0
Ethnography for
e-Commerce
Annette Priest
The Research Thing
Lifting the Lid on Ethnographic Research
London - December 20...
What can we learn from
ethnography?
Source: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/which-ux-research-methods/
Goals
Show what real life is like for customers
Share the participant stories and show
what a real purchase is like
Give t...
Support Call
Center

Sales Call
Center

A/B
Testing

Usability
Testing

A/B
Testing

Usability
Testing

Usability
Testing
Support Call
Center

Sales Call
Center

A/B
Testing

Usability
Testing

A/B
Testing

Usability
Testing

Ethnography

Usabi...
Photo credit: Matt Gibson, Flickr: gothick_matt
Reasons to fund ethnography
Your competition is eating your lunch
Reasons to fund ethnography
Your competition is eating your lunch
Your leaders actually *are* leaders
Reasons to fund ethnography
Your competition is eating your lunch
Your leaders actually *are* leaders
Organizational matur...
Reasons to fund ethnography
Your competition is eating your lunch
Your leaders actually *are* leaders
Organizational matur...
Reasons to fund ethnography
Your competition is eating your lunch
Your leaders actually *are* leaders
Organizational matur...
Reasons to fund ethnography
Your competition is eating your lunch
Your leaders actually *are* leaders
Organizational matur...
Empathy for executives
“All service, therefore, which a
man can perform for humanity
must serve to promote truth.”
- Franz Boaz
WARNING!
Avoid ethnography if...
The site is in “crisis” or fire fighting mode.
Your budget is so limited that you can’t answer basic...
Cross Cultural Universals
3 Phases to Buying
Research
Consideration
Purchase
Compelling
http://www.uie.com/brainsparks/2012/07/10/
measuring-money-left-on-the-table-movingbeyond-conversion-rates-part-5/
Business Needs
vs.
User Needs
Goals
Show what real life is like for customers
Share the participant stories and show
what a real purchase is like
Give t...
Learn

Buy

Use
Coordination with other
departments and
functions is critical
Prepare to negotiate
Recruiting Consumers
Currently own a personal computer
Have purchased any electronics or computer related item online in t...
Recruiting Consumers
A good mix of gender (relatively even split)
Income: minimum HHI $50-60K
Ethnicity: representative mi...
Recruiting Small Biz
Primary decision making authority or high degree of influence for computer
purchases within the organi...
Recruiting Small Biz
Attributes common to all Small Business respondents
Company size less than 25 employees
Technology pu...
MARKETING PERSONA Assistance Seeker
Demographic profiles represented; Mix of M & F
Representation from married females, wit...
MARKETING PERSONA Self Service Techie
Demographic profiles represented
Majority male
Younger 25-44
75% married, 25% not ma...
Documenting for digestion
Summary of Participants
Summary of Findings
Purchase Findings
Too many model and specification choices in the browse path
...confused by the number of choices availab...
Out of Box Findings
Most are surprised with the form factor of the system upon receipt
Most respondents are pleasantly sur...
Background and
motivation
SMB Participant Stories: Chris – “The Hands-On Technologist”
!  The Story – Chris is a lawyer at a small law firm. He is e...
Snapshots
SMB Respondents: Very Small Business (1-9)
! 
! 
! 
! 
! 
! 
! 

Name: Peter
Age: 50 s
Location: Irondequoit, NY
Professio...
Snapshots
+
Milestones
Consumer Respondents: Self Service Techies
! 
! 
! 
! 

! 
! 
! 
! 

Name: Shelly
Age: 40 s
Location: Leroy, NY
Computer E...
Milestones - Service Techie
Participant - Shelly

1: Starts at digitaldeals.net
2: Goes to newegg.com to look for prices a...
Snapshots
+
Video
+
Detailed Perspective
in Context
Consumer Respondents: Self Service Techies
! 
! 
! 
! 
! 
! 
! 
! 

