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Carry on pumping - March event on 'Research in the field'
 

Carry on pumping - March event on 'Research in the field'

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Franny Gant's talk at The Research Thing event: RESEARCH IN THE FIELD, March 2013. Qualitative research study of haematology nurses' work with digital infusion pumps.

Franny Gant's talk at The Research Thing event: RESEARCH IN THE FIELD, March 2013. Qualitative research study of haematology nurses' work with digital infusion pumps.

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  • Franny Gant UX Architect at House of Fraser ...talk about my in-the-field research of haematology nurses and their work with digital infusion pumps Used Distributed Cognition. the layout and culture of the wards impact on the use of the infusion pumps. For my HCI masters dissertation at UCL in 2011. Part of the CHI+MED project. [Notes for each page are pasted in the back of the slide – so they show up on slideshare as transcript]
  • Have a Social Anthropology bachelors degree I’m drawn to this type of research because of - social aspect - looking at the whole workspace and technology within it there’s a lot going on “ the messy details” of the workplace Need to focus research on the right things
  • Something cool that came out of California in the 80s
  • Distributed Cognition Framework understand group work situations using ethnographic research techniques
  • DCog looks at cognitive processing of the whole workplace system Extending on models of individual cognition to LARGER UNIT It adds a social aspect Understand normal work practices better... helps design technology to support work rather than disrupt it
  • DiCoT methodology (drawing from... CI & GT) To structure observations and analysis. Paying attention to physical layout artefacts information flow social structures
  • Challenges of fieldwork in healthcare settings: - focus on pumps, not people - Vetted by hospital – background check, blood tests – because of vulnerable people - Emotionally charged environment – sensitivity needed
  • Open jotting of notes brings up some issues People can feel uncomfortable They got used to me being there Kitchen Stories is a good film… even if you’re not an ethnographer
  • Important to build trust and rapport with people INTRODUCE- I put this notice up in shared spaces Email sent round EXPLAIN- “ I’m here to study the how the devices fit with your work, not auditing you” .
  • Consent gained from everyone followed (don’t follow people who decline) Permission from each patient (nurses help) One nurse who sternly questioned me became a key informant
  • Spent 28 hours total on two haematology wards all times of day and night over 4 weeks Thought there might be some major contrast between night and day work
  • I found there was a continuous flow to the work that carried on around the clock.
  • Pumps used all the time in haematology accurate delivery of drugs ‘ high risk’ devices - A mis-entered number... support the nurses’ cognitive work of giving treatments: ...nurses said things like... “the pump backs up my maths”... “ it reminds you... and gives you a few minutes to go and get the new drug”
  • infusions can last up to 36 hours “ Line space” is a limited resource depending on time. nurses use the pumps as reminders to save time between end of one infusion and start of the next a workaround not designed for by the manufacturer
  • I shadowed nurses in their work. unstructured ad hoc questions when I could. semi-structured interviews to check understanding Noted things they said and did Letter coding system for later analysis (thanks Atish Rajkomar)
  • a “web of artefacts” is used in their work These process information and - communicate status of the ward system Written notes Drug charts Whiteboards Drug labels
  • In Dcog – pay attention to physical space Horizons of observation Side rooms that have closed doors to control infection. Nurses can’t see the status of pumps behind the doors (and sometimes, can’t hear them alarming).
  • Flow of information … nurses rely on patients as part of the communication loop with the pumps If a patient is asleep, nurses may not get called breakdown in communication which can lead to delays
  • My study highlights that... Pump technology needs to be designed for use over long periods of time. - Nurses are using pumps in non-prescribed ways as reminders to save time On wards with side rooms... Nurses are reliant on patients to communicate pump alerts - need to enable pumps to communicate directly with ward staff
  • Tips: Best times – when they will be doing what you want to see Right people – doing the work; with an overview; supportive of the research I took camera, voice recorder, note book -- spare pens & batteries. Reflect on method and own biases.
  • How I would like to do it differently… Research in two phases one without domain knowledge (see more details) one with Interesting to follow the events with one pump for a day and one nurse for a shift Be able to look at the patient experience of the pumps –they have a direct relationship with the technology.
  • Pros & Cons Ethnographic studies can take time. Gives - in depth knowledge of activities that need to be seen in the wild. DCog & DiCoT is a great way of looking at the coordinated action of teamwork how technology can support, not disrupt it   Combining qualitative studies with quantitive – to see what’s happening at key stroke level – build complete picture. Can take this domain knowledge and use it in other research.
  • Behind Closed Doors is the (appropriate) name of my study. Online distinction project – UCLiC site And some references to look up if you want to know more.

