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Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis: Rural Economy - David Meredith
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Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis: Rural Economy - David Meredith


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Royal Irish Academy Conference: Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis …

Royal Irish Academy Conference: Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis
23 April, 2013, Academy House

The on-going crisis and associated responses to it (political, governance, popular etc.) provides an entry point for a wide-ranging exploration of spatial justice as a theoretical construct and a departure point for empirical analysis. Discourses of justice, equality and fairness remain central to a range of interconnected debates as Ireland seeks to recover from the interrelated collapses of the banking system and property markets and the knock on effects through the rest of society and the economy. Scale is an important dimension in framing and constructing popular discourses concerning issues of justice, e.g. the role of EU institutions in shaping Ireland’s treatment of banking debt or the impact of national budgetary measures on particular places. The focus of this conference is on understanding these spatially connected processes, how they are functioning at different scales, their impact on particular or specific places and spaces, as they give rise to new or evolving social and economic geographies.

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  • 1. Distribution of workers and jobs in Ireland Industrial Change andin Ireland: Industrial Change and Issues of Injustice?Issues of Injustice?David MeredithDavid Meredith
  • 2. OverviewOverview• Critique of past (current) failure to enact regional / rural development ‘policy’– 1999 White Paper (Neo‐endogenous rural development)– Changing governance arrangementsChanging governance arrangements• Response to past lack of success– Neo‐liberal fix, i.e. Facilitate the penetration of capital into rural spaces– Focus on initiatives focused on physical (capital) development• Permissive housing policy, both one‐off and large projects  (Residential / Commercial)• Consequences for the rest of economy• No consideration of on‐going processes of industrial restructuring
  • 3. OverviewOverview• The process of investment and disinvestment is a continuous and interrelated process This process is driven by the search for surplus valueinterrelated process. This process is driven by the search for surplus value on the part of investors. • The combination of all investment – disinvestment decisions made at the• The combination of all investment – disinvestment decisions made at the investor scale results in differentiation in the levels and conditions of development.– Focus here is on how capital produces and reproduced labour• Spatial Divisions of Labour
  • 4. Before we begin…Before we begin…• Census of Population 1986 – 2011p• Census of Population Place of Work Datasets 2006 20112006 ‐ 2011• The analysis equates uneven development with particular geographical patterns. This(largely) ignores that other dimension of s( a ge y) g o es t at ot e d e s o ouneven development, namely differential growth rates within and between industrialgrowth rates within and between industrial sectors.
  • 5. Number of Unemployed / 1000 employedNumber of Unemployed / 1000 employed350300350250mployed150200yed per 1,000 em100No. Unemploy0501986 1991 1996 2002 2006 2011MaleFemale1986 1991 1996 2002 2006 2011
  • 6. Industrial Structure of Male Employment1 200 000p y1,000,0001,200,000800,000mployedOtherProfessional ServicesP bli Ad i i t ti d600,000berofMenEmPublic Administration andDefenceTransport and CommunicationsCommerce200 000400,000NumbCommerceManufacturing and relatedindustriesConstruction0200,0001986 1991 1996 2002 2006 2011ConstructionAgriculture, Forestry and Fishing1986 1991 1996 2002 2006 2011
  • 7. Industrial Structure of Female Employmentp y1 200 0001,000,0001,200,000800,000EmployedOtherProfessional Services600,000erofWomenEProfessional ServicesPublic Administration andDefenceTransport and Communications200 000400,000NumbeCommerceManufacturing and relatedindustries0200,0001986 1991 1996 2002 2006 2011ConstructionAgriculture, Forestry and Fishing1986 1991 1996 2002 2006 2011
  • 8. Impact of the recession on employmentp p y150 00050,000100,000150,000-50,0000semployed200 000-150,000-100,000berofpersonJob LostJobs GainedNet Change-300,000-250,000-200,000angeinnumb-400,000-350,000Males FemalesChMales Females
  • 9. Industrial Restructuring 2006 2011Industrial Restructuring 2006 ‐ 2011150 00050 000100,000150,000nsemployed-50 000050,000berofperson-150,000-100,000-50,000hangeinnumbFemaleMale150,000Ch
  • 10. 2006 Average Travel Distance2006 – Average Travel Distance252025101505MaleFemale
  • 11. 2011 Average Travel Distance2011 – Average Travel Distance252025101505MaleFemale
  • 12. Change in Manufacturing Employment 2006 ‐ 20111200001000001200008000060000 200620112000040000020000Urban RuralUrban Rural
  • 13. Age cohort analysis of male l h i f iemployment change in Manufacturing2000010002000d-2000-1000alesemployed-4000-3000numberofmaNet Urban Change-6000-5000ChangeinnNet Urban ChangeNet Rural Change-8000-700020-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75+Age as of 2011Age as of 2011
  • 14. Age cohort analysis of female employment change in Manufacturing2000010002000d-2000-1000lesemployed-4000-3000mberoffemaNet Urban ChangeNet Rural Change-6000-5000Changeinnum-8000-700020-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75+CAge as of 2011Age as of 2011
  • 15. Change (%) in Average Distance to Work: Manufacturing100 0080.00100.0040.0060.000.0020.00MaleFemale-20.00
  • 16. ConclusionsConclusions• The unequal development of the Irish economy with its extremes of wealth and• The unequal development of the Irish economy, with its extremes of wealth and poverty, its rapid pace of urbanization and environmental degradation, has accelerated rather than diminished over the past quarter century. • Deindustrialization and regional decline, extended urbanisation or extrametropolitan growth and a new international division of labour, in which Ireland is a highly active player, “are not separate developments but symptoms of a much deeper transformation in the geography of capitalism” within Irelanda much deeper transformation in the geography of capitalism within Ireland (Smith, 2008 P.1).• These developments are extensions of changing patterns of (uneven) development witnessed within the Eurozone, the EU and globally.• Though many of the drivers of unequal development operate at surpa‐state scales, the state plays a fundamental role in determining the impacts including spatial ofthe state plays a fundamental role in determining the impacts, including spatial, of these drivers.