Name: Fred & Cathy
Age: 30 s
Location: Pittsford, NY
C...
Consumer Stories: Fred & Cathy – “The Mac Switchers”
!  Purchase Context – Although Fred is the primary interviewee, Cathy...
Frustration
“The thing is interesting to
me…I’m a pretty darn
sophisticated user. I have
an electrical engineering
degree…...
The Purchase Process
Narrowing
Competitive
Choices

Browsing

Comparing
Systems &
Specs

Configuring

Cart
& Checkout

Con...
Goals
Show what real life is like for customers
Buying and setup is an in-depth, interruption- driven, often family or gro...
Bring it on home
To Review
What can an organization gain from ethnography?
How does ethnography fit into a UX research approach?
How can we ...
Do ethnography if...
You’ve answered the easy questions and are ready
to go deep and broad.
You’re already using a variety...
Thanks!
Annette Priest
annette@revelinsight.com
http://revelinsight.com
Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)
Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)
Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)
Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)
Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)
Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)
Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)
Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)

362

Published on

A talk as part of the 'Lifting the lid on ethnographic research' event for The Research Thing. http://www.meetup.com/researchthing/events/150350262/

What’s it like to conduct ethnography for an e-commerce website? Among practical tips and tricks for conducting your ethnography project, this presentation will answer questions such as:

• What can an organisation gain from ethnography?

• How does ethnography fit into a holistic UX research approach?

• How can we get execs to say “Yes” to ethnography (and fund it!)

• How do I avoid common pitfalls?

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
362
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Ethnography for e-Commerce (Annette Priest)"

