35098408 learning-strategy-training-cooperative-learning-and-multiple-intelligences


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35098408 learning-strategy-training-cooperative-learning-and-multiple-intelligences

  1. 1. Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple IntelligencesLearning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple IntelligencesLEARNING STRATEGY TRAININGLearning strategy is the specific actions to make the students better in learning a secondlanguage.It suggests that teachers should elicit the problems of the students and try to developa solution for them. Learning Strategy Training is based on problems students encounter inthe process of learning target language. These problems are needed to be solved for aneffective learning. First ,students are given the strategy and than they are expected to apply it.Learning Strategy Training focuses on learner training as much as language teaching.Students should be responsible for their own learning. They should follow their learningprocess and be aware of their deficient and efficent sides. They should also monitortheirselves and identify what they need. The teacher helps them to facilitate their learning andto be more effective in learning the target language. After the students get some learningstrategies, they have a cognition about them. But they also have a metacognition which meansthat the students should be aware of the use of the strategies.The teacher plays a modelling role while teaching the strategies to the students. S/he appliesthe strategy on a contex in the class by thinking aloud. He attracts the student’s attentions onhis beahviours and the way using the technique. As he is performing the techniques, he alsoinforms the students what he gets by doing so. After he has introduced the strategy, he wantsthe students to practice on the paper given by himself. He directs the students while they arepracticing and he asks questions about the practice and the students reply them. The students’previous experiences are taken into account by the teacher which increase the motivation ofthem. The teacher also asks why they think so. There is two-way interaction between theteacher and the students. In this method, the teacher lets the student to think about theirquestions and guess the answer from the context rather than giving the answer directly. Hegives feedbacks for their guesses and reinforces the answers’s accuracy by looking at thecontext. After the practice is done, students discuss about their performances and they Expresswhat they think about the usefullness of the strategy. They indentify what they acquire andwhat they need more. The teacher emboldens them they will achieve their difficulties overtime using the strategy. He also announces that they should do more practice on the strategyout of the class and he reminds them how to use the strategy. These strategies will be usefulfor the student’s academic studies as well as their learning the target language.
  2. 2. Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple IntelligencesStudents should have some strategies in every field of their studies to be able to get muchmore success.COOPERATIVE LEARNINGBefore explaning what the cooperative learning means, lets think about the word sense of the“cooperation”. Cooperation means that common working together with the others. Whilestudying cooperatively, every member of the certain groups takes responsibility for theexisting task. But it is mostly a problem to keep the group members together and ensure thateveryone carries out his/her responsibility. So the teacher need training his students to makethem participate in a group working actively. In learning target language, group working is aninevitable way of effective learning. So cooperative learning assures that the students shouldlearn how to operate in groups. There should be a way from interdependence toindependence. This means that the students should learn how to act in a group according tothe group members. They should be associated with each other and make an effort on the task.By working in groups, they will become conscious about their responsibilities and then theycan implement any other tasks indivudually. First they will be dependent on each other andafter they obtain the necessary skills they can act independently because each one of them willbe able to achieve his/her responsiblity without delay.Now let’s see how a language teacher can apply the strategy to a class. First he infoms thestudents that they will wok in groups on the specific subject. The subject items are distributedto the students in pieces. Each group is responsible for its own part. After each group study onits part, a number of group members are transfered to another group and some of them staytheir own groups. By this , the students have chance to tell each other about their own parts.This continues with some other transferrings. All the students have an experience in eachgroup and they acquire different parts of the complete subject,then they combine all the parts.At last, all the students gather in their original group and tell about what they have learnedfrom the others and they construct a full story. This activity lets the students interract andcommunicate with each other. Also the activity helps the students learn about the subject byusing the target language. while the students teach the specific subject to each other, they canreinforce their own learning and understanding. ( Learning through teaching is an effectiveway of learning) At the end of the activity, the students are asked to work together on newvocabulary items. Then the teacher informs them that they will take an individual test and theindividual scores will also be combined with their group’sscores.
  3. 3. Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple IntelligencesHe wirtes the criteria of the test on the board and then ask the students how they feel about thetest. The students like the testing way and they give positive reflections to the teacher. Thestudents complete the test by changing group member and then they evaluate their scores. Allthe students are given a duty for evaluation process .By this way the students learn to takeresponsibility and how to fullfil a task.As we see in the experience, peer observation is highly couraged. Each student play amediator role in somehow. The students also develop their ability to make their group moreeffective. Individual testing implies that each student is responsible for own development. Atthe end of the test, it is teacher’s duty to inform the students how they are done well and howmuch a group have achived. There is a combination of teaching language and teaching otherlearning skills. Students should be given on social skills like in learner strategy training.Multiple-IntelligencesBefore telling about multiple intelligences, it will be useful to define what the intelligencemeans. Itelligence is the human capacity to think, understand and produce something withtheir thoughts. All humanbeings have a different capacity to think and understand ,of course.Their capacity can be associated with multiple-intelligences which are divided into sevenparticul categories: Logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, body/kinesthetic, musical/rytmic,interpersonal, intrapersonal, verbal/linguistic intelligences. This categorazion is really usefulfor effective learning. It has possitive effects in learning a second language,too. How can thelanguage teacher teach the target language to his students by using multiple-intelligence? Theteacher should be aware of his students capacity, If the students have struggle with learningthe target language, what the teacher should do is to identify how the majority of his class canlearn easly. This can be possible by applying the multiple-intelligences tests to the students.The teacher should teach by the way the students learn, not the way he likes. After he identifyhis student’s way, he should evaluate the results and develop a new teaching way accordancewith some of the multiple-intelligences. This is all about problem based. The teacher shouldbe aware of the student’s learning problems and produce a solutions for them. Multiple-intelligences are really cut out for learning process.
  4. 4. Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple IntelligencesACTIVITIESA. 1. The difference between language training and learner training.Language training is based on the purpose of teaching the learners language. they learn all thethings about a given language. they are expected to learn functions, rules, linguistic forms,how to use language and acquire the language skills also. This focuses on teaching language.on the other hand, learner trainig is based on learners and their problem sor difficulties inlearning. ın learner trainin, learners are provided with skills and strategies to be able to learnmore easily and effectively. The correlation between two is that by training learners it can beeasier to teach a language or learn a language or a specific topic.A.2. “ thinks us, not me.”It sounds like a slogan focusing on a paticular sense. This is the idea the cooperative learninginstruction suggests. We know that cooperative learning puts forward that learning should beby working together and interraction of the learners. as we see in the istruction above,students learn how to organize a group, the ability to take responsiblity in a group etc.working in a group requires some must which the most important is acting by taking intoaccount all the group member. The member should not act individually.