Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis: Environment - Anna Davies
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis: Environment - Anna Davies

on

  • 382 views

Royal Irish Academy Conference: Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis ...

Royal Irish Academy Conference: Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis
23 April, 2013, Academy House

The on-going crisis and associated responses to it (political, governance, popular etc.) provides an entry point for a wide-ranging exploration of spatial justice as a theoretical construct and a departure point for empirical analysis. Discourses of justice, equality and fairness remain central to a range of interconnected debates as Ireland seeks to recover from the interrelated collapses of the banking system and property markets and the knock on effects through the rest of society and the economy. Scale is an important dimension in framing and constructing popular discourses concerning issues of justice, e.g. the role of EU institutions in shaping Ireland’s treatment of banking debt or the impact of national budgetary measures on particular places. The focus of this conference is on understanding these spatially connected processes, how they are functioning at different scales, their impact on particular or specific places and spaces, as they give rise to new or evolving social and economic geographies.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
382
Views on SlideShare
280
Embed Views
102

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

2 Embeds 102

http://www.ria.ie 69
http://ria.ie 33

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis: Environment - Anna Davies Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis: Environment - Anna Davies Presentation Transcript

  • Cleantech clusters: Socio‐spatial reconfigurations for a just green economy?Spatial Justice and the Irish Crisis23rd April 2013RIARIAAnna Davies (daviesa@tcd.ie), Trinity College Dublin
  • BackgroundBackground‘the history of the fossil fuel economy is premised on the exploiting natural resources the environment and people’ (Swelling & Annecke 2012)resources, the environment and people  (Swelling & Annecke, 2012)• Roots of environmental justice movements– ‘the basic right of people to live, work, go to school, play, and pray in a healthy and clean environment’ (Bullard, 1994)– Coalitions of communities and activists in places• Expansion of environmental justice movements– Climate justice, international relations, transnational networkingT l t k f liti ( ithi d ti t t b d i )– Transcalar networks of coalitions (within and across nation state boundaries)• Just Transition– Framework for a fair and sustainable shift to a low carbon economyFramework for a fair and sustainable shift to a low carbon economy• Voice – dialogue between Government, industry, trade unions and others on the economic and industrial changes required. • Green and decent jobs – investment in low carbon technologies, from energy efficiency to renewable energy and IT to carbon capture & storage. • New green skills – equipping people with the skills needed for a low carbon, resource‐efficient economy.
  • Context: Going for a green economy?Context: Going for a green economy?bl• Problems– UNEP (2007) ‘unprecedented environmental change at global and regional levels’– ILO (2009) ‘highest ever global unemployment’ ‐ 212 million+( ) g g p y– Sir John Beddington (2009) ‘Perfect Storm’ of energy, food and water needs ‐ 2030• Solutions?– Green economy, green new deal, smart green economy, green jobs• ‘an economy that results in improved human well‐being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities’ (UNEP, 2011)g y g g ( , )• Governmental Initiatives– USA:  Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009– Wales: Green Jobs Strategy– Ethiopia: Climate‐Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy
  • Ireland‘Ireland fell the farthest and the hardest, falling 9 places in Euro growth and jobs monitor to number 13 just ahead of Italy, the perennial laggard’ (Allianz j j f y p ggEuropean Jobs and Growth Indicator, 2009)• Documents• Department of the Taoiseach (2008) Building Ireland’s Smart Economy: A Framework for Sustainable Economic Renewal • Forfás (2009) Developing the Green Economy in Ireland • DETI & Forfás (2011) Progress Report on Implementation of Green Enterprise( ) g p p p• Government of Ireland (2012) Delivering our Green Potential • Definitions• ‘The smart economy is a green economy in that it recognises the interrelated challenges ofThe smart economy is a green economy in that it recognises the interrelated challenges of climate change and energy security. It involves the transition to a low‐carbon economy and recognises the opportunities for investment and jobs in clean industry’…• “… The smart economy … has, at its core, the creation of an exemplary research, innovation and i li i ‘Th I i I l d’” (D f T i hcommercialisation ecosystem so as to create ‘The Innovation Island’.” (Department of Taoiseach, 2008:33).• Decisions‘ d hi [ h i l d] b d i h i l d d i ’ ( fá• ‘to extend this [the green island] brand into the environmental goods and services sector’ (Forfás, 2009: 11)
  • …is there a spatial dimension?…is there a spatial dimension?• Global problem, transnational drivers (Europe 2020), national assertions ‘the Green Island’• Dispersal “…companies in the Green Economy are not concentrated in any one location in Ireland and there is significant potential for on‐going regional dispersal of activity as the sector grows” (GoI, 2012: 7)• Concentration “…clusters provide opportunities for collaboration between a range of parties with th k l d ti d i t i i th d l t f t iti i ththe knowledge, expertise and experience to maximise the development of opportunities in the Green Economy. They serve to stimulate private sector innovation and investment and can act as test beds for new products and services in areas such as renewable energy, energy and resource efficiency and other cleantech activities” (GoI, 2012: 17)y ( , )…is there a spatial justice dimension?• Where will jobs in the emergent green economy be located and who will be eligible for them?• Grassroots sustainability enterprises seeking to develop just, green jobs for all but there is a challenge to remain viable under conditions of reduced fundingi i l i h ?• …is composite clustering the answer?