  1. 1. Ethnography for e-Commerce Annette Priest The Research Thing Lifting the Lid on Ethnographic Research London - December 2013
  2. 2. What can we learn from ethnography?
  3. 3. Source: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/which-ux-research-methods/
  4. 4. Goals Show what real life is like for customers Share the participant stories and show what a real purchase is like Give the sponsor things to think about
  5. 5. Support Call Center Sales Call Center A/B Testing Usability Testing A/B Testing Usability Testing Usability Testing
  6. 6. Support Call Center Sales Call Center A/B Testing Usability Testing A/B Testing Usability Testing Ethnography Usability Testing
  7. 7. Photo credit: Matt Gibson, Flickr: gothick_matt
  8. 8. Reasons to fund ethnography Your competition is eating your lunch
  9. 9. Reasons to fund ethnography Your competition is eating your lunch Your leaders actually *are* leaders
  10. 10. Reasons to fund ethnography Your competition is eating your lunch Your leaders actually *are* leaders Organizational maturity
  11. 11. Reasons to fund ethnography Your competition is eating your lunch Your leaders actually *are* leaders Organizational maturity Open to or seeking innovation and change
  12. 12. Reasons to fund ethnography Your competition is eating your lunch Your leaders actually *are* leaders Organizational maturity Open to or seeking innovation and change Desire to understand real world experience
  13. 13. Reasons to fund ethnography Your competition is eating your lunch Your leaders actually *are* leaders Organizational maturity Open to or seeking innovation and change Desire to understand real world experience ...and ecosystem of competitors
  14. 14. Empathy for executives
  15. 15. “All service, therefore, which a man can perform for humanity must serve to promote truth.” - Franz Boaz
  16. 16. WARNING!
  17. 17. Avoid ethnography if... The site is in “crisis” or fire fighting mode. Your budget is so limited that you can’t answer basic UX questions with quicker, lower cost tools. Your UX team does not have political capital with the organization. Your execs do not value UX. Your execs are more interested in promoting their own agenda that than getting at the truth.
  18. 18. Cross Cultural Universals
  19. 19. 3 Phases to Buying Research Consideration Purchase
  20. 20. Compelling
  21. 21. http://www.uie.com/brainsparks/2012/07/10/ measuring-money-left-on-the-table-movingbeyond-conversion-rates-part-5/
  22. 22. Business Needs vs. User Needs
  23. 23. Goals Show what real life is like for customers Share the participant stories and show what a real purchase is like Give the sponsor things to think about
  24. 24. Learn Buy Use
  25. 25. Coordination with other departments and functions is critical
  26. 26. Prepare to negotiate
  27. 27. Recruiting Consumers Currently own a personal computer Have purchased any electronics or computer related item online in the past year Shared or primary decision makers for computer purchase Must purchase a system (notebook or desktop) in the next 2 months Must make this purchase online Plan to spend $1000+ Security (cannot work in computers), past participation (six months) Likelihood of 60/40 sponsor/Non-sponsor (Non-sponsor split among top 3 competitors) ½ persona profile for self service users & ½ persona profile for people who need assistance
  28. 28. Recruiting Consumers A good mix of gender (relatively even split) Income: minimum HHI $50-60K Ethnicity: representative mix for local market Marital status: recruit a good mix. Presence of children: recruit a good mix (with at least ½ having kids.) Education: must have at least some college—preferably a four year degree Employment status: mix of full- and part-time employees, full/part-time students, homemakers
  29. 29. Recruiting Small Biz Primary decision making authority or high degree of influence for computer purchases within the organization Security (cannot work in advertising, market research, software/hardware development, web design, e-commerce, computer manufacturer/retailer), past participation (six months) Purchased a personal computer with the past 24 months Will purchase a system (notebook or desktop) in the next 2 months Must make this purchase online Likelihood of 60/40 Sponsor/Non-Sponsor(Non-Sponsor split among top 4 competitors) ½ Very Small Business (less than 10 employees) & ½ Larger Small Business (10-200 employees) Must have used the internet to have made at least one product purchase in the past year (must be a computer, software, peripheral or electronic device) Aged 25 - 60 Must not be negatively pre-disposed towards purchasing from sponsor Strive for a 50/50 mix of men and women
  30. 30. Recruiting Small Biz Attributes common to all Small Business respondents Company size less than 25 employees Technology purchases are a responsibility, but not the primary/only role Can be any title within the organization, as long as primary decision maker Attributes common to all Medium Business respondents Company size 25- 200 pp Must have an IT-related title, or be consistently responsible for recommending technology products for purchase.
