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청년 체인지메이커 아카데미 ㅡ 11강 사회적기업의 비즈니스 문제 - 이승규

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  • 1. 사회적 기업: 혁싞과 성장 2010년 10월 30읷 청년 체읶지 메이커 아카데미 이승규 Prof. Seung-Kyu Rhee
  • 2. 오가니제이션 요리 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ERxrzEsQPpkskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 2
  • 3. DC Kitchen Central http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wz552L50qrYskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 3
  • 4. DC Kitchen Central 재무보고서skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 4
  • 5. 사회적 기업과 사회 혁싞 • Social enterprises are social mission driven organizations which apply market-based strategies to achieve a social purpose - Wikipedia • 사회적 목적을 달성하기 위해 시장기반젂략을 이용하는 사회적 사명으로 움직이는 조직 – 비즈니스를 이용하는 비영리 조직 또는 사회적 목적을 추구하는 영리조직 • Social innovation refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs of all kinds - from working conditions and education to community development and health - and that extend and strengthen civil society • 사회를 개선하는 획기적으로 새로운 변화skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 5
  • 6. 사회적 기업과 가치 창출 • 모든 기업은 “가치”를 창출 – 가치=편익-비용 • 기업이 만들어 내는 가치는 – 목적이 되는 가치와 – 수단이 되는 가치로 나눌 수 있음 • 영리 주식회사 – 목적가치  주주의 부 증대 – 수단가치  비즈니스의 상품을 통하여 고객이 인정하는 가치를 생산 – 어떻게 고객과 주주에게 동시에 가치를 제공할 수 있을까? • 사회적 기업 – 목적가치  관심 있는 사회적 문제의 해결 또는 개선 – 수단가치  비즈니스의 상품을 통하여 고객이 인정하는 가치를 생산skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 6
  • 7. How Can We Do It? • 비즈니스의 생존 부등식 – 원가 < 판매가 < 고객 편익 • 사회적 가치의 창출과 혁싞 – 사회적 비용 < 사회적 편익 – 획기적 개선과 성장 가능성 • 성장 – 반복적용/복사/확장 가능성 – 원가구조, 가치 창출구조와 원리skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 7
  • 8. Social Enterprise and Social Entrepreneurs • Entrepreneur by Schumpeter – A person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation – employs "the gale of creative destruction“ • We expect social innovations from social enterprises – Positive changes in the way of solving myriads of social and environmental problems • The change should be sustainable – So we need a lot of entrepreneurs in social enterprises • Are we seeing them?skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 8
  • 9. A Benchmark Theory to Build on • Entrepreneurship is a way of thinking and acting to seize and pursue an opportunity without concern for current resources or capabilities (Bae & Cha, 2009) • Three Driving Forces in Entrepreneurial Process - EOR Model (Timmons, 1999) – Entrepreneurs and Team: Who creates a company? – Opportunity: What are the opportunities? Why create a company? – Resources: How can the opportunity be realized? • Stakeholders who want to see the social entrepreneurs succeed – How can we help them to flourish, and more importantly – To get the resources they need?skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 9
  • 10. Key Factors for Each Driving Force  Opportunity = Technical Feasibility + Market Acceptance  Resources = Man, Money, B-Plan, Network  Seizing the Window of Opportunity (WOO)  Principle of Minimal Resource Commitment  Importance of Pattern Recognition (Staged Commitment of Required Resources)  Evaluation Criteria: Market, Technology, Economy, and  Utilizing OPR (Other People’s Resources) Compatibility with Strategy  Positive Cash Flow Opportunity Resources (O) (R) Business Plan Fits and Gaps Entrepreneurial Team (E) + Habitat (T)  Key Success Factors: Experience, Capabilities, and Mindset of the Entrepreneur  Excellent Entrepreneurs: Obsession to opportunity, Motivation to excel, Commitment, Tolerance for ambiguity, Adaptability, Creativity, Communication skills, Leadership, Practical approach, and Sense of humor  Forming a Team: Synergy, Teamwork, and Chemistryskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 Bae 2010, Working 10
