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Presentatie Wim van helden 20110217 warmteopslag met fase overgangsmaterialen; mogelijkheden en uitdagingen
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Presentatie Wim van helden 20110217 warmteopslag met fase overgangsmaterialen; mogelijkheden en uitdagingen






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Presentatie Wim van helden 20110217 warmteopslag met fase overgangsmaterialen; mogelijkheden en uitdagingen Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Warmteopslag met Fase- overgangsmaterialen Mogelijkheden en uitdagingen Wim van HeldenWorkshop Thermisch Energieopslag met Fase-overgangsmaterialen Heerlen, 17 Februari 2011
  • 2. Heat Storage: Enabling Technology
  • 3. 4 Principles for Heat Storage• Sensible heat h - principle: heat capacity - reservoirs, aquifers, ground/soil T• Latent heat h - principle: phase change (melting, evaporation) T - water, organic and inorganic PCMs h• Sorption heat and Chemical heat - principle: physical (adhesion) or T chemical bond (reaction enthalpy) - adsorption and absorption and chemical reactions
  • 4. 4224 Development Stages of TES TechnologiesWater (sensible) PCM (latent) Sorption TCM (chemical)Market mature Demonstration Development Research CHARGE + heat → + STORE DISCHARGE + → + heat
  • 5. Classification of Thermal Energy Storage18-11-2008 PCM Side Event
  • 6. Storage FunctionalityApplication determines functionality in terms of:• Charging and Discharging Power• Temperatures• Storage capacity• Storage density• Efficiency (heat transfer, heat loss, auxiliary energy)Majority of improvements through materials R&D
  • 7. PCM Energy stored asfunction of temperature
  • 8. Latent heat storage in PCMs PCM interesting at small temperature difference (around melting temperature) Volume for 1 MJ storage Mass for 1 MJ storage 25 25 water water 20 20 kilograms TH29 TH29litres 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 0 - 100 10 - 60 15 - 40 20 - 30 0 - 10010 - 60 15 - 4020 - 30 temperature difference (° C) temperature difference (° C)
  • 9. PCM• Warmteopslag rondom smelttemperatuur• Organische materialen of zouthydraten• Aandachtspunten: – Warmtegeleiding en warmteoverdracht – Onderkoeling – Ontmenging (bij zouthydraten)
  • 10. Improved heat transfer• Add carbon nanotubes Source: Tekniker, Spain AFM image of as received carbon nanotubes• High heat transfer carrier material PCM embedded in expanded graphite (SGL Carbon)
  • 11. PCM subcooling• “undershoot” of solidification T• No proper nucleation Test and Characterization (A2) DSC results, 2nd trial with pre-defined standard 300 heating, 1 K/min cooling, 1 K/min 250 heating, 0,5 K/min cooling, 0,5 K/min heating, 0,2 K/min cooling, 0,2 K/min enthalpy [kJ/kg] 200 heating, 0,1 K/min cooling, 0,1 K/min 150 100 50 0 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Archivierungsangaben temperature [° C] 1
  • 12. Improve Nucleation• Additives, mixturesMicroencap-CaCl2·6H2O Microencap-CaCl2·6H2O Microencap-CaCl2·6H2O with with SrCl2·6H2O Ba(OH)2·8H2O Source: AIDICO, Spain
  • 13. Toepassingen• Koudeopslag (ijs)• Opslag van (zonne)warmte in bouwdelen• Transport van warmte
  • 14. Cold Storage• Use cheap nighttime electricity• Lowering of peak electric power• Reduction of nominal cooling capacity• latent heat storage in ice• polyethylene balls filled with water
  • 15. Organic PCMs Left to right: - powder: 60% paraffine and silica material - granulate: 35% paraffine and diatomee earth - boards: 65% paraffine and wood fibre board New development. Compound: 80% paraffine, for directcontact with water, for instance in reservoir
  • 16. Organic PCMs Standard product: PCM granulate in floor combined with floor heatingNew development:Gypsum board impregnated with PCM.
