Grafts in nasal surgery

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Grafts in nasal surgery

  1. 1. Grafts in Nasal SurgeryD.J. MengerInternational Course in Modern Rhinoplasty TechniquesThe Netherlands www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  2. 2. Dear colleague,In modern rhinoplasty, especially in revision cases, nasal graft are often essential to improve the functionof the nose, the nasal breathing, or to reach a nasal skeleton that dictates a new shape to the overlyingsoft tissue envelope that is in pleasing harmony with the rest of the face.This lecture illustrates the use of cartilaginous nasal grafts from the nasal septum, the auricle or rib.CAUTION: The lecture contains pictures taken during surgery, which might be shocking. The lecture isintended for colleagues and is part of the "International Course in Modern Rhinoplasty Techniques".Dirk Jan Menger, MDCourse DirectorThe Netherlands www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  3. 3. Columellar strut preferred cartilage graft: septal, auricular, costal or irradiated rib.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  4. 4. A columellar strut stabilizes the medial crura of the lower lateral cartilages. They can be used to straighten and strengthen the columella. In this patient in combination with a hump reduction, tip refinement and upward rotation of the drooping tip. Pre- and postoperative views.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  5. 5. Pre- and postoperative lateral view. www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  6. 6. Shield graft preferred cartilage graft: auricular or septal. Second choice: costalDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  7. 7. A shield graft is positioned anterior to the medial crura above the dome area. It brings the overlying skin tissue in a higher position which gives the illusion of more nasal tip projection. The shield can camouflage asymmetries of the tip and it can lengthen the short nose. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  8. 8. This patient had a cleft lip on the left side including all the characteristics of the cleft lip nose; a strong septal deviation, flattening of the left ala and lack of nasal tip projection. Pre- and postoperative views.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  9. 9. Spreader graft preferred grafts: septal, auricular, costal or irradiated rib.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  10. 10. A spreader graft is placed between the nasal septum and the upper lateral cartilages. The effect is fourfold: widening the internal nasal valve angle, camouflage of concavities in the mid nasal third, prevention of the inverted V syndrome and lengthening of the short nose. Pre- and postoperative frontal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  11. 11. This patient had breathing problems and a concavity of the mid nasal third on the right side. One graft was used, a spreader graft in combination with a hump reduction and tip suture techniques. Pre- and postoperative views.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  12. 12. Dorsal onlay and septal replacement graft preferred cartilage grafts: septal, auricular, costal or irradiated ribDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  13. 13. A dorsal onlay graft can be used to camouflage irregularities- or a saddle of the nasal dorsum. The edges could be beveled securely in order to avoid the graft to be visible through the overlying skin. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  14. 14. This patient had previous septal surgery elsewhere and developed a septal abscess postoperatively. The caudal septum was reconstructed with auricular cartilage in combination with a limited hump removal and a small dorsal onlay graft. Pre- and postoperative views.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  15. 15. Dorsal onlay graft and caudal septal correctionDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  16. 16. A deviation of the caudal part of the nasal septum can be straightened with scoring, always in combination with splinting of this area with a strong- and straight piece of cartilage graft. Fixation in the midline to the anterior nasal spine.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  17. 17. This patient had nasal trauma and developed a saddle nose deformity. Reconstruction was performed using a dorsal onlay graft in combination with a limited hump reduction, osteotomies and a septal correction. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  18. 18. Pre- and postoperative frontal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  19. 19. Pre- and postoperative basal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  20. 20. Dorsal augmentation and tip refinementDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  21. 21. This patient had a previous rhinoplasty elsewhere. Her nasal dorsum was too low and not in harmony with the rest of her face, especially with her strong mandible. She had bifidity and hanging nasal tip defining points, this was refined and balanced using tip suture techniques and LC-overlay. Pre- and postoperative frontal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  22. 22. Pre- and postoperative oblique view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  23. 23. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  24. 24. Reallocation of the lateral cruraDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  25. 25. This patient had breathing problems due to concavities of the lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilages, which protruded into the nasal vestibule. This concave configuration can be altered by complete dissection of the lateral crura in order to turn them around. Intra-operative viewDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  26. 26. DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  27. 27. Osteotomies, spreader grafts, reallocation of the lateral crura, septal correction, columellar strut and tip suture techniques. Pre- and postoperative frontal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  28. 28. Pre- and postoperative oblique view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  29. 29. Augmentation of the fronto-nasal angle preferred materials: septal, auricular, costal, irradiated costal graftsDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  30. 30. This patient had a pseudo over-projection of the nasal tip due to an unbalanced nose in which the naso-frontal angle was too deep. Only the radix was augmented using auricular cartilage through an endonasal approach. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  31. 31. This patient had over-resection of the bony nasal dorsum after a rhinoplasty performed elsewhere. Augmentation was performed using septal cartilage. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  32. 32. Alar retraction, rim reconstruction. preferred material: composite graft, auricular cartilageDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  33. 33. This patient had a hump deformation, a "crowded upper-lip" and mild retraction of the alar rim. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  34. 34. A rhinoplasty was performed including a hump reduction, osteotomies, spreader grafts, reduction of the anterior nasal spine, a columellar strut, tip sutures and a small composite graft. This graft was positioned alongside the caudal rim of the lateral crura in order to lower the alar rim.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  35. 35. Pre- and postoperative views.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  36. 36. Alar rim graft. preferred materials: septal, auricular, costal, irradiated costal graftsDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  37. 37. An alar rim graft can stabilize the alar rim, especially the soft triangle of Converse.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  38. 38. Create a small pocked in the alar rim and introduce the graft.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  39. 39. DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  40. 40. Fixation of the graft can be carried out with the use of a soluble suture through-and-through all layers.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  41. 41. When the suture is reintroduced exactly at the same site where it came out (but in an other angle), you can pull the suture through the cutis and fixate the graft.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  42. 42. Slight augmentation of the fronto-nasal angle, reduction of the cartilaginous dorsum, columellar strut, a shield graft and alar rim grafts. Pre- and direct postoperative view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  43. 43. Vestibular stenosis, auricular composite graft. This patient had a cleft lip on the left side and an iatrogenic pinpoint-stenosis of the left vestibule due to intubation in childhood. Stenosis of the vestibule was treated using an auricular composite graft in order to restore the shortage of inner lining.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  44. 44. The donor area can be closed with a free skin flap that can be harvested retro-auricular. This area can be closed primarily.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  45. 45. The composite graft was sutured in place in the nasal vestibule.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  46. 46. before-, during- and one year after surgeryDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  47. 47. In the postoperative period of vestibular stenosis and cleft lip surgery, a custom made vestibular device can be used to reduce the chance of re-stenosis. (6 weeks day and night and than for a period of 6 weeks only during the night) Postoperative management of nasal vestibular stenosis: the custom-made vestibular device. Menger DJ, Lohuis PJ, Kerssemakers S, Nolst Trenité GJ. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2005 Nov-Dec;7(6):381-6.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  48. 48. Total septal replacement in children after nasal septal abscess. preferred material: auricular or costal cartilageDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  49. 49. This girl had a nasal septal abscess after trauma. Her entire septal cartilage was destructed. Without reconstruction she would develop a saddle nose deformity with too much upward rotation of the nasal tip and underdevelopment of both the nose and the mid-face.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  50. 50. Reconstruction was performed using auricular cartilage fixed to PDS plate. PDS acts as a carrier and stabilizes the different pieces of cartilage into one large implant. This implant precisely fits between the perpendicular plate, the upper lateral cartilages and the premaxilla. Fixation to the nasal spine and UL. Nasal septal abscess in children: reconstruction with autologous cartilage grafts on polydioxanone plate. Menger DJ, Tabink IC, Trenité GJ. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Aug;134(8):842-7.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  51. 51. Before and 2 years after surgeryDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  52. 52. Autologous cartilage from the rib or auricle is the first choice for the reconstruction of the nasal septum in a growing child. Treatment of septal hematomas and abscesses in children. Menger DJ, Tabink I, Nolst Trenité GJ. Facial Plast Surg. 2007 Nov;23(4):239-43.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  53. 53. A boy who developed a septal abscess after nasal trauma. There were still signs of abscess formation in the septum at the time of presentation, two weeks after the trauma.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  54. 54. In this case costal cartilage was used. Slices of 1 mm were fixated to PDS foil and placed back between the mucoperichondrium blades. Nasal septal abscess in children: reconstruction with autologous cartilage grafts on polydioxanone plate. Menger DJ, Tabink IC, Trenité GJ. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Aug;134(8):842-7.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  55. 55. Pre- and postoperative frontal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  56. 56. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  57. 57. Total septal reconstruction in adults.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  58. 58. In adults, not the entire septum has to be reconstructed because there is no chance of underdevelopment. A dorsal splint attached to a caudal splint is sufficient to prevent a saddle deformity and retraction of the columella respectively.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  59. 59. In this case irradiated rib grafts were used. These grafts are safe to use and provide a stable long term postoperative result. The grafts were fixated to PDS plate, behind the caudal splint a remnant of septal cartilage was crushed and placed on the foil to avoid the chance of a septal perforation.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  60. 