  • 11. Creative destruction by Joseph Schumpeter • In Schumpeters vision of capitalism, – innovative entry by entrepreneurs was the force that sustained long-term economic growth, – even as it destroyed the value of established companies and laborers that enjoyed some degree of monopoly power derived from previous technological, organizational, regulatory, and economic paradigms • Evolutionary view – Inheritance – Mutation: recombination of existing elements – Natural selection • Creative – There is nothing new under the Sunskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 11
  • 12. Christensen’s Disruptive Innovation Ideaskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 12
  • 13. Christensen’s Disruptive Innovation Idea • Disruptive innovation – A process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves „up market‟, eventually displacing established competitors – Whole new population of consumers access to a product or service – Characteristics of disruptive businesses, at least in their initial stages, • Lower gross margins, smaller target markets, and simpler products and services that may not appear as attractive as existing solutions when compared against traditional performance metrics • Rationale for the phenomena – Companies tend to innovate faster than their customers‟ lives change • Eventually end up producing products or services that are too good, too expensive, and too inconvenient for many customers – By only pursuing “sustaining innovations”, companies unwittingly open the door to “disruptive innovations”skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 13
  • 14. Some Examples • Disruptor • Disruptee – Cellular phones – Fixed line telephony – Community colleges – Four-year colleges – Discount retailers – Full-service department – Retail medical clinics stores – Traditional doctor‟s officesskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 14
  • 15. Disruptive Innovation for Social Change: Catalytic Innovators • Create systemic social change through – Scaling and – Replication • Meet a need – Either overserved • Because the existing solution is more complex than many people require – Or not served at all • Offer products and services – Simpler and less costly than existing alternatives and – May be perceived as having a lower level of performance, but – Users consider them to be good enoughskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 15
  • 16. Disruptive Innovation for Social Change: Catalytic Innovators • Generate resources – Donations, grants, volunteer manpower, or intellectual capital • In ways that are initially unattractive to incumbent competitors • They are often ignored, disparaged, or even encouraged by – Existing players for whom the business model is • Unprofitable or otherwise unattractive and – Who therefore avoid or retreat from the market segmentskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 16
  • 17. Kaizen • Kaizen – Refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, supporting business processes, and management • Incremental improvement v. radical innovationskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 17
  • 18. SE 창업초기의 경영젂략 • 무슨 가치를 추구하겠다. 무엇이 되겠다…. – 멋있는 이야기는 끝나고… 실제 비즈니스를 시작하려면 • 비즈니스는 무엇읶가를 파는 것 – 팔 물건(또는 서비스)이 있고 – 사겠다는 사람이 있고 – 이 과정을 계속할 프로세스와 자원이 준비되어야…skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 18
  • 19. SE 경영짂단도구 Framework 모듈 1 기회 Gap 분석 사회적 기업가 사명 • SE의 수사와 실제 • 미션의 타당성 정신(SE) • 기회/도전/혁신의 정의 도전 혁신 창업 및 성장 과정 가치제안 모듈 2 목표시장 사업 기업진단 수익모형 모형 • 동태적 진화 모형 전략 • 비즈니스모델 확립과 사업역량 구축의 상호작용 • 핵심 과제 도출 4P 모듈3 4M 사업 경영시스템 역량 자금운용skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 19