  • 17. Phase change Materials in walls development project with the partners BASF, caparol, maxit and Sto with Fraunhofer ISE 1/1999 - 9/2004 funded by BMWi FKZ 0329840A-D
  • 18. measurementstwo identical roomsmeasured without and withtwo PCM products monitoredone year eachresult:- 4 K difference reached- night ventilationessential
  • 19. Since 2004 several BASF: micronalproducts:Different macrocapsules:Dörken, Rubitherm, SGL,Climator and others SmartBoard™ Different products with Foto: BASF microcapsules: plaster, plasterbords, porous concrete… ….. Other systems: Energain, Rubitherm granules
  • 20. Latent heat storage: PCM for daily storage • demonstration house in Perth, Australia • day storage of solar heat from 30 m2 collectors • storage in 90 m2 TH29- system (equivalent to 0,65 m3 PCM) • TH29-system: capsules on long strips integrated in floor, melting temperature of PCM 29ºC • buffer is charged with flexible pipes between capsules • LT floor heating system
  • 21. Latent heat storage: inorganic PCMsNodule of Cristopia:HDPE ball filled witheutectic salt plug air PCM PCM can of Climator: HDPE shell typically applied in transformer rooms and telecom installations
  • 22. Latent heat storage in inorganic PCMs Sodium acetate storage system. The PCM is charged and discharged by circulating a synthetic oil, passing heat to the exterior by a heat exchanger. This system is further developed into the Varioheat product.
  • 23. phase change slurries (PCS) carrier fluid + PCM e.g. water/water glycol as fluid und Paraffin- microcapsules as PCM advantage : greatly enhanced storage/transport capacity in small temperature range, thus: smaller storages reduced losses due to isothermal storage lower pumping energy due to lower mass flow increasing the storage/transport capacity of a existing system just by exchanging the fluid research-project 12/2001 - 11/2004 ; funded by EU
  • 24. From suspensions to emulsions and further Suspension micro-encapsulated Paraffin Hard shell made of PMMA Size range between 1 and 20 µm, is determined by the capsule Emulsion Emulsified Paraffin Dispersion based on polar forces Size of the particles is variable also in the application clathrathes, …
  • 25. heat storages with PCM in tanks - concepts PCM PCMWater Water Paraffin BASF source of pictures: TU-Graz/BASF/ISE
  • 26. 4224Materials and ApplicationsTwo International Energy Agency (IEA) programmes:Energy Conservation throughEnergy StorageSolar Heating andCooling
  • 27. 4224Task 42/24: Compact Thermal EnergyStorage: Material Development for SystemIntegrationJoint Task between Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) and EnergyConservation through Energy Storage (ECES)Operating Agents: - SHC: Wim van Helden, ECN (NL) - ECES: Andreas Hauer, ZAE Bayern (DE)January 2009 – December 2012Semi-annual Expert Meetings4th Expert Meeting: 21 February 2011, Belfast, UKMain added value:Bring together experts from applications and material science
  • 28. 4224 Application Related ActivitiesIEA Task/Annex 42/24 Cooling Heating / DHW High Temp. ApplicationsMatrix approach Material Related Activities Material Engineering / Processing Test and Characterisation Numerical Modelling Apparatus / Components Theoretical Limits
  • 29. Phase Change Material with supercooling Heat storage capacity of sodium acetate tri-hydrate 800 Stored energy [kJ/litre ] 700 Sodium acetate 600 Supercooling 500 400 Water 300 Activation of 200 solidification 100 Melting point = 58 °C 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [°C]29