Carry on pumping - March event on 'Research in the field' Carry on pumping - March event on 'Research in the field' Presentation Transcript

  • Carry on PumpingFranny GantUX ArchitectHaematology Nurses&Digital Infusion PumpsHCI MSc UCLCHI+MED
  • I have a Social Anthropology bachelors degree andI’m drawn to this type of research because of- The social aspect- And looking at the whole workspace andtechnology within itthere’s a lot going on“the messy details” of the workplaceNeed to focus research on the right things
  • Something cool that came out of California in the 80s
  • Distributed Cognition Frameworkunderstand group work situationsusing ethnographic research techniquesDistributed CognitionHutchins et al
  • DCog looks atcognitive processing of the wholeworkplace systemExtending on models of individualcognition to LARGER UNITIt adds a social aspectUnderstand normal work practices better...helps design technology to support workrather than disrupt itDistributed Cognition Perspective
  • DiCoT methodology (drawing from... CI& GT)To structure observations and analysis.Paying attention tophysical layoutartefactsinformation flowsocial structuresDistributedCognition forTeamworking(DiCoT)UCLiCContextual InquiryGrounded Theory
  • Challenges of fieldwork in healthcaresettings:- focus on pumps, not people- Vetted by hospital – background check,blood tests – because of vulnerable people- Emotionally charged environment –sensitivity neededChallengesEthical clearanceGaining accessSerious illness
  • Open jotting of notes brings up someissuesPeople can feel uncomfortableThey got used to me being thereKitchen Stories is a good film… even ifyou’re not an ethnographerKitchen StoriesBent Hamer2003Open jotting
  • Important to build trust and rapport withpeopleINTRODUCE-I put this notice up in shared spacesEmail sent roundEXPLAIN-“I’m here to study the how the devices fitwith your work, not auditing you”.Introducingmyself
  • Consent gained from everyone followed(don’t follow people who decline)Permission from each patient (nurses help)One nurse who sternly questioned mebecame a key informantGetting consent
  • Spent 28 hours total on two haematologywardsall times of day and night over 4 weeksThought there might be some majorcontrast between night and day workNight & Day?
  • •I found there was a continuous flow to the work that carried on around the clock.Round-the-clock
  • Pumps used all the time in haematologyaccurate delivery of drugs‘high risk’ devices - A mis-enterednumber...support the nurses’ cognitive work ofgiving treatments:...nurses said things like... “the pumpbacks up my maths”...“it reminds you... and gives you a fewminutes to go and get the new drug”Pumps
  • infusions can last up to 36 hours“Line space” is a limited resourcedepending on time.nurses use the pumps as reminders tosave time between end of one infusion andstart of the nexta workaround not designed for by themanufacturer“It’s about safety and speed...we’re giving so much fluid.We normally give a drug, flush itthrough, give another, flush itthrough...”
  • I shadowed nurses in their work.unstructured ad hoc questions when Icould.semi-structured interviews to checkunderstandingNoted things they said and didLetter coding system for later analysis(thanks Atish Rajkomar)Data collection
  • a “web of artefacts” is used in their workTheseprocess information and- communicate status of the ward systemWritten notesDrug chartsWhiteboardsDrug labelsWeb of artefacts
  • In Dcog – pay attention to physical spaceHorizons of observationSide rooms that have closed doors tocontrol infection.Nurses can’t see the status of pumpsbehind the doors (and sometimes, can’thear them alarming).Physical layout
  • Flow of information …nurses rely on patients as part of thecommunication loop with the pumpsIf a patient is asleep, nurses may not getcalledbreakdown in communication which canlead to delaysFlow ofinformation
  • My study highlights that...Pump technology needs to be designed foruse over long periods of time.- Nurses are using pumps in non-prescribed ways as reminders to save timeOn wards with side rooms...Nurses are reliant on patients tocommunicate pump alerts- need to enable pumps to communicatedirectly with ward staffOutcomesTechnology design for- continuous use contexts- communication from side rooms
  • Tips:Best times – when they will be doing whatyou want to seeRight people – doing the work; with anoverview; supportive of the researchI took camera, voice recorder, note book --spare pens & batteries.Reflect on method and own biases.Best timesRight peopleEquipmentReflection
  • How I would like to do it differently…Research in two phasesone without domain knowledge (see moredetails)one withInteresting tofollow the events with one pump for a dayand one nurse for a shiftBe able to look at the patient experience ofthe pumps –they have a direct relationshipwith the technology.“Needs further investigation…”
  • Pros & ConsEthnographic studies can take time.Gives - in depth knowledge of activitiesthat need to be seen in the wild.DCog & DiCoT is a great way of looking atthe coordinated action of teamworkhow technology can support, not disrupt itCombining qualitative studies withquantitive – to see what’s happening at keystroke level – build complete picture.Can take this domain knowledge and useit in other research.Time =
  • Behind closed doors– a distributed cognition study of infusionpump use in round-the-clock haematologytreatment http://bit.ly/gant2011uclLook ups…University College London Interaction Centre – UCLiC http://www.ucl.ac.uk/uclicCHI+MED http://www.chi-med.ac.uk/DiCoT – Furniss, Blandford, et alDistributed Cognition – HutchinsContextual Design – Beyer and HoltzblattGrounded Theory – CharmazType of pump – BBraun Infusomat SpaceKitchen Stories, Bent Hamer 2003