Applications of Genetic Engineering

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This presentation gives an brief idea about the applications of genetic engineering which is of at most importance to humans. Provided along with this slide is an example which makes it easier to understand the concept.

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Applications of Genetic Engineering

  1. 1. Applications of Genetic Engineering
  2. 2. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS • The production of medically useful proteins such as somatostatin, insulin, human growth hormone and Interferon is very important. • Interleukin -2 ( regulates immune response) and blood clotting factor VIII have been recently cloned.
  3. 3. • Synthetic vaccines are also being developed with recombinant techniques. • Pig embryos injected with human haemoglobin gene develop into transgenic that synthesize human haemoglobin. • By culturing fluorescens, Pseudomonas Mupirocin
  4. 4. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS • Manufacture of proteins products by using microorganisms. • Bacteria that metabolize petroleum and other toxic materials have been developed. • Scorpion toxin gene has been inserted into autographa california multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) which kills cabbage looper and reduces crop damages. • Development of new strains for additional bioprocesses.
  5. 5. AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS • Genes of interest is inserted into plant with Ti plasmid obtained from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. • Pseudomonas syringae that protects plants from frost damage is used against plant frost damage because they lack the protein that induce the formation of ice-crystals.
  6. 6. Recombinant Technology Steps: 1.Isolation of DNA segment. 2.Formation of Recombinant DNA. 3.Production of multiple copies of recombinant DNA. 4.Introduction of recombinant DNA into host. 5.Screening of the transformed cells.
  7. 7. Example : Incorporation of gene producing 2,4diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) into Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which in turn is applied to plants to
  8. 8. Plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens is responsible for much success in the gentic engineering of plants. The bacterium causes gall diseases in plants due to the presence of Ti plasmid, which is pathogenic. The Ti plasmid carries gene for virulence and the substances involved in the regulation of plant growth. The region on the gene that induce the formation of gall is the T- DNA and is very similar to transposon.
  9. 9. Ti Plasmid
  10. 10. The gene of interest are spliced into the TDNA region between the direct repeats. Then the plasmid is returned to A. tumefaciens, plant culture cells are infected with the bacterium and transformants are selected by screening for antibiotic production. 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), is an antibiotic produced by some strains of Pseudomonas fluorescence , is involved in suppression of several fungal root pathogens as well as plant-parasitic
  11. 11. Return the plasmid into the bacterium, A. tumefaciens Transform the A. Tumefaciens and grow the bacteria on plates. Subject the plate to darkness to check for the presence of fluorescence Select the colonies that show fluorescence Grow the bacteria in liquid media. Inject the tissue of plant culture and grow into a plant OR Spray the seeds with the transformed bacterium.
  12. 12. Thank You

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