  • 20. New Business Development from Innovation • Overlapping Process Perspective for Commercialization of Innovation – Breakthrough innovation – Technology push Building the Value of a New Technology 1. Imagine 3. Incubate 5. Demonstrate 7. Promote 9. Sustain 2. Mobilize interest 4. Mobilize 6. Mobilize Market 8. Mobilize and endorsement Resources Constituents Complementary Assets Satisfying and Mobilizing Stakeholders at Each Stageskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 20
  • 21. 창업과정은 Jigsaw Puzzle 풀기 • 구석에서 시작? 복판에서 시작? – 일관된 순서와 방향에 따라 필요한 조각 찾아내기 – 보이는 조각들의 짝을 그때그때 맞춰 가기 • 가까이 보기, 멀리 보기, 사람들 만나기, 방안에 틀어박혀 고민하기 – 비즈니스 개발과정은 아이디어의 정교화와 자원동원과정의 역동적 반복 • 나선형 성장모형(Spiral growth) – 한 시점에서 보면 비즈니스는 언제나 완벽하지 않다 – 그러나 어느 정도 시간이 지나고 나면 과거와는 다른 수준의 문제를 고민하고 있다  삽질포굿! • 경영짂단도구에서 말하는 세 모듈은 구멍가게 에서 대기업까지 어디에나 있는 보편적 경영 Growth 요소  첫 거래가 있을 때부터 평가가능 Acceptance Developmentskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 The Beginning 21
  • 22. 질문과 답의 반복 • 가치제안 – 사회적 가치, 경제적 가치 – 이해관계자와 고객을 설득하는 핵심논리를 말함  우리 편이 되고 싶죠? • 목표시장 – 누구에게 우리의 아이디어와 서비스, 상품을 팔 것인가? 그들은 왜 우리와 비즈니스를 하려고 할까? • 그들의 돈을 받으려면 그들이 무엇을 생각하고 원하는지 알아야겠죠? • 수익모형 – 돈이 들어오고 나가는 주요 과정을 사업계획 상의 시간 축 위에 표현하는 것이 최우선  현금흐름 분석의 기초 • Devil‟s in the detail!!! (자세하게 자세하게, 그리고 더 자세하게….) • 잘 모르는 회계용어를 복잡하게 쓰는 것은 젂문가에게 오히려 오해와 혼선만 제공 • 사업하는 사람들의 미싞과 거짓말  돈은 도는 것이고, 빚으로 사업하는 것???  건젂한 용돈관리, 가계관리와 비즈니스 자금관리는 모두 같음!!!skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 22
  • 23. 질문과 답의 반복 • 젂략 – 내가 시장 안에서 어떤 위치를 차지할까? – 내가 시장에 들어가면 모든 관련 주체가 “반응”할 것!!!! • 그들의 반응을 예상하고 내가 어떻게 대응할 것읶지 멀리 내다보고 깊이 생각하는 것이 젂략의 요체!!! • 카르타고의 한니발이 로마를 치기 위해 코끼리 부대를 이끌고 이베리아 반도를 돌아 알프스를 넘는 정도의 생각이 젂략 – 장기적으로 내가 어떤 위치에 갈까? 거기에 어떤 경로를 거쳐서 도달할 수 있을까? • 이 내용이 내부직원과 외부 이해관계자(투자자, 사업파트너…)들에게 정확히 공유되어야!!!skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 23
  • 24. 질문과 답의 반복 • 4P – Product, Price, Place, Promotion: 마케팅의 핵심/장사의 기본 조건 • 팔 것이 있어야… 가격과 고객접귺, 알리기 • 이 4가지를 자세히 (자세히, 자세히, 자세히 …) 정하는 것이 마케팅 플랜 – 상품을 생각하는 쉬운 방법 • 상품은 비즈니스의 “핵”이다. 이것이 비즈니스 모델의 가치제안의 구체적 실체이다 (realization of value proposition) • 고객은 우리의 가치제안이나 젂략, 사명 따위를 보는 게 아니고, 상품(제품 또는 서비스)을 보고, 경험하고, 판단한다. • 즉 상품은 고객과의 소통이며 우리의 짂실이 담겨 있는 메싞저이다… • 4M – Man, Machine, Material, Method: 생산의 핵심/만들어야 팔지!!! • 내부 읶력과 장비, 기술… 이들을 엮은 프로세스 • 혂대적 생산체제의 가치사슬에서 내가 하는 읷은 극히 읷부분… 남들의 가치사슬과 어떻게 연결되나? 어떻게 강력한 파트너를 구하나???skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 24
  • 25. 차별화 • 조심해야 할 말… • 4P와 4M이 비즈니스의 핵심 – 이것들 중 대부분은 적어도 “남들만큼 ” 은 해야!!!!!! – 그리고 무엇 하나는 남들보다 잘하는 게 있어야죠!!!! 그러지 못하면 사업은 망한다는 게 시장경제의 원리 • 혁싞!!!! – 내가 갖출 것 다 갖췄나? • 이걸로만 되면 혁싞이란 말을 할 필요가 없죠!!! • 혁싞은 가죽을 벗기고 무두질하는 고통을 동반하는 읷, 장난이 아닙니다…. • 돈만 벌려는 영리기업들도 매읷 혁싞합니다…. 사회혁싞을 추구하는 사회적 기업… 공짜는 없습니다.skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 25
  • 26. 질문과 답의 반복 • 경영시스템 – 최소한의 경영시스템 • 법적 젃차와 사업형식에 따른 회계, 세무관리 시스템 • 읶사제도, 조직 내의 권한과 책임, 의사결정체계 – 지배구조 • 초기 창업팀의 읶적특성에 의존하는 체제에서 장기적으로 기업사명을 안정적으로 추구할 수 있는 싞뢰성 확보 필요  모든 이해관계자의 관심사!!! • 자금관리 – 자본조달과 자금운영계획 • 투자와 운영예산의 구분 – 투자 판단의 기준 정립 필요 • 고가 장비 사서 쓸까요? 빌려 쓸까요? • 자금조달원가와 투자수익율 요구 기죾skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 26
  • 27. 강의 끝, 생각 시작! • 오 요리와 DC Kitchen Central의 혁싞과 성장모델을 비교해서 토론해 볼까요?skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 27
  • 28. What Are the CriticalSuccess Factors for SocialEnterprise? March 11, 2009 International Conference on Social Enterprise 이승규 Prof. Seung-Kyu Rhee
  • 29. Conventional Approaches to BDskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 http://www.forthsector.org.uk/ 29
  • 30. Mathematically Speaking… • There are conditions and there are conditions – Factors? • Common denominators? – Necessary conditions and sufficient conditions • But in business, there are no such things as necessary or sufficient conditions – There are stories… – Well, they vary all the time following • When and why they are told • By and to whom they are told • So I will stick to my own way, which is – List all the challenges, and think hard about them!skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 30