  31. 31. MARKETING PERSONA Assistance Seeker Demographic profiles represented; Mix of M & F Representation from married females, with kids under 18 in HH, works at least part-time, college educated Representation from married females, 25-44, single, no kids in HH, works full-time, college educated Representation from married male, empty nester, 50-64 Representation from married male, with kids under 18 in HH, works at least part-time, college educated Purchase behavior Consider talking to rep on the phone or at a kiosk Would consider purchasing at retail Purchase (plan to purchase) extended warranty for computer Must visit retail store as part of the learn/research phase of buying new computer PC Usage / Technology Attitudes Primary user of computer purchased or plan to purchase Use computer at home for 7+ hours per week Use computer for a variety of purposes, beyond email and Internet surfing. Must select 2 uses from list in addition to email and Internet surfing Consider themselves at least an advanced user Purchase Attitudes - How much do you value the following when choosing a computer or other technology products to purchase (top 2 box on 7-point scale): Face-to-face sales interaction The recommendations of friends and family Offers the highest quality computers Offers the best service and support
  32. 32. MARKETING PERSONA Self Service Techie Demographic profiles represented Majority male Younger 25-44 75% married, 25% not married Half with kids in household Higher income, $100K+ Learn / Purchase behavior (plan to purchase behavior) Likely to research computer product online Likely to visit computer manufacturer’s website Others tend to come to me for technology advice PC Usage / Technology Attitudes Primary user of computer purchased or plan to purchase Use computer at home for 10+ hours per week Use computer for a variety of purposes, beyond email and Internet surfing. Must select 2 uses from list in addition to email and Internet surfing Consider themselves at least an advanced/expert user Purchase Attitudes - How much do you value the following when choosing a computer or other technology products to purchase (top 2 box on 7-point scale): Offers flexibility in picking the features I want
  33. 33. Documenting for digestion
  34. 34. Summary of Participants
  35. 35. Summary of Findings
  36. 36. Purchase Findings Too many model and specification choices in the browse path ...confused by the number of choices available, cannot easily determine what they need. Help Me Choose content needs to be clear and accurate Although willing to upgrade components, many do not because the justification to upgrade is not available in the HMC content. Warranty options before Configuration cause problems Most default just to proceed to Config quickly, with one even aborting the purchase process in frustration. The language used throughout manufacturer’s sites is “too technical” Even IT-savvy SMB participants appreciate layman’s terms where possible, versus internal nomenclature or industry jargon.
  37. 37. Out of Box Findings Most are surprised with the form factor of the system upon receipt Most respondents are pleasantly surprised by the size and aesthetics of their system, claiming they were unprepared for this from the online experience Respondents do not appreciate pre-installed software Many respondents (particularly those in the business segment) are unhappy with having pre-installed software on their system. Overall network connectivity is a key point of success in the OOB experience. Many stop the out-of-box experience at the point of connecting to the internet and take a break before installing software & transferring files. Instructions, manuals and tutorials are largely ignored. Respondents almost always throw away printed promotional materials.
  38. 38. Background and motivation
  39. 39. SMB Participant Stories: Chris – “The Hands-On Technologist” !  The Story – Chris is a lawyer at a small law firm. He is extremely busy and makes his technology purchases when he gets time between client visits. He is the de-facto “tech guy” for the firm, whereby other lawyers ask him for his opinion on technology purchases. However, the firm does have an outsourced IT company for networking and technology setup. Chris makes his own business technology purchases and decisions. !  Driver of Purchase – He is purchasing this computer for a secretary in the office. In total, he expects the purchase will take him approximately 5 minutes. He is buying a desktop for the office that is as “straightforward” as possible. The computer will be used primarily for database, calendar and word processing applications, and does not need to be “high end.”
  40. 40. Snapshots
  41. 41. SMB Respondents: Very Small Business (1-9) !  !  !  !  !  !  !  Name: Peter Age: 50 s Location: Irondequoit, NY Profession: Senior Financial Consultant Purchases: Dell Inspiron 1520 Notebook Spends: $1615.42 Driver of Purchase: His current Dell notebook computer is overheating and he is under pressure to buy a new computer, so as not to slow down his productivity. While Dell has offered to fix it for free, he is still going to update his setup with a new computer. He still plans on getting his old computer fixed. Upgrades !  Upgrades to high resolution glossy screen !  Upgrades wireless card to 11 a/g ! Upgrades to 85Whr 9 cell Lithium battery ! Upgrades Microsoft Office Small Business 2007
  42. 42. Snapshots + Milestones
