addressed by the 1964 act
French-dominated region since 19 th -century imperialism
Maintaining control in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia despite strong Viet Cong presences was the U.S.’s main concern
Communist-controlled region north of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)—established by the 1954 Geneva Accords—at the 38 ° N parallel
“ In February 1965, after the Viet Cong killed thirty-one Americans at Pleiku and Qui Nhon, the President [Lyndon B. Johnson] sanctioned retaliatory strikes against North Vietnam. In March, retaliation gave way to a …carefully controlled aerial offensive against the north (Operation Rolling Thunder), aimed at reducing Hanoi's ability to support the Viet Cong and compelling its leaders to negotiate an end to the conflict on U.S. terms” (Cosmas 332).
American pilots sporadically bombed the Ho Chi Minh Trail
Trail runs from northern South Vietnam across southern Laos to Cambodia
Countless side-trails along the Vietnam-Laotian border led to this major highway, allowing for swift Viet Cong penetration into South Vietnam
Hoped to somewhat discourage the Communist onslaught
Vietnamese Independence Movement
Country was a French Indochinese colony since early 19 th century
“ When the Allies in turn defeated Japan [in World War II] a few months later, the Vietminh movement led by Ho Chi Minh stepped into the void and declared a new state, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, on 2 September 1945” (“Vietnam War” 2649).
Already took effect in Soviet Union, where Ho received formal education at the University of Oriental Workers (“Ho Chi Minh “ 914)
“ Clashes between [the non-Communist South Vietnamese] government and the NLF [National Liberation Front, established by Ho Chi Minh in 1960] led the United States military to step in on the side of the South Vietnamese” (“Ho Chi Minh” 915).
How did the Kent State University shootings change efforts by Vietnam War-protesters?
What effect did the Vietnam War have on the United States as a whole?
Outraged by President Richard M. Nixon’s April 30, 1970, announcement of the U.S. Armed Forces’ invasion of Cambodia, students at the Kent, Ohio, university engaged in violent protests, including burning the institution’s Reserve Officer Training Corps building. The photograph above displays Ohio national guardsmen attempting to disperse the student masses using tear gas.
View 1: Protester View 2: State of Ohio
President Lyndon B. Johnson visits troops overseas. By the time Johnson took office following President John F. Kennedy’s assassination, the Vietnam War raged for seven years without heavy U.S. involvement. “With 45,943 U.S. battle deaths [by the war’s end in 1975], Vietnam was the fourth costliest war the country fought in terms of loss of life” (Cosmas 329).
Despite the deepest racial tensions since the U.S. Civil War, African-American soldiers participated heavily in the Vietnam War effort, including the GI shown above. Thanks to the Civil Rights movement’s progress, these men were integrated into typical regiments for the first time since World War II. “The Vietnam War saw the highest proportion of blacks ever to serve in an American war. During the height of the U.S. involvement, 1965-69, blacks, who formed 11 percent of the American population, made up 12.6 percent of the soldiers in Vietnam. The majority of these were in the infantry…” (Butler and Coffey 1).
View 1: White supremacy View 2: Integration
Kent State Shootings: Disagree
Destruction of ROTC building was unnecessary on the part of the protesters
Ohio National Guard should not have fired upon university students
Military Integration: Agree
African-Americans did not need to be segregated, as illustrated by the previously-mentioned GI
Already exhibited increasing efforts by the U.S. Armed Forces to eradicate discrimination
Vietnam War, Overall: AGREE
Fought against North Vietnamese forces on May 10-20, 1969, just west of the Laotian border
U.S. forces plagued by inclement weather in the southern Vietnamese jungles, rocky terrain, deep rivers, and even friendly fire:
“ On May 11, [LTC Weldon] Honeycutt assigned Alpha and Delta Companies to recon the north and northwest fingers of Ap Bia Mountain, while Bravo and Charlie Companies climbed towards the summit by differing routes. Moving out of the helicopter landing zone (LZ) on the north ridge, Bravo Company made heavy contact with the North Vietnamese…Honeycutt quickly directed Cobra helicopter gunships…to support a hasty assault. In the heavy jungle, the Cobras mistook the 3/187th battalion command post…for a NVA [North Vietnamese Army] unit and attacked, killing two and wounding thirty-five, including Honeycutt. This friendly fire incident disrupted battalion command and control and forced 3/187th to withdraw into night defensive positions. The contact, however, confirmed that a substantial North Vietnamese force was present…” (“Battle of Hamburger Hill” 1).
Reconnaissance forces returned to Hill #937 on May 19, bringing fresh troops to the battle-weary Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, and Delta companies of the 3/187 th Battalion, securing Hamburger Hill by 17:00, May 20 th
Andrew Anglin, Kyle Cowart – Vietnamese fighters
John Bradford (guest)
Tucked pants = U.S. Marine
Un-tucked = Vietnamese
Drayton Mercure – U.S. Marine
Though fighting the Vietnam War did not accomplish the United States and South Vietnam’s ultimate goal, this almost two-decade conflict somewhat deterred the spread of Communism. Present-day Vietnam currently holds diplomatic ties to over 170 countries and memberships in multiple organizations like the United Nations.
Barringer, Mark. “The Anti-War Movement in the United States.” Modern America Poetry . The Oxford Companion to American Military History, n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.english.illinois.edu//vietnam/.html>.
"Battle of Hamburger Hill." Wikipedia . Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 4 May 2010. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Hamburger_Hill>.
Benson, Sonia, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. “Kent State Shooting.” U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History . Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 5. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 860-863. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Web. 12 May 2010. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE|CX3048900339&v=2.1&u=cant48040&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w>.
Cosmas, Graham A. “Vietnam War.” Dictionary of American History . Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 8. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2003. 329-335. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Web. 10 May 2010. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE|CX3401804406&v=2.1&u=cant48040&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w>.
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“ Kent State Shooting.” Wikkipedia . N.p., 13 May 2010. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org//_State_shootings>.
Butler, John Sibley, and David Coffey. "African Americans in the Vietnam War." Modern American Poetry . Cary Nelson, n.d. Web. 14 May 2010. <http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/s_z/stevens/africanamer.htm>.
Singh, Nikhil Pal, and Robert Weisbrot. "Civil Rights Movement, U.S.“ Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History . Ed. Colin A. Palmer. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 471-478. 2nd vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Web. 13 May 2010. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE|CX3444700283&v=2.1&u=cant48040&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w>.
Thomas, William. The Home Front in the Vietnam War . Ed. James Bennett. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2005. Print.
“ Vietnam War.” Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction . Ed. John Merriman and Jay Winter. Vol. 5. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006. 2648-2651. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Web. 10 May 2010. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE|CX3447000887&v=2.1&u=cant48040&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w>.