  • 31. What Other People Have Said? • Eight critical success factors – Leadership – Partnerships – Proof and clarity of innovative concept – Business planning and marketing – Triple bottom line planning – Short and long term benefits management – Community engagement – Risk management David Boyer, Heather Creech and Leslie Paas (2008) The SEED Initiative and the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 31
  • 32. What Other People Have Said? • 9 factors leading to the success of social enterprise – Creativity means “big picture” – Networking means great at constructing relationships – Leading role means positioning the social enterprise as market leader – Deal making means do the right deals with right people at the right time to build wealth – Planning means think before you leap – Ability to control & manage people means both employees and volunteers – The above leads to cultivating investor relations that has to act slowly and cautiously – The approach is “spin off strategy” – Setting clear goal, focus and have a humble start Factors Leading to Success & Failure of Social Enterprise Raymond YIM Chun-man (March 2008), Social Entrepreneurship Soul-mate Company Ltd. (HK)skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 32
  • 33. What Other People Have Said? • 9 factors leading to the FAILURE of social enterprise – Naïveté • Some NGO Board members have the mind set that see money as evil • Commercial world is a jungle and businesses compete brutally • Creating a business almost always create more problems than it solves • Business ventures as an excuse for pursuing personal agendas or “pet” ideas • General public can afford to pay for organic produce?? – Lack of business skills • Social enterprise failed is only because lack of management skills • Lack of marketing skills is crucial in leading to social enterprise failure • Their first goal is not identify a demand in the market or provide the highest quality service or product at the most competitive price • Transforming a NGO into a SE takes time, which means money Factors Leading to Success & Failure of Social Enterprise Raymond YIM Chun-man (March 2008), Social Entrepreneurship Soul-mate Company Ltd. (HK)skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 33
  • 34. Challenges Facing Social Enterprises • Making money is hard enough – But it is not a rocket science, either… – The most successful entrepreneur in entire Korean history, Late Chairman, Chung Ju Yung of Hyundai Group was a runaway boy after his elementary school • Doing well by doing good? – Before you think of doing something good, you have to survive first! – The business should make sense at any scale  Hansalim • From its inception in 1986, it has been always self-reliant • There is no such thing as Free Lunch – If you want something from others, you should propose them something valuable to them in returnskrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 34
  • 35. The Third Sector • Let us think about the first two sectors! – Governments and Public Sector, where dirty politicians working so hard for power prevail – Businesses and Private Sector, where the filthy rich working so hard for more money prevail • Why should the success in the third sector be any easier? – The biggest challenge for the success of SE is to excel in • Power game in stakeholder management, • Jungle fight in making money, and at the same time • Not losing their vision and integrity in doing all these hard work!!! – SO much more worth trying!!!skrhee@business.kaist.ac.kr October 30, 2010 35