  43. 43. Consumer Respondents: Self Service Techies !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  Name: Shelly Age: 40 s Location: Leroy, NY Computer Expertise: Very advanced PC user, can solve most of own PC issues and other people come for help with their own PC problems. Profession: Telecom Analyst Purchases: Dell Inspiron 1521 Notebook with AMD Turion 64x2 1.8 GHz Spends: $916.92 Driver of Purchase: Shelly needs a new laptop computer for a new part-time real estate job. She has a Dell desktop currently, and is happy overall with the Dell brand. She wants mobility with a lot of hard drive space for high resolution images she will take of houses with her high end Kodak camera. Price and color (pink) were primary drivers of her decision. Upgrades !  Free 2 GB RAM Upgrade !  Free 160 GB HD Upgrade !  Buys Belkin Messenger bag for $50
  44. 44. Milestones - Service Techie Participant - Shelly 1: Starts at digitaldeals.net 2: Goes to newegg.com to look for prices and featured items. 3: Goes to Google and types in “Inspiron 1521 review”, goes to Cnet which is the first returned search result. 4: Reads review on Cnet. 5: Hits browser back button, reviews prior Google search results, and clicks lower link in the list for another review at uk.shopping.com (Shopping Compare), scans briefly. 6: Types in www.dell.com 7: Selects model and pricing on series page. 8: Configures and selects pink color, and buys a pink bag. 9: Adds to Cart and signs in with preexisting Dell account. 10: Enters credit card info and reviews thank you confirmation screen to complete purchase.
  45. 45. Snapshots + Video + Detailed Perspective in Context
  46. 46. Consumer Respondents: Self Service Techies !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  Name: Fred & Cathy Age: 30 s Location: Pittsford, NY Computer Expertise: Very advanced PC and internet user, can solve most complex problems that arise Professions: President Of Small Company/ Homemaker Purchases: Mac Mini with 1.66 GHz Intel Core Duo, 80 GB GD and 1 GB RAM. Spends: $1059.48 Driver of Purchase: Their old desktop computer is outdated and they are considering a new computer for their daughter. However, they are considering options for themselves as well (should they come across viable options during the research and purchase process). Upgrades !  Adds a wireless keyboard and mouse
  47. 47. Consumer Stories: Fred & Cathy – “The Mac Switchers” !  Purchase Context – Although Fred is the primary interviewee, Cathy becomes part of the 3+ hour interview and has a significant influence in the final decision. The purchase is made in their home office, where they have two desktop computers (one for the family and one for the children), as well as a notebook computer. They have two desks that are shared by the family. Throughout the interview, there are many interruptions, including their daughter needing attention and the phone ringing multiple times. The interview moves late into the night, and fatigue plays a factor in the process.
  48. 48. Frustration “The thing is interesting to me…I’m a pretty darn sophisticated user. I have an electrical engineering degree…and I have no clue how to do this. How does the average person do this?” – Fred (SST) “I so am willing to pay to not be frustrated…That is why I buy things online. I don’t browse. I don’t like shopping. I like to go. I like to find what I want. And I’m willing to pay for it…I’m willing to pay more to get what I want…There is totally the convenience factor for me…The goal is to complete this tonight and I’m tired and we’ve gotten nowhere on the Dell site. And I’m pissed off.” – Cathy (AS)
  49. 49. The Purchase Process Narrowing Competitive Choices Browsing Comparing Systems & Specs Configuring Cart & Checkout Confirm Customer Experience !  Perceived website ease of use has a direct impact on the brand customers purchase from. Customers believe that how easy it is to use the website has a direct correlation with how easy the purchased product will be to use. ! Comparing models across brands is difficult due to an overemphasis on models and internal nomenclature across manufacturers. Opportunities !  Differentiate from the competition by using layman s terminology whenever possible, and de-emphasize the role of model names.
  50. 50. Goals Show what real life is like for customers Buying and setup is an in-depth, interruption- driven, often family or groupdriven affair that can range anywhere from a simple (in 10 minutes or less) to complex (3+ hours) process. All interviews were conducted in the houses and workplaces of the respondents. Share the participant stories and show what a real purchase is like During the interviews, we acted as the “fly on the wall.” We let participants set the timelines and the pace, and observed them as they made their way through the entire computer purchase process. Give the sponsor company things to think about Our reports highlight the individual barriers to purchase and setup and how these barriers impact the process. We hope these will spark internal strategic discussions around how to resolve these issues and better meet the needs of customers.
  51. 51. Bring it on home
  52. 52. To Review What can an organization gain from ethnography? How does ethnography fit into a UX research approach? How can we get execs to say “Yes” to ethnography? How do I avoid common pitfalls?
  53. 53. Do ethnography if... You’ve answered the easy questions and are ready to go deep and broad. You’re already using a variety of tools for user research. Your UX team has political capital within the organization... and you’re ready to play with other teams. Your execs care about UX. Your execs can handle the truth.
  54. 54. Thanks! Annette Priest annette@revelinsight.com http://revelinsight.com
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×