  • The Rediscovery Centre• Mission : • Leading change from waste to resource through reuse redesign research & educationThe Rediscovery Centre• Leading change from waste to resource through reuse, redesign, research & education• Objectives :• Divert waste from landfill• Provide community employment and training• Inspire sustainable livingRediscoveryCentreRediscoveryCentreRediscoverFashionRediscoverFurnitureRediscoverPaintRediscoverCyclingCorporateServicesResearchEducationprogrammes
  • The Green Way & GCCAThe Green Way & GCCA• Aim: to support the transformation ofAim: to support the transformation of the Irish economy into a sustainable green economy– Bottom‐up activityBottom up activity– Industry‐academic‐public nexus– Stakeholder driven– Support accelerate and facilitateSupport, accelerate and facilitateAi t t t d id• Aim:  to create momentum and…guide cleantech companies from a compelling technology or service idea to viable business models sustainable jobs andbusiness models, sustainable jobs, and attractive Return on Investment (ROI) for founders, incubators, and investors. 
  • Cluster experiences: Access & VisibilityCluster experiences: Access & Visibility• “... we have gained access to organisations and people and we are looking for capital e a e ga ed access o o ga sa o s a d peop e g pfunding for a new building with The Green Way’s help to provide access to contacts. [The CEO of The Green Way] is setting up meetings with Department of Trade and facilitating meetings with ESB [Irish electricity utility]. It’s provided us with connections, g g y y pintroductions, networking and investment opportunities as well as the potential for mentoring.” (Interview 1, Rediscovery Centre)• “Sometimes we are the alternative voice in debates, reminding people of our social regeneration mandate. We need a voice for the people in The Green Way...we have a l d l ’ l b f h b d ’ bsocial and people perspective. It’s not just a lab for things to be tested in, it’s about bringing people and industry to Ballymun; about improving the image.” (Interview 2, Rediscovery Centre)
  • Cluster experiences: Opportunity & PossibilityCluster experiences: Opportunity & Possibility“ h ’ i l h k i h S f i l i b h• “We haven’t put a particular hook in the Strategy for social enterprise, but the Rediscovery Centre in my mind is an absolutely fantastic enterprise that is so appropriate and so timely. I’d like to see more and similar activity elsewhere ...”   (Th G W B i )(The Green Way, Business)• “…I am saying we want MNCs and SMEs and social enterprise and all jobs...it does show you that there isn’t a specific focus in The Green Way. I guess we’re really hoping that the market comes forward. We don’t have the levers to decide whether it’s going to be one or the other. We are going to support whoever comes f d h h d ” ( h bl )forward on the things we are interested in.” (The Green Way, Public)
  • Cluster experiences: Business as usual?Cluster experiences: Business as usual?• “The Green Charter was dropped, there were fears that investors would be deterred...a fear of being too green. The Green Way has been very driven by economics to date, but we need to do something differently, not just jobs for jobs sake...” (Interview 2, Rediscovery Centre)• “We are pursuing growth. However if you come with new technologies that reduce environmental impacts then there can be a net positive impact of that growth...we would like to see the GRI as a global reporting standard for companies in The Green Way, that everybody would have GRI...but if it comes down to will a company invest or not on the basis of having GRI then it will be a case of ‘do no il’ b t di t ” (Th G W P bli )evil’ but according to your own measures.” (The Green Way, Public)• “It’s very simple, it’s about economic development and jobs. We don’t pretend we are trying to save the environment; we are trying to save the economy. How we can use the inherent strengths that exist in the economy. Clearly there is an environmental gain, but we are looking at how that can drive economic i i I ’ b i i di i d icompetitiveness. It’s about encouraging indigenous enterprises and attracting foreign direct investment.” (The Green Way, Business)
  • Summary: Clustering for a just, green economy?Summary: Clustering for a just, green economy?• Pessimistic– Grassroots sustainability enterprises  activity is only the ‘symbolic embodiment of alternatives’ (Seyfang, 2009)– Green economy = “business is business” (GCCA 2011)– Green economy =  business is business  (GCCA, 2011)– The Rediscovery Centre’s positioning in the cluster is permitted, but precarious and not privileged.• Optimistic– ‘Demonstration effect’ …‘Creating capabilities’ for meaningful engagement –(Martinelli et al., 2010)– New opportunities for state‐market‐civil society constellations (Swyngedouw and Moulaert, 2010)– Clusters as spaces of hope, possibility and disruption; a counterpoint to high‐tech, business as usual cleantech enterprises
  • ConclusionsConclusions‘The green economy should not be just about reclaiming thrown‐away stuff… It should be about reclaiming thrown away communities ’ (Van Jones 2008)should be about reclaiming thrown‐away communities.’ (Van Jones, 2008)• There is a clear need to develop a wider agenda for the transition to a greener economy which requires learning lessons from 30 years of environmental justice struggles (after Farrell, 2012):– constructing, applying, and enforcing explicitly equitable public policy based on distributive, procedural, and social justice; – developing mechanisms for early and meaningful participation from the people affected by transitions to a green, low carbon economyki h li i h h i i h dd h li i l i d i l– taking a holistic approach to the transition that addresses the political, economic, and social inequities of the fossil fuel economy and ensures they are not reinforced or replicated.C it l t h l t i id t iti f l i ti l• Composite cleantech clustering may provide opportunities for novel socio‐spatial interactions, but is alone insufficient to deliver spatial justice in the absence of mechanisms to address inequitable and enduring patterns of power and influence that shape state capital people relationsthat shape state‐capital‐people relations.
  • h h kWith thanks to:J R k dJoanne Rourke andIrish Research Council for Humanities and Social Sciences (now IRC)and Social Sciences (now IRC)