Youth inclusion and participation in the activating welfare state. Filip Coussée UGent – Uit De Marge
Redistribution? GNP 1948: 43% goes to the top 20% of most wealthy people, only 5% to the 20% most poor. 1975: 40% vs 5,6% - redistribution? 2010: 48,1% vs 4% - redistribution!
Poverty and social exclusion1. The positive functions of poverty2. Paradox of positional goodsInclusion is a moral crusade to safeguard “our” social orderSocial policy projects + projects + projects
Reconnecting youth to society Social pedagogy entails a critical reflection on the role of pedagogical institutions in society referring to ‘cultural action’ as questioning, demythologising, ‘historicising’ and changing dehumanising processes by unveiling the social, political and cultural project underpinning educational institutions.
“Weve been through a period where too many people have been given to understand that if they have a problem, its the governments job to cope with it. I have a problem, Ill get a grant. Im homeless, the government must house me. Theyre casting their problem on society. And, you know, there is no suchthing as society. There are individual men and women, and there are families. And no government can do anything except through people, and people must look to themselves first. Its our duty to look after ourselves and then, also to look after our neighbour.”
Joined up services? Institutional inclusion, not social inclusion Succesfull transition to adulthood The preventative service Going full circle • Young people are targeted as main priority • Youth work is recognised as important actor to contribute to objectives
Promoting their social and professional integration as an essential component to reach the objectives of Europe’s Lisbon strategy for growth and jobs, at the same time as promoting personal fulfilment, social cohesion and active citizenship? (European Commision 2009) Tackling the problem of becoming accessible to non- organised or marginalised young people is now felt by al key players to be essential to increasing participation by young people (Commission of the European Communities 2006).
Youth work tensions Social care work for young people: participation in youth work concerns on social cohesion – social problems are problems with young people Social political work with young people: participation through youth work questioning social cohesion problems of young people are problems with societyAdapting society to the needs of young people or …Learning from current citizenship – learning for future citizenship → widening the gap
Reconciling the social and the pedagogical Pedagogical: instrument for social education Social: instrument for redistribution of opportunities Recreational: instrument for organisation of leisure activitiesInternal tensions! Youth work is a political activity
Youth work is play-work Social work + youth movement = youth work as a method for social education Woodcraft, Public School, Boer War, Jungle Book, Boys Brigade Single concept of boyhood (and youth work) 3rd educational environment disconnected from 1st & 2nd discipline Learning by playing Ask the boy Cultural renewal Better “results”!
Youth work is social work Social work + youth movement = social movement youth work as social educational practice A dignified approach of the working youth Education, religion, sports, culture, social action Young Catholic Workers Collective social action
Methodical = Abstraction of context -do you know that there are young working class people with problems of their own? - I do not know young workers, I only know young citizens and I want to create strong-willed young men. -do you know how young workers have to survive in factories, how they are influenced by “workers’ environment”. How could we help them to stay “good” or even to have a good influence in their environment? -I don’t know the workers’ environment!
Conclusion Youth work = Social work The social as a transit-zone: guiding young people to include in the social order Youth work as a method for social education The social as a forum: discussing the way we relate to each other and the conditions that structure those relationships and the meaning of social inclusion Youth work as a social educational practice
private SOCIAL public Forum Transit zone SOCIALISATION versus SUBJECTIFICATION
Oxymoronic practice Transitional forum? Keeping up the tension Social work between public services and private associations The (re)invention of the social: post-communist, post-colonial, post-welfare New public management? back to the future?
Youth work and non-formal learning Youth work is third socialisation environment Youth work starts where young people are Grass does not grow by pulling it Münchmeier Biographical capabilities Institutional Political
We make the road by walkingPaolo Freire and Myles Horton