  • 30. System design 180 litre DHW tank Tap schedule: 50 l at 7:00, 12:00 and 18:00 DHW auxiliary ~ 2500 kWh/year 135 m² “Passive house” Heating demand: PCM storage 15 kWh/m²/year ∼ 2010 Space heating kWh/year auxiliaryA solar heating system with 36 m² solar collectors and a 6 m3 PCMheat storage divided into 24 modules can fully cover the heat demandof a Danish low energy house 30
  • 31. Heat storage material58% (weight%) NaCH3C0042% (weight%) waterMelting point: 58°C☺ Stable supercooling31
  • 32. 305 kg salt water mixture Module volume: About 234 l32
  • 33. Task42-Annex24 PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT The efficiency of a PV cell depends on: the kind of semiconductor used; Energy Conservation through Energy Storage (ECES) the intensity of the solar radiation; the temperature of the PV cell. 200 Produttore The efficiency of PV is computed from its “Peak Power” 150 Pmax = Vmax • I maxPotenza [W] 100 25 C 50 C 50 75 C The efficiency of a PV system is 0 generally declared about 10-17%. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Tensione [V] 6 Valerio Lo Brano, Ina Ciulla
  • 34. Task42-Annex24HOW TO KEEP LOW TEMPERATURE? Keeping cooler the PV panel Energy Conservation through Energy Storage (ECES) will increase the performance There are different substances with high latent heat, that allow the storage of big amount ofheat during a solid-liquid phase transition. For pure substances this transition takes place at a constant temperature. The process ofmelting and solidifying can be repeated for a high number of cycles with no change in theirphysical and chemical properties. 8 Phase Change Materials (PCMs). Valerio Lo Brano, Ina Ciulla
  • 35. Task42-Annex24EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMMade up of experimental system: Energy Conservation through Energy Storage (ECES) Valerio Lo Brano, Ina Ciulla
  • 36. Onderkoeling• Door onderkoeling stollen micro-geëncapsuleerde PCM deeltjes niet of slechts gedeeltelijk• Tegengaan door toevoegen van ‘vreemde’ moleculen• Onderzoek bijvoorbeeld bij Aidico, Spanje
  • 37. Inorganic PCM microencapsulation. Previous results.Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Nucleating agent (wt%) Tm (ºC) ∆Hm (kJ/kg) Supercooling (ºC) None 24.15 48.0 42.74 SrCl2·6H2O 21.68 37.97 33.61 Ba(OH)2·8H2O 22.99 67.91 22.25 CaCl2·6H2O (SrCl2·6H2O)
  • 38. Inorganic PCM microencapsulation. Previous results.Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Microencap-CaCl2·6H2O Microencap-CaCl2·6H2O with SrCl2·6H2O Microencap-CaCl2·6H2O with Ba(OH)2·8H2O
  • 39. Third Expert Meeting of Task 42 / Annex 24 “Compact Thermal Energy Storage – Material Development for System Integration” 21 – 23 April Bordeaux, FranceSOLID-SOLID PHASE CHANGEMATERIALS (SSPCMs)Dr Cemil ALKANGaziosmanpaşa UniversityTokat/Turkey
  • 40. Material Phase change Phase Phase Phase temperature change change change (heating temperature enthalpy enthalpy periode) oC cooling (heating (cooling periode) oC periode) J/g periode) J/gPoly(Styrene-co-p-stearoyl 33.43 29.00 44.56 -32.55styrene (%25 Stearoylchloride)Poly(Styrene-co-p-stearoyl 24.84 29.05 50.43 -45.05styrene (%50Stearoylchloride)Poly(Styrene-co-p-stearoyl 29.70 29.42 54.84 -46.33styrene (%75Stearoylchloride)
  • 41. PCM• Compacte warmteopslag bij een kleine Delta-T• Toepassingen in een groot temperatuur bereik• (micro)encapsulatie om: – Ontmenging tegen te gaan – Warmteoverdracht te vergroten – Slurry te maken• Onderkoeling kan een probleem zijn• Onderzoek en ontwikkeling: – PCM verbeteren – Nieuwe of verbeterde toepassingen