El Nino    La Nina
Normal Conditions       Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
Normal Conditions                         Green = cold                         Red = warm                         Sea     ...
HOTPOOL              COLD             TONGUE                       NORMAL                      UPWELLING“NORMAL” CONDITIONS
Normal ConditionsGarrison’s Oceanography text, 8-15a
Surface winds                       blow westwardEQUATOR          AUSTRALIA      Warm waters             SOUTH            ...
Causes   coldtongue to  extend   west            Deep, cold &            nutrient rich               waters       NORMAL C...
SUNLIGHT ONLY UPWELLING CANRETURN THE FERTILIZINGNUTRIENTS TO THE PHOTIC        ZONE                    NORMAL CONDITIONS ...
El nino conditions  Normally, temperatures of surface waters in the western Pacific are  6 to 8 degrees Celsius (10 to 15 ...
El Niño Conditions
Comparison   Normal    El Nino
El Niño Conditions       Sea Surface Temperature
El Niño ConditionsFrom NOAA website (see KKC 15-13b)
El Nino: El Nino Development  El NINO
HOT                        POOL                       SHIFTS                        EAST                NO               C...
El Niño Conditions                     •   Weakening of Walker                     •   Decreased pressure gradient        ...
Winds weaken,                                                causing updrafts                                             ...
EL NINO SUPRESSES COASTALUPWELLING, REDUCES NUTRIENTS& CAUSES SURFACE POPULATIONS        TO DISAPPEAR.
Comparison- SST Anomaly                     Normal                     El Nino
El Niño plays havoc with world weather Fires in the Amazon                              Worsening drought in Sahel      • ...
1983 El Niño caused                 severe drought, heat waves and                     Bushfires in Australia.Flames devou...
ENEN     Approximately 25% of the     23,000 pups born in June 1997     at San Miguel Island died.
El Niño• During an El Niño year  – normally strong trade winds weaken, and sometimes even    reverse direction  – warm wat...
El Niño’s Effects
La Niña’s Effects
La Niña• During a La Niña year  – Trade winds increase in strength and blow even    stronger than normal from east to west...
El Niño / La Niña• El Niño and La Niña change worldwide weather  patterns in complex ways.• Scientists do not yet understa...
El Niño and La Niña
SST = Sea Surface Temperature
HOT                      POOLLA NINA CONDITIONS                     SHIFTS   EXTENDED                      WEST      COLD ...
El Niño La Niña impacts ocean productivityNormal Conditions and La Nina = more productive               Nutrients        E...
El nino and La nina
El nino and La nina
El nino and La nina
El nino and La nina
El nino and La nina
El nino and La nina
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El nino and La nina

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  • During an El Niño event, the southeast trade winds weaken and so does the amount upwelling in the eastern Pacific. The deeper thermocline means that any upwelling that does occur is unable to tap into the rich nutrients found in deeper waters. Consequently, warm nutrient-poor water predominates the region and a decrease in the fish population is observed. During non-El Niño years, the southeast trade winds, drag surface water westward away from shore. As surface water moves away, upwelling brings up colder waters from depths of 40-80 meters or more. This deep sea water is rich in nutrients which can sustain large fish populations.
  • El nino and La nina

    1. 1. El Nino La Nina
    2. 2. Normal Conditions Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
    3. 3. Normal Conditions Green = cold Red = warm Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Garrison 8-15b
    4. 4. HOTPOOL COLD TONGUE NORMAL UPWELLING“NORMAL” CONDITIONS
    5. 5. Normal ConditionsGarrison’s Oceanography text, 8-15a
    6. 6. Surface winds blow westwardEQUATOR AUSTRALIA Warm waters SOUTH pushed westward AMERICA Warm water Cold water Normal Conditions
    7. 7. Causes coldtongue to extend west Deep, cold & nutrient rich waters NORMAL CONDITIONS SUPPORT COASTAL UPWELLING.
    8. 8. SUNLIGHT ONLY UPWELLING CANRETURN THE FERTILIZINGNUTRIENTS TO THE PHOTIC ZONE NORMAL CONDITIONS SUPPORT COASTAL UPWELLING.
    9. 9. El nino conditions Normally, temperatures of surface waters in the western Pacific are 6 to 8 degrees Celsius (10 to 15 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than in the east. But during an El Niño, the temperature differential reverses. The nutrient-poor warm water forces the fish that normally thrive off the west coast of South America to go elsewhere to find food. Birds that would feed on the fish die off, and the local fishing economy suffers. El Niño causes far-reaching weather events as well, including drought and heatwaves across Australia, torrential rainfall in Central and South America, and heavy winter snows and floods in the southern United States -- all of which affect water resources and food supply.
    10. 10. El Niño Conditions
    11. 11. Comparison Normal El Nino
    12. 12. El Niño Conditions Sea Surface Temperature
    13. 13. El Niño ConditionsFrom NOAA website (see KKC 15-13b)
    14. 14. El Nino: El Nino Development El NINO
    15. 15. HOT POOL SHIFTS EAST NO COLD TONGUE NO UPWELLINGEL NINO CONDITIONS
    16. 16. El Niño Conditions • Weakening of Walker • Decreased pressure gradient • Weaken Trade winds • Stronger Eq Counter Current • Migration of warm pool • Reduced upwelling (east) • Shallower thermocline (west) • Shift in rainfall to the east
    17. 17. Winds weaken, causing updrafts and storms Drought in Australia and Southeast AsiaEQUATOR Warm water AUSTRALIA flow stopped SOUTH or reversed AMERICA Warm water deepens off Warm water South America Cold water El Niño Conditions
    18. 18. EL NINO SUPRESSES COASTALUPWELLING, REDUCES NUTRIENTS& CAUSES SURFACE POPULATIONS TO DISAPPEAR.
    19. 19. Comparison- SST Anomaly Normal El Nino
    20. 20. El Niño plays havoc with world weather Fires in the Amazon Worsening drought in Sahel • Weakens Indian Monsoon. • Causes drought in central North America.
    21. 21. 1983 El Niño caused severe drought, heat waves and Bushfires in Australia.Flames devour farmland in Victoria,Australia.El Niño triggered prolonged droughtof 1983 made fire a constant hazard.In 1983, winds whipped fires fromAdelaide to Melbourne, destroyingseven towns and several thousandhomes.
    22. 22. ENEN Approximately 25% of the 23,000 pups born in June 1997 at San Miguel Island died.
    23. 23. El Niño• During an El Niño year – normally strong trade winds weaken, and sometimes even reverse direction – warm water of the western Pacific Ocean moves eastward, keeping deep cold water from rising to the surface off the west coast of South America. – Jet stream brings warm, moist air to the US – causes • Storms in California • Heavier than normal precipitation in much of the US • Droughts in Africa and Australia • Monsoon rains in Indonesia
    24. 24. El Niño’s Effects
    25. 25. La Niña’s Effects
    26. 26. La Niña• During a La Niña year – Trade winds increase in strength and blow even stronger than normal from east to west • water in the western Pacific Ocean becomes warmer • water in the Eastern Pacific near the coast of South America becomes colder • Warm ocean waters, clouds and moisture are pushed away from North America – Causes: • Hot, dry weather with droughts in the southern US • Cool weather and excess rainfall in the northeastern US
    27. 27. El Niño / La Niña• El Niño and La Niña change worldwide weather patterns in complex ways.• Scientists do not yet understand what triggers these events.• An El Niño or La Niña event lasts 1 to 2 years, and occurs every 3 to 6 years, but some events are mild while others are severe.• The most severe recent El Niño events occurred in 1982-83 and 1998.• An El Niño generally causes more disruption in global weather patterns than La Niña, but severe drought occurs in the southern U.S. during a La Niña.
    28. 28. El Niño and La Niña
    29. 29. SST = Sea Surface Temperature
    30. 30. HOT POOLLA NINA CONDITIONS SHIFTS EXTENDED WEST COLD TONGUE HUGE UPWELLING
    31. 31. El Niño La Niña impacts ocean productivityNormal Conditions and La Nina = more productive Nutrients El Nino Conditions = less productive
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