60. The septal replacement graft was positioned between the mucosal layers and fixed to anterior nasal spine and the bony pyramid. Irradiated homologous rib grafts in nasal reconstruction. Menger DJ, Nolst Trenité GJ. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2010 Mar-Apr;12(2):114-8.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  61. 61. A small hole was drilled in the nasal bone in order to suture the dorsal splint to the bony part. Irradiated homologous rib grafts in nasal reconstruction. Menger DJ, Nolst Trenité GJ. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2010 Mar-Apr;12(2):114-8.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  62. 62. Total dorsal augmentation: “Leprosy Technique” preferred materials: auricular, septal, costal or irradiated rib. Reconstructive surgery of the leprosy nose: a new approach. Menger DJ, Fokkens WJ, Lohuis PJ, Ingels KJ, Nolst Trenité GJ. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2007;60(2):152-62. Epub 2006 Sep 14.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  63. 63. This patient had complete lack of her bony dorsum. Reconstruction was performed using a costal cartilage dorsal onlay graft attached to a columellar strut. Reconstructive surgery of the leprosy nose: a new approach. Menger DJ, Fokkens WJ, Lohuis PJ, Ingels KJ, Nolst Trenité GJ. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2007;60(2):152-62. Epub 2006 Sep 14.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  64. 64. Pre- and postoperative views.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  65. 65. Side-wall graft. preferred materials: auricular, septal, costal or irradiated rib.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  66. 66. A sidewall graft can be used to camouflage concavities or irregularities of the nasal sidewall. This patient had previous surgery elsewhere with over-resection of the bony pyramid, the upper- and lower lateral cartilages. Pre- and postoperative frontal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  67. 67. Reconstruction was performed using a dorsal onlay graft, side wall grafts and replacement of the lower lateral cartilages. Pre- and postoperative oblique view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  68. 68. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  69. 69. Alar batten graft. preferred materials: auricular, septal, costal or irradiated ribDJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  70. 70. Alar battens can be used to stabilize the lateral wall of the internal- and external nasal valve. They can also be used to change the contour of the ala, for example in cleft-lip patients.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  71. 71. A “guiding suture” can be helpful to position the batten in a pocket.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  72. 72. To widen the external nasal valve, the battens should be pushed down as much as possible, while the lateral crus is pulled up during fixation of the batten to the crus.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  73. 73. This patient had a unilateral cleft-lip on the left side with the typical flattening of the ala.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  74. 74. An alar batten graft on the left side was used to bring the lateral crus in a more symmetric position. The floor of the nose was augmented using cartilage grafts. Pre- and postoperative basal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  75. 75. This patient had breathing problems on the left side due to a caudal septal deviation and a concavity of the lateral crus of the lower lateral cartilage on the lefts side.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  76. 76. In this case not an alar batten but a lateral crus extension graft was used to alter the configuration of the crus. The extension graft should be placed into a pocked that is relatively too small, this will push-up the lower lateral. Pre-, intra- and postoperative result.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  77. 77. An alternative for alar battens is “the lateral crus pull-up”. It is a suture technique in which the lateral crus is pulled up laterally and upward to the bony pyramid. The effect is twofold; widening of the valve area and strengthening of the lateral wall. Lateral crus pull-up: a method for collapse of the external nasal valve. Menger DJ. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006 Sep-Oct;8(5):333-7.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  78. 78. Lateral crus pull-up: surgical steps Lateral crus pull-up: a method for collapse of the external nasal valve.DJ Menger Menger DJ. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006 Sep-Oct;8(5):333-7. www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  79. 79. Lateral crus pull-up: surgical steps Lateral crus pull-up: a method for collapse of the external nasal valve.DJ Menger Menger DJ. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006 Sep-Oct;8(5):333-7. www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  80. 80. This patient had multiple rhinoplasties and other surgical procedures performed abroad. She had irregularities of the nasal dorsum, severe columellar retraction, no tip projection and fibrosis and scars of the overlying soft tissue envelope.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  81. 81. There were no original structures of the nasal skeleton left. All nasal grafts were removed and rebuild, only the overlying envelope was preserved.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  82. 82. Recontruction was performed using rib grafts, auricular cartilage and composite grafts. A dorsal onlay graft was attached to a columellar strut, sidewall grafts, a shield graft, lateral crus replacement grafts and composite grafts to restore the inner lining of the nasal vestibule. Pre- and postoperative frontal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  83. 83. Pre- and postoperative oblique view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  84. 84. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  85. 85. Pre- and postoperative lateral view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  86. 86. Pre- and postoperative basal view.DJ Menger www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  87. 87. Join the International Course in Modern Rhinoplasty Techniques! www.rhinoplastycourse.nl www.rhinoplastycourse.nl
  88. 88. www.rhinoplastycourse.nl www.rhinoplastycourse.nl

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