This presentation gives an brief idea about the applications of genetic engineering which is of at most importance to humans. Provided along with this slide is an example which makes it easier to understand the concept.
• The production of medically useful
proteins such as somatostatin,
insulin, human growth hormone and
Interferon is very important.
• Interleukin -2 ( regulates immune
response) and blood clotting
factor VIII have been recently
• Synthetic vaccines are also being
• Pig embryos injected with human
haemoglobin gene develop into
transgenic that synthesize human
• Manufacture of proteins products by using microorganisms.
• Bacteria that metabolize petroleum and other toxic materials
have been developed.
• Scorpion toxin gene has been inserted into autographa california
multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) which kills
cabbage looper and reduces crop damages.
• Development of new strains for additional bioprocesses.
• Genes of interest is inserted into plant
• Pseudomonas syringae that protects
plants from frost damage is used
against plant frost damage because
they lack the protein that induce the
formation of ice-crystals.
Recombinant Technology Steps:
1.Isolation of DNA segment.
2.Formation of Recombinant DNA.
3.Production of multiple copies of recombinant DNA.
4.Introduction of recombinant DNA into host.
5.Screening of the transformed cells.
Incorporation of gene
(DAPG) into Ti plasmid of
tumefaciens, which in turn is
applied to plants to
Plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium
tumefaciens is responsible for much success
in the gentic engineering of plants.
The bacterium causes gall diseases in
plants due to the presence of Ti plasmid,
which is pathogenic. The Ti plasmid carries
gene for virulence and the substances
involved in the regulation of plant growth. The
region on the gene that induce the formation
of gall is the T- DNA and is very similar to
The gene of interest are spliced into the TDNA region between the direct repeats.
Then the plasmid is returned to A.
tumefaciens, plant culture cells are
infected with the bacterium and
transformants are selected by screening
for antibiotic production.
2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), is an
antibiotic produced by some strains
of Pseudomonas fluorescence , is involved
in suppression of several fungal root
pathogens as well as plant-parasitic
Return the plasmid into the bacterium, A. tumefaciens
Transform the A. Tumefaciens and grow the bacteria on plates.
Subject the plate to darkness to check for the presence of fluorescence
Select the colonies that show fluorescence
Grow the bacteria in liquid media.
Inject the tissue of plant culture and grow into a plant
Spray the seeds with the